6,836 results match your criteria extent fetal

Neonatologists' decision-making for resuscitation and non-resuscitation of extremely preterm infants: ethical principles, challenges, and strategies-a qualitative study.

BMC Med Ethics 2021 Sep 25;22(1):129. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Centre for Biomedical Ethics and Law, KU Leuven, Kapucijnenvoer 35/3, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Deciding whether to resuscitate extremely preterm infants (EPIs) is clinically and ethically problematic. The aim of the study was to understand neonatologists' clinical-ethical decision-making for resuscitation of EPIs.

Methods: We conducted a qualitative study in Belgium, following a constructivist account of the Grounded Theory. Read More

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September 2021

Prenatal politics: fetal surgery, abortion and disability rights in the United States.

Tanfer Emin Tunc

New Bioeth 2021 Sep 24:1-15. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Hacettepe University, Turkey.

While fetal surgery-and pregnancy termination as a possible therapeutic alternative-have been examined in a number of studies, very few have addressed the issues tensions that arise when prenatal surgery is considered from the standpoint of Disability Studies. This article will expose these concerns by tracing the medical development of fetal surgery; the arguments for and against prenatal surgery; and the connections between fetal surgery, abortion, and disability rights. Like other dimensions of the life cycle that involve reproduction, prenatal surgery has become highly politicized in the United States which has, to a certain extent, stalled critical discussion. Read More

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September 2021

The Role of Antenatal and Postnatal Maternal Bonding in Infant Development.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Objective: The affectional bond experienced by a mother towards her developing fetus/infant has been theorised to be a critical factor in determining infant developmental outcomes; yet there remains a paucity of research in this area, and a lack of high-quality longitudinal studies. This study aimed to examine the extent to which mother-to-infant bonding predicted infant development in a multi-wave longitudinal pregnancy cohort study (N=1,347).

Method: Self-reported bonding was assessed using the Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale at each trimester, and the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale at 8 weeks and 12 months postpartum. Read More

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September 2021

Postnatal Stature does not Largely Mediate the Relationship between Adverse Birth Outcomes and Cognitive Development in Mid-childhood and Early Adolescence in Rural Western China.

J Nutr 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Preterm birth and fetal growth restriction are associated with linear growth faltering and suboptimal cognitive development in childhood.

Objective: To investigate whether and to what extent the associations between adverse birth outcomes and cognitive development in mid-childhood and early adolescence are mediated by postnatal stature.

Methods: We used data from a prospective birth cohort of children born to women who participated in a large cluster-randomized trial of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in rural western China. Read More

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September 2021


Can J Cardiol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Albert Einstein College of MEdicine.

Maternal Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) during pregnancy is on the rise worldwide, as both more women with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) are reaching child-bearing age, and conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity are becoming more prevalent. However, the extent to which maternal CVD influences offspring health, as a neonate and later in childhood and adolescence, remains to be fully understood. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis, by which a fetus adapts to maternal and placental changes to survive a nutrient starved environment, may provide an answer to the mechanism of maternal CVD and its impact on the offspring. Read More

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September 2021

Early postnatal hypothyroidism reduces juvenile play behavior, but prenatal hypothyroidism compensates for these effects.

Physiol Behav 2021 Sep 15;241:113594. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Biology Department and Neuroscience Program, Mercer University, 1501 Mercer University Dr., Macon, GA 31207, USA.

Perinatal hypothyroidism causes long-lasting effects on behavior, including hyperactivity, cognitive delays/deficits, and a reduction in anxiety. Although there is some evidence that hypothyroidism during fetal development in humans has been associated with later autism spectrum disorder diagnosis or autism-like traits, the relationships between early thyroid hormones and social behaviors are largely unknown. Previously, we found that a moderate dose of the hypothyroid-inducing drug methimazole during embryonic and postnatal development dramatically increased juvenile play in male and female rats. Read More

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September 2021

Predictors for sexual dysfunction in the first year postpartum: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BJOG 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department Development and Regeneration, Cluster Urogenital Surgery, Biomedical Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Pregnancy and childbirth increase the risk for pelvic floor dysfunction, including sexual dysfunction. So far, the mechanisms and the extent to which certain risk factors play a role, remain unclear.

Objectives: In this systematic review of literature, we aimed to determine the risk factors for sexual dysfunction in the first year after childbirth. Read More

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September 2021

Chronic Hypertension, Perinatal Mortality, and the Impact of Preterm Delivery: A Population-Based Study.

BJOG 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Objectives: To estimate the association between chronic hypertension and perinatal mortality and to evaluate the extent to which risks are impacted by preterm delivery.

Design: Cross-sectional analysis.

Setting: United States, 2015-2018. Read More

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September 2021

The Nine Month Stress Test: Pregnancy and Exercise - Similarities and Interactions.

Can J Cardiol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Program for Pregnancy & Postpartum Health, Neurovascular Health Lab, Faculty of Kinesiology, Sport, and Recreation, Women and Children's Health Research Institute, Alberta Diabetes Institute, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Of all physiological systems, the cardiovascular system takes on the most profound adaptation in pregnancy to support fetal growth and development. The adaptations that arise are systemic and involve structural and functional changes that can be observed at the cerebral, central, peripheral, and microvascular beds. This includes, although is not limited to increased heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output with negligible change to blood pressure, reductions in vascular resistance and cerebral blood flow velocity, systemic artery enlargement, enhanced endothelial function. Read More

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September 2021

Human epididymis protein 4 and fetal lung maturity.

J Perinat Med 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ufuk University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Objectives: To document the maternal and fetal cord blood levels of human epididymis protein 4 (HE-4) in term and preterm newborns in order to investigate the possible physiological role of HE-4 in fetal lung development.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a university-affiliated hospital between April 2018 and September 2018. The study population consisted of cesarean section (C-section) deliveries after 24 weeks of pregnancy. Read More

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September 2021

Intestinal Ultrasound to Evaluate Treatment Response During Pregnancy in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Amsterdam University Medical Center, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Introduction: Active disease in inflammatory bowel disease patients during pregnancy is associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Objective evaluation of disease activity is a core strategy in IBD, and during pregnancy noninvasive modalities are preferred. We aimed to evaluate feasibility and accuracy of intestinal ultrasound (IUS) to objectify disease activity throughout pregnancy. Read More

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September 2021

High-throughput kinome-RNAi screen identifies protein kinase R activator (PACT) as a novel genetic modifier of CUG foci integrity in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1).

PLoS One 2021 14;16(9):e0256276. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 (DM1) is the most common form of adult muscular dystrophy (~1:8000). In DM1, expansion of CTG trinucleotide repeats in the 3' untranslated region of the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) gene results in DMPK mRNA hairpin structures which aggregate as insoluble ribonuclear foci and sequester several RNA-binding proteins. The resulting sequestration and misregulation of important splicing factors, such as muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1), causes the aberrant expression of fetal transcripts for several genes that contribute to the disease phenotype. Read More

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September 2021

Induction of parturition in horses - from physiological pathways to clinical applications.

C Nagel C Aurich

Domest Anim Endocrinol 2021 Aug 15;78:106670. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Department for Small Animals and Horses, Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer, Vetmeduni Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria.

Based on the marked variability in physiological equine gestation length, induction of foaling in mares often results in the birth of dysmature foals. Precise prediction of preparedness of the mare for foaling is thus essential. Treatment with glucocorticoids mimics the fetal signal that initiates birth. Read More

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How is the COVID-19 pandemic shaping transportation access to health care?

Transp Res Interdiscip Perspect 2021 Jun 12;10:100338. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Health Policy & Management, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted both transportation and health systems. While about 40% of Americans have delayed seeking medical care during the pandemic, it remains unclear to what extent transportation is contributing to missed care. To understand the relationship between transportation and unmet health care needs during the pandemic, this paper synthesizes existing knowledge on transportation patterns and barriers across five types of health care needs. Read More

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Longitudinal prediction of periconception alcohol use: a 20-year prospective cohort study across adolescence, young adulthood and pregnancy.

Addiction 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background And Aims: Alcohol consumption is common in adolescence and young adulthood and may continue into pregnancy, posing serious risk to early fetal development. We examine the frequency of periconception alcohol use (prior to pregnancy awareness) and the extent to which adolescent and young adult alcohol use prospectively predict periconception use.

Design: A longitudinal, population-based study. Read More

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September 2021

Estimation and Discriminability of Doppler Ultrasound Fetal Heart Rate Variability Measures.

Front Artif Intell 2021 20;4:674238. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Continuous electronic fetal monitoring and the access to databases of fetal heart rate (FHR) data have sparked the application of machine learning classifiers to identify fetal pathologies. However, most fetal heart rate data are acquired using Doppler ultrasound (DUS). DUS signals use autocorrelation (AC) to estimate the average heartbeat period within a window. Read More

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Alternariol exerts embryotoxic and immunotoxic effects on mouse blastocysts through ROS-mediated apoptotic processes.

Toxicol Res (Camb) 2021 Aug 16;10(4):719-732. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Bioscience Technology and Center for Nanotechnology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li District, Taoyuan City 32023, Taiwan.

Alternariol (AOH), a mycotoxin belonging to the genus , has been shown to induce cytotoxicity, including apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, in several mammalian cell types. However, its effects on early-stage embryonic development require further investigation. Here, we have shown that AOH exerts embryotoxic effects on mouse blastocyst-stage embryos and long-term adverse effects on immunity in one-day-old newborn mice of the next generation. Read More

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The differential expression of perilipin-2 in hepatoblastoma and its association with prognosis.

Histol Histopathol 2021 Sep 3:18371. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa, Japan.

Perilipin-2, a lipid droplet (LD) coating protein, has been found to be involved in cancer progression. However, its role in hepatoblastoma (HB) is undefined. We collected 87 HB samples and the corresponding clinical data. Read More

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September 2021

Neonatal ethanol causes profound reduction of cholinergic cell number in the basal forebrain of adult animals.

Alcohol 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY, USA; Department of Psychiatry, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

In animal models that mimic human third-trimester fetal development, ethanol causes substantial cellular apoptosis in the brain, but for most brain structures the extent of permanent neuron loss that persists into adulthood is unknown. We injected ethanol into C57BL/6J mouse pups at postnatal day 7 (P7) to model human late-gestation ethanol toxicity, and then used stereological methods to investigate adult cell numbers in several subcortical neurotransmitter systems that project extensively in the forebrain to regulate arousal states. Ethanol treatment caused especially large reductions (34-42%) in the cholinergic cells of the basal forebrain, including cholinergic cells in the medial septal/vertical diagonal band (Ch1/Ch2) and in the horizontal diagonal band/substantia innominata/nucleus basalis (Ch3/Ch4) nuclei. Read More

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Deep immune profiling of the maternal-fetal interface with mild SARS-CoV-2 infection.

bioRxiv 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Pregnant women are an at-risk group for severe COVID-19, though the majority experience mild/asymptomatic disease. Although severe COVID-19 has been shown to be associated with immune activation at the maternal-fetal interface even in the absence of active viral replication, the immune response to asymptomatic/mild COVID-19 remains unknown. Here, we assessed immunological adaptations in both blood and term decidua from 9 SARS-exposed pregnant women with asymptomatic/mild disease and 15 pregnant SARS-naive women. Read More

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Use of sildenafil and other phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors among pregnant women in Scandinavia.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Medicine Solna, Center for Pharmacoepidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Introduction: For phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, such as sildenafil, the only approved indication in women is for pulmonary arterial hypertension. These drugs are increasingly being proposed and tested for treatment of female infertility and complications in pregnancy. However, the extent of use of PDE5 inhibitors in the general pregnant population over the last decades is unknown. Read More

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Tocilizumab for coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy and lactation: a narrative review.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Division of Respirology, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada; Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Tocilizumab is a monoclonal antibody that interrupts interleukin-6 signalling, reducing downstream effects on inflammation and the innate immune response. It was shown to reduce mortality in patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Pregnant and breastfeeding people were largely excluded from clinical trials and hence, the extent to which results can be applied to these populations is not clear. Read More

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In vitro differentiation modifies the neurotoxic response of SH-SY5Y cells.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 Aug 20;77:105235. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Univ. Lille, Inserm U1172, CHU Lille, Lille Neuroscience & Cognition Research Center, F-59000 Lille, France; UArtois, F-62300 Lens, France.

The SH-SY5Y cell line is commonly used for the assessment of neurotoxicity in drug discovery. These neuroblastoma-derived cells can be differentiated into neurons using many methods. The present study has compared 24 of these differentiation methods on SH-SY5Y cells. Read More

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ADSA Foundation Scholar Award: Early-life exposure to hyperthermia: Productive and physiological outcomes, costs, and opportunities.

Jimena Laporta

J Dairy Sci 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706. Electronic address:

Global rising temperature is a considerable threat to livestock production and an impediment to animal welfare. In fact, the 5 warmest years on record have occurred since 2016. Although the effect of heat stress on lactating cattle is well recognized and extensively studied, it is increasingly evident that rising temperatures will affect dairy cattle of all ages and lactation states. Read More

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Autonomy rights and abortion after the point of viability.

Kristen Hine

Bioethics 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies, Towson University, Towson, Maryland, USA.

It has been argued that Thomson's defense of abortion, if successful, implies that abortion is permissible only until the point of viability. After that point, if one wanted to end a pregnancy, one must do so by birthing the fetus through induction or cesarean. In this paper, I argue that Thomson's defense of abortion does, in fact, imply that abortion after the point of viability is sometimes permissible. Read More

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Toll-like receptor-4 null mutation causes fetal loss and fetal growth restriction associated with impaired maternal immune tolerance in mice.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 16;11(1):16569. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Robinson Research Institute and Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5005, Australia.

Maternal immune adaptation to accommodate pregnancy depends on sufficient availability of regulatory T (Treg) cells to enable embryo implantation. Toll-like receptor 4 is implicated as a key upstream driver of a controlled inflammatory response, elicited by signals in male partner seminal fluid, to initiate expansion of the maternal Treg cell pool after mating. Here, we report that mice with null mutation in Tlr4 (Tlr4) exhibit impaired reproductive outcomes after allogeneic mating, with reduced pregnancy rate, elevated mid-gestation fetal loss, and fetal growth restriction, compared to Tlr4 wild-type controls. Read More

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Maternal Exposure and Neonatal Effects of Drugs of Abuse.

J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Aug;61 Suppl 2:S142-S155

Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.

The public health crisis of pregnant women being exposed to drugs of abuse and of its impact on their unborn children continues to grow at an alarming rate globally. The state of pregnancy is unique, with physiological changes that can lead to changes in the way drugs are handled by the body in both pharmacokinetics and response. These changes place the pregnant woman, fetus, and newborn infant at risk, as many of these drugs can cross the placenta and into breast milk. Read More

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Advanced Bioelectrical Signal Processing Methods: Past, Present and Future Approach-Part I: Cardiac Signals.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 30;21(15). Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control and Informatics, Opole University of Technology, 45-758 Opole, Poland.

Advanced signal processing methods are one of the fastest developing scientific and technical areas of biomedical engineering with increasing usage in current clinical practice. This paper presents an extensive literature review of the methods for the digital signal processing of cardiac bioelectrical signals that are commonly applied in today's clinical practice. This work covers the definition of bioelectrical signals. Read More

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Unexpected Enhancement of Antimicrobial Polymer Activity against in the Presence of Fetal Bovine Serum.

Molecules 2021 Jul 27;26(15). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA.

Cationic and amphiphilic polymers are known to exert broad-spectrum antibacterial activity by a putative mechanism of membrane disruption. Typically, nonspecific binding to hydrophobic components of the complex biological milieu, such as globular proteins, is considered a deterrent to the successful application of such polymers. To evaluate the extent to which serum deactivates antibacterial polymethacrylates, we compared their minimum inhibitory concentrations in the presence and absence of fetal bovine serum. Read More

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Development of the human hypoglossal nucleus from mid-gestation to the perinatal period: A morphological study.

Neurosci Lett 2021 09 4;762:136154. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Pathology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, 880 Kitakobayashi, Mibu, Tochigi 321-0293, Japan. Electronic address:

Introduction: The human hypoglossal nucleus (nXII) was morphologically examined from mid-gestation to the perinatal period.

Materials/methods: Serial brain sections from 6 preterm and 4 perinatal infants aged 21-43 postmenstrual weeks (PW) were stained with the Klüver-Barrera method. Following microscopic observation, morphometric parameters (volume, neuronal number, and neuronal profile area [PA]) were analysed. Read More

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September 2021