210 results match your criteria extended pili

Circulation of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing of Pandemic Sequence Types 131, 648, and 410 Among Hospitalized Patients, Caregivers, and the Community in Rwanda.

Front Microbiol 2021 14;12:662575. Epub 2021 May 14.

Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Institute of Pharmacy, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

Multi-drug resistant (MDR), gram-negative , such as () limit therapeutic options and increase morbidity, mortality, and treatment costs worldwide. They pose a serious burden on healthcare systems, especially in developing countries like Rwanda. Several studies have shown the effects caused by the global spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing . Read More

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Fresh Extension of Vibrio cholerae Competence Type IV Pili Predisposes Them for Motor-Independent Retraction.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 06 25;87(14):e0047821. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA.

Bacteria utilize dynamic appendages, called type IV pili (T4P), to interact with their environment and mediate a wide variety of functions. Pilus extension is mediated by an extension ATPase motor, commonly called PilB, in all T4P. Pilus retraction, however, can occur with the aid of an ATPase motor or in the absence of a retraction motor. Read More

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Prophylaxis and Treatment against : Current Insights on This Emerging Anti-Microbial Resistant Global Threat.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 14;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

GSK Vaccines Institute for Global Health (GVGH) S.r.l., via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy.

(Kp) is an opportunistic pathogen and the leading cause of healthcare-associated infections, mostly affecting subjects with compromised immune systems or suffering from concurrent bacterial infections. However, the dramatic increase in hypervirulent strains and the emergence of new multidrug-resistant clones resulted in Kp occurrence among previously healthy people and in increased morbidity and mortality, including neonatal sepsis and death across low- and middle-income countries. As a consequence, carbapenem-resistant and extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Kp have been prioritized as a critical anti-microbial resistance threat by the World Health Organization and this has renewed the interest of the scientific community in developing a vaccine as well as treatments alternative to the now ineffective antibiotics. Read More

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Uropathogenic Escherichia coli in India-an Overview on Recent Research Advancements and Trends.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Jul 17;193(7):2267-2296. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Biochemistry and Medical Biotechnology, School of Tropical Medicine, 108, C.R. Avenue, Kolkata, 700073, India.

Urinary tract infection (UTI), a prevalent disease in India, also ranks among the most common infections in developing countries. The rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPECs), the leading etiologic agent of UTI, in the last few years, led to an upsurge in the health care cost. This caused a considerable economic burden, especially in low-middle income country, India. Read More

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Competitive binding of independent extension and retraction motors explains the quantitative dynamics of type IV pili.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 02;118(8)

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540;

Type IV pili (TFP) function through cycles of extension and retraction. The coordination of these cycles remains mysterious due to a lack of quantitative measurements of multiple features of TFP dynamics. Here, we fluorescently label TFP in the pathogen and track full extension and retraction cycles of individual filaments. Read More

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February 2021

Molecular characterization of KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 isolated from bovine mastitis.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 Jun 13;52(2):1029-1036. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Laboratorio de Resistencia Bacteriana, Centro de Investigación Sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas (CISEI), Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública (INSP), Av. Universidad # 655, Col. Santa María Ahuacatitlán. C.P, 62100, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México.

Bovine mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland of dairy cattle, is the most prevalent disease causing economically important losses, reduced milk production, early culling, veterinary expenses, and higher death rates. Bovine mastitis infections are the main cause for the use of antibiotics; however, the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and the poor or nil response to antibiotics has become a critical global health problem. The goal of this study was the characterization of bacterial infections associated with clinical bovine mastitis. Read More

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Shielding Effect of Escherichia coli O-Antigen Polysaccharide on J5-Induced Cross-Reactive Antibodies.

mSphere 2021 01 27;6(1). Epub 2021 Jan 27.

INRAE, Université de Tours, UMR ISP, Nouzilly, France

is the leading cause of severe mastitis in dairy farms. As mastitis is refractory to the hygienic control measures adapted to contagious mastitis, efficient vaccines are in demand. Existing mastitis vaccines, based on the use of killed rough J5 as the antigen, aim at inducing phagocytosis by neutrophils. Read More

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January 2021

A Fast, Efficient and Easy to Implement Method to Purify Bacterial Pili From GG Based on Multimodal Chromatography.

Front Microbiol 2020 18;11:609880. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Laboratoire d'Ingénierie des Biomolécules, Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France.

Pili are polymeric proteins located at the cell surface of bacteria. These filamentous proteins play a pivotal role in bacterial adhesion with the surrounding environment. They are found both in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria but differ in their structural organization. Read More

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December 2020

Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Genes and Phylogenetic Groups of Enteropathogenic Isolated from Patients with Diarrhea.

Osong Public Health Res Perspect 2020 Oct;11(5):327-333

Molecular Biology Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Infectious diarrhea is one of the most common causes of pediatric death worldwide and enteropathogenic (EPEC) is one of the main causes. There are 2 subgroups of EPEC, typical and atypical, based on the presence or absence of bundle forming pili (bfp), of which atypical EPEC is considered less virulent, but not less pathogenic. Antimicrobial resistance towards atypical EPEC among children is growing and is considered a major problem. Read More

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October 2020

Discovery of a New Neisseria gonorrhoeae Type IV Pilus Assembly Factor, TfpC.

mBio 2020 10 27;11(5). Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA

relies on type IV pili (T4p) to promote colonization of their human host and to cause the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea. This organelle cycles through a process of extension and retraction back into the bacterial cell. Through a genetic screen, we identified the NGO0783 locus of strain FA1090 as containing a gene encoding a protein required to stabilize the type IV pilus in its extended, nonretracted conformation. Read More

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October 2020

Multiplex CRISPRi System Enables the Study of Stage-Specific Biofilm Genetic Requirements in Enterococcus faecalis.

mBio 2020 10 20;11(5). Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology, Antimicrobial Drug Resistance Interdisciplinary Research Group, Singapore

is an opportunistic pathogen, which can cause multidrug-resistant life-threatening infections. Gaining a complete understanding of enterococcal pathogenesis is a crucial step in identifying a strategy to effectively treat enterococcal infections. However, bacterial pathogenesis is a complex process often involving a combination of genes and multilevel regulation. Read More

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October 2020

Ancestral Reconstructions Decipher Major Adaptations of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea upon Radiation into Moderate Terrestrial and Marine Environments.

mBio 2020 10 13;11(5). Epub 2020 Oct 13.

University of Vienna, Archaea Biology and Ecogenomics Unit, Department of Functional and Evolutionary Ecology, Vienna, Austria

Unlike all other archaeal lineages, ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) of the phylum are widespread and abundant in all moderate and oxic environments on Earth. The evolutionary adaptations that led to such unprecedented ecological success of a microbial clade characterized by highly conserved energy and carbon metabolisms have, however, remained underexplored. Here, we reconstructed the genomic content and growth temperature of the ancestor of all AOA, as well as the ancestors of the marine and soil lineages, based on 39 available complete or nearly complete genomes of AOA. Read More

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October 2020

PilY1 and minor pilins form a complex priming the type IVa pilus in Myxococcus xanthus.

Nat Commun 2020 10 7;11(1):5054. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Karl-von-Frisch Str. 10, 35043, Marburg, Germany.

Type IVa pili are ubiquitous and versatile bacterial cell surface filaments that undergo cycles of extension, adhesion and retraction powered by the cell-envelope spanning type IVa pilus machine (T4aPM). The overall architecture of the T4aPM and the location of 10 conserved core proteins within this architecture have been elucidated. Here, using genetics, cell biology, proteomics and cryo-electron tomography, we demonstrate that the PilY1 protein and four minor pilins, which are widely conserved in T4aP systems, are essential for pilus extension in Myxococcus xanthus and form a complex that is an integral part of the T4aPM. Read More

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October 2020

A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-Producing in Patients with Traveler's Diarrhea.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2020 11 17;64(12). Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Clinical Microbiology, Department of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Patients with traveler's diarrhea (TD) can acquire extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing members of the (EPE) during travel to areas of endemicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of EPE carriage in travelers from southern Sweden who were sampled for bacterial diagnostics of TD compared to those of EPE carriage 10 years ago. Clinical samples sent for culture of common causes of bacterial enterocolitis, if the referral stated foreign travel, were included in the study. Read More

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November 2020

Making medical devices safer: impact of plastic and silicone oil on microbial biofilm formation.

J Hosp Infect 2020 Sep 15;106(1):155-162. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Division of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Medical devices face the challenge of microbial biofilm attached to the surface. Ultimately, this may jeopardize the function of the device and increase the patient's risk of infection. However, reliable methods to prevent biofilm are lacking. Read More

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September 2020

Identification of a hormogonium polysaccharide-specific gene set conserved in filamentous cyanobacteria.

Mol Microbiol 2020 10 21;114(4):597-608. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Biology, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA, USA.

Cyanobacteria comprise a phylum defined by the capacity for oxygenic photosynthesis. Members of this phylum are frequently motile as well. Strains that display gliding or twitching motility across semisolid surfaces are powered by a conserved type IV pilus system (T4P). Read More

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October 2020

Anomalous out-of-equilibrium dynamics in the spin-ice material DyTiO under moderate magnetic fields.

J Phys Condens Matter 2020 Jun 30;32(42):425804. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Av. E. Bustillo 9500, R8402AGP San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro, Argentina.

We study experimentally and numerically the dynamics of the spin ice material DyTiO in the low temperature (T) and moderate magnetic field ( B ) regime (T ∈ [0.1, 1.7]  K, B ∈ [0, 0. Read More

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Synthesis of orthogonally protected and functionalized bacillosamines.

Org Biomol Chem 2020 04;18(15):2834-2837

Bioorganic synthesis group, Leiden University, Einsteinweg 55, 2333 CC Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands.

2,4-Diamino-2,4,6-trideoxyglucose (bacillosamine) is a monosaccharide found in many pathogenic bacteria, variation in the functionalities appended to the amino groups occurs depending on the species the sugar is derived from. We here report the first synthesis of bacillosamine synthons that allow for the incorporation of two different functionalities at the C-2-N-acetyl and C-4-amines. We have developed chemistry to assemble a set of conjugation ready Neisseria meningitidis C-2-N-acetyl bacillosamine saccharides, carrying either an acetyl or (R)- or (S)-glyceroyl at the C-4 amine. Read More

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ST302: Genomic Analysis of Virulence Potential and Antimicrobial Resistance Mediated by Mobile Genetic Elements.

Front Microbiol 2019 21;10:3098. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

ithree institute, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

aEPEC are associated with persistent diarrhea, and diarrheal outbreaks in both humans and animals worldwide. They are differentiated from typical EPEC by the lack of bundle-forming pili, and from EHEC by the lack of phage-mediated toxins. However, phylogenetic analyses often associate aEPEC with EHEC, promoting the hypothesis that aEPEC are the progenitors of EHEC, which is supported by aEPEC conversion to EHEC by -carrying phages. Read More

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January 2020

Methanol extract of Lonicera caerulea var. emphyllocalyx fruit has anti-motility and anti-biofilm activity against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

Drug Discov Ther 2019 ;13(6):335-342

Department of Pharmacognosy, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Japan.

Foodborne diseases have become a worldwide problem that threatens public health and welfare. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is one of major pathogens of moderate to severe diarrhea. The increased prevalence of EPEC strains that produce extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) has deepened the problem. Read More

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Extended Phylogeny and Extraintestinal Virulence Potential of Commensal from Piglets and Sows.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 01 6;17(1). Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Collegium Medicum, University of Zielona Góra, 65-561 Zielona Góra, Poland.

Commensal , naturally occurring in the intestinal tract, can be the origin of extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) strains. ExPEC causes high mortality and significant economic losses in the swine industry in several countries and poses a serious threat to public health worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze the extended phylogenetic structure and extraintestinal virulence potential in two groups of commensal isolates from post-weaning piglets and sows. Read More

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January 2020

Wild griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) fed at supplementary feeding stations: Potential carriers of pig pathogens and pig-derived antimicrobial resistance?

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 May 13;67(3):1295-1305. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Dpto. de Patología Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón - IA2 - (Universidad de Zaragoza-CITA), Zaragoza, Spain.

The carriage of two important pathogens of pigs, that is enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Clostridioides difficile, was investigated in 104 cloacal samples from wild griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) fed on pig carcasses at supplementary feeding stations (SFS), along with their level of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). E. coli was isolated from 90 (86. Read More

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Prevalence of Quinolone Resistance of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing with ST131- in a City Hospital in Hyogo, Japan.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Oct 18;20(20). Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Department of Infection Prevention and Control, Kobe University Hospital, Kobe 6540142, Japan.

Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates are known to tolerate superior quinolone antimicrobials compared with other antibacterial agents. Among the clones belonging to sequence type (ST) 131 by multilocus sequence typing, the involvement of the H30-Rx subclone has been reported worldwide with various genes encoding type 1 pili. We investigated 83 isolates of ESBL-producing and performed antimicrobial susceptibility test, CH (/) ST131 by typing the specific PCR. Read More

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October 2019

Growth Phase-Dependent Chromosome Condensation and Heat-Stable Nucleoid-Structuring Protein Redistribution in Escherichia coli under Osmotic Stress.

J Bacteriol 2019 12 5;201(23). Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

The heat-stable nucleoid-structuring (H-NS) protein is a global transcriptional regulator implicated in coordinating the expression of over 200 genes in , including many involved in adaptation to osmotic stress. We have applied superresolved microscopy to quantify the intracellular and spatial reorganization of H-NS in response to a rapid osmotic shift. We found that H-NS showed growth phase-dependent relocalization in response to hyperosmotic shock. Read More

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December 2019

Transcriptional initiation of a small RNA, not R-loop stability, dictates the frequency of pilin antigenic variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Mol Microbiol 2019 10 8;112(4):1219-1234. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the sole causative agent of gonorrhea, constitutively undergoes diversification of the Type IV pilus. Gene conversion occurs between one of the several donor silent copies located in distinct loci and the recipient pilE gene, encoding the major pilin subunit of the pilus. A guanine quadruplex (G4) DNA structure and a cis-acting sRNA (G4-sRNA) are located upstream of the pilE gene and both are required for pilin antigenic variation (Av). Read More

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October 2019

[Pathogenetic conditions of treatment of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant strains Klebsiella pneumoniae].

Tadeusz Płusa

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2019 Jun;46(276):251-256

Medical Faculty of the Lazarski University in Warsaw.

Klebsiella pneumoniae belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family and is responsible for 70% of human infections. From 20 to 80% strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae reveal resistance to first line antibiotics, including cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides, as well as carbapenems. Due to the resistance found in MDR (multidrug resistant) Klebsiella pneumoniae is classified according to the sequence types (ST), which are defined on the basis of the nucleotide sequence in the 7 loci (mdh, infB, tonB, gapA, phoE, pgi, and rpoB). Read More

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Snapshot of Phylogenetic Groups, Virulence, and Resistance Markers in Uropathogenic Strains Isolated from Outpatients with Urinary Tract Infections in Bucharest, Romania.

Biomed Res Int 2019 20;2019:5712371. Epub 2019 May 20.

University of Medicine and Pharmacy Carol Davila, Bucharest, Romania.

Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Uropathogenic (UPEC) are among the most common infections worldwide, including Romania. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study performed on a significant number of community-acquired (CA) UPEC strains isolated from Romanian outpatients, aiming to evaluate and establish potential correlations among the phylogenetic groups (PG), resistance profiles, and the virulence factors (VF) genes of the CA-UPEC isolates.

Materials/methods: The present study was performed on a total of 787 UPEC nonrepetitive isolates consecutively isolated during one month from outpatients with CA-UTIs, visiting one of the biggest laboratories in Bucharest, Romania, receiving patients from all over the country. Read More

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December 2019

Independent Host Factors and Bacterial Genetic Determinants of the Emergence and Dominance of Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 CTX-M-27 in a Community Pediatric Cohort Study.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2019 07 24;63(7). Epub 2019 Jun 24.

IAME, UMR 1137, INSERM, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Service de Microbiologie, Hôpital Robert Debré, AP-HP, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France

The recent emergence and diffusion in the community of isolates belonging to the multidrug-resistant and CTX-M-27-producing sequence type 131 (ST131) C1-M27 cluster makes this cluster potentially as epidemic as the worldwide ST131 subclade C2 composed of multidrug-resistant isolates producing CTX-M-15. Thirty-five extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing ST131 isolates were identified in a cohort of 1,885 French children over a 5-year period. They were sequenced to characterize the ST131 isolates producing CTX-M-27 recently emerging in France. Read More

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Structure and Assembly of the Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Type 4 Pilus.

Structure 2019 07 2;27(7):1082-1093.e5. Epub 2019 May 2.

Biochemistry of Macromolecular Interactions Unit, Department of Structural Biology and Chemistry, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR3528, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Bacterial type 4a pili are dynamic surface filaments that promote bacterial adherence, motility, and macromolecular transport. Their genes are highly conserved among enterobacteria and their expression in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) promotes adhesion to intestinal epithelia and pro-inflammatory signaling. To define the molecular basis of EHEC pilus assembly, we determined the structure of the periplasmic domain of its major subunit PpdD (PpdDp), a prototype of an enterobacterial pilin subfamily containing two disulfide bonds. Read More

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A Tripartite, Hierarchical Sigma Factor Cascade Promotes Hormogonium Development in the Filamentous Cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme.

mSphere 2019 05 1;4(3). Epub 2019 May 1.

Department of Biology, University of the Pacific, Stockton, California, USA

Cyanobacteria are prokaryotes capable of oxygenic photosynthesis, and frequently, nitrogen fixation as well. As a result, they contribute substantially to global primary production and nitrogen cycles. Furthermore, the multicellular filamentous cyanobacteria in taxonomic subsections IV and V are developmentally complex, exhibiting an array of differentiated cell types and filaments, including motile hormogonia, making them valuable model organisms for studying development. Read More

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