199 results match your criteria expression transgender

Navigating in the dark: Meta-synthesis of subjective experiences of gender dysphoria amongst transgender and gender non-conforming youth.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Jun 2;281:114094. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

University of Oslo, Department of Psychology, Norway. Electronic address:

Objective: We conducted a meta-synthesis of qualitative research on subjective experiences of gender dysphoria (GD) amongst transgender and gender non-conforming (TGNC) youth in order to improve clinical encounters, complement existing knowledge and potentially influence future research.

Methods: We systematically searched for qualitative studies on GD in English, German, Spanish and Scandinavian languages in seven databases. Starting with 2000 articles, we finally included 12 papers in the meta-synthesis, following Noblit and Hare's (1988) seven steps for qualitative meta-synthesis research. Read More

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Measurement tools for gender identity, gender expression, and gender dysphoria in transgender and gender-diverse children and adolescents: a systematic review.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Adolescent Medicine, The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Clinical Sciences, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Increasing numbers of children and adolescents are being referred to gender services for gender-related concerns. Various instruments are used with these patients in clinical care, but their clinical validity, strengths, and limitations have not been systematically reviewed. In this systematic review, we searched MEDLINE, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases for available tools that assess gender identity, gender expression, or gender dysphoria in transgender and gender-diverse (TGD) children and adolescents. Read More

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Exploring Health and Transition-Related Needs in Polish Transgender and Non-Binary Individuals.

J Sex Med 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Jagiellonian University Medical College, Department of Psychiatry, Sexology Lab, Krakow, Poland.

Background: Gender diverse individuals constitute a substantial yet still understudied population. Particularly little is known about gender non-binary people whose health needs have only recently gained attention from clinicians.

Aim: To investigate needs for gender-affirming interventions, selected health indicators and determinants in Polish gender non-binary individuals as compared to transgender men and transgender women. Read More

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Systemic inflammation as a driver of health disparities among sexually-diverse and gender-diverse individuals.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Apr 9;129:105215. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

University of Utah, USA.

Sexually-diverse individuals (those who seek sexual or romantic relationships with the same and/or multiple genders) and gender-diverse individuals (those whose gender identity and/or expression differs from their birth-assigned sex/gender) have disproportionately high physical health problems, but the underlying biological causes for these health disparities remain unclear. Building on the minority stress model linking social stigmatization to health outcomes, we argue that systemic inflammation (the body's primary response to both physical and psychological threats, indicated by inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokines) is a primary biobehavioral pathway linking sexual and gender stigma to physical health outcomes. Expectations and experiences of social threat (i. Read More

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Implications of the Estrogen Receptor Coactivators SRC1 and SRC2 in the Biological Basis of Gender Incongruence.

Sex Med 2021 May 25;9(3):100368. Epub 2021 May 25.

Centro de Investigaciones Científicas Avanzadas (CICA), Departamento de Psicología. Universidade da Coruña (UDC), Coruña, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de A Coruña (INIBIC), Coruña, Spain.

Introduction: Brain sexual differentiation results from the effects of sex steroids on the developing brain. The presumptive route for brain masculinization is the direct induction of gene expression via activation of the estrogen receptors α and β and the androgen receptor through their binding to ligands and to coactivators, regulating the transcription of multiple genes in a cascade effect.

Aim: To analyze the implication of the estrogen receptor coactivators SRC-1, SRC-2, and SRC-3 in the genetic basis of gender incongruence. Read More

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Stress-Related Growth among Transgender Women: Measurement, Correlates, and Insights for Clinical Interventions.

J Homosex 2021 May 14:1-24. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Psychology, Hunter College of the City University of New York, New York, New York, USA.

Although transgender women (TGW), and especially TGW of color, are disproportionately exposed to discrimination and violence, many of them experience stress-related growth. However, little is known about the experience of stress-related growth and its correlates among TGW. Using data from a racially-diverse sample of 210 TGW, the short version of the Stress-Related Growth Scale was modified to assess growth as a result of coming to terms with one's transgender identity among TGW. Read More

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Multidisciplinary approach to imaging for gender-affirming surgery: engaging surgeons, radiologists, and patients to ensure a positive imaging experience.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):610

Division of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Department of Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Medical imaging plays an integral role in the preoperative evaluation and postoperative management of transgender and gender diverse (TGD) patients who pursue gender-affirming surgery. Radiology department encounters can be a source of anxiety for patients of any demographic, including TGD patients. Although most imaging modalities are considered "non-invasive", certain imaging procedures and other aspects of the radiology encounter could be considered quite invasive to the TGD patient. Read More

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A Review of the State of HIV Nursing Science With Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity/Expression Peoples.

J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care 2021 May-Jun 01;32(3):225-252

J. Craig Phillips, PhD, LLM, RN, ACRN, FAAN, is a Professor of Nursing and Vice Dean of Governance and Secretary, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada. Jufri Hidayat, MSN, RN, is an MSN Graduate, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taipei, Taiwan. Kristen D. Clark, MSN, RN, is a PhD Candidate, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA. Julia Melisek, BScN, RN, is a Master of Nursing Graduate Student, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada. Monique S. Balthazar, DNP, PhD, FNP-BC, AGACNP-BC, is a Postdoctoral Fellow, Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Albert G. D. Beck is a Senior Policy Analyst, Métis National Council, Ottawa, Canada, and an Indigenous Fellow, Indigenous Fellowship Programme, United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Geneva, Switzerland. Scott E. Moore, PhD, APRN, AGPCNP-BC, is an Assistant Professor, Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Carol Dawson-Rose, PhD, RN, FAAN, is a Professor and Chair, Department of Community Health Systems, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Abstract: Throughout the HIV pandemic, nurses have contributed to or led approaches to understanding the effects of HIV disease at individual and societal levels. Nurses have advocated for socially just care for more than a century, and our efforts have created a foundation on which to further build the state of HIV nursing science with sexual orientation and gender identity/expression (SOGI) Peoples. Nurses have also participated in the development of approaches to manage HIV disease for and in collaboration with populations directly affected by the disease. Read More

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The gender-affirmative life span approach: A developmental model for clinical work with transgender and gender-diverse children, adolescents, and adults.

Psychotherapy (Chic) 2021 Mar;58(1):37-49

National Center for Gender Spectrum Health, Program in Human Sexuality.

The gender-affirmative life span approach (GALA) is an innovative therapeutic framework for promoting the mental health of transgender and gender-diverse (TGD) clients of all ages. Based in interdisciplinary philosophical foundations, GALA proposes that TGD clients can be supported in psychotherapy through (a) developing , (b) building , (c) moving , (d) exploring , and (e) making Psychotherapy incorporating these 5 core components is developmentally tailored for children, adolescents, young adults, or older adults. Developing is the process of understanding how sex assigned at birth, gender identity, gender expression, and sexual orientation are distinct but interconnected concepts, as well as learning to identify oppressive practices in TGD people's lives. Read More

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Trauma-informed and affirmative mental health practices with LGBTQ+ clients.

Psychol Serv 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Social Work.

People with diverse sexual orientations, gender identities, and gender expression are at greater risk for trauma, discrimination, and victimization than heterosexual and cisgender populations. Trauma-informed care (TIC) provides a framework for providing lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning (LGBTQ +) mental health services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)'s principles of TIC guide practitioners to create safety, trust, transparency, collaboration, and empowerment in helping relationships, and to ensure that services have cultural and gender relevance. Read More

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The "double punishment" of transgender prisoners: a human rights-based commentary on placement and conditions of detention.

Int J Prison Health 2021 Mar;ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)

School of Medicine, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Purpose: The incarceration of transgender people is described as a "double punishment" based on lack of gender recognition and ability to gender affirm, and with their experiences and conditions in prison tantamount to torture. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the continued "double punishment" of incarcerated transgender people (in particular trans-women) and identify and describe breaches in human and gender rights and minimum standards of care.

Design/methodology/approach: There is limited global data on the numbers of incarcerated transgender people, an identified vulnerable prison group. Read More

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Measuring Satisfaction and Comfort with Gender Identity and Gender Expression among Transgender Women: Development and Validation of the Psychological Gender Affirmation Scale.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 23;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.

Among transgender and gender diverse people, psychological gender affirmation is an internal sense of valuing oneself as a transgender or gender diverse person, being comfortable with one's gender identity, and feeling satisfied with one's body and gender expression. Gender affirmation can reduce gender dysphoria and mitigate deleterious health effects of marginalization. We sought to create an instrument to measure psychological gender affirmation among transgender women. Read More

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Secret lives and gender fluidity of people living with HIV in Hyderabad, India.

J Community Psychol 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

SHARE India, MediCiti Institute of Medical Sciences, Ghanpur, Telangana, India.

This mixed-methods study sought to explore gender fluidity among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Hyderabad, India, almost all of whom did not identify as hijra. Sixteen gender-nonconforming people living with HIV completed both surveys and in-depth interviews, exploring their experiences with HIV and gender nonconformity stigma. Interviews were conducted in Hindi and Telugu, digitally audio-recorded, then subsequently translated and analyzed in English, using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Read More

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Does Gender-Affirming Hormonal Treatment Affect 30-Year Cardiovascular Risk in Transgender Persons? A Two-Year Prospective European Study (ENIGI).

J Sex Med 2021 04 18;18(4):821-829. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Andrology, Women's Endocrinology and Gender Incongruence Unit, Florence University Hospital, Florence, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Cardiovascular (CV) implications of long-term gender affirming hormonal treatment (GAHT) in transgender individuals still remain largely unknown.

Aim: To evaluate changes in the 30-year Framingham cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in a large cohort of transgender individuals after the start of GAHT.

Methods: In a multicenter prospective study, a consecutive series of 309 participants (165 transmen and 144 transwomen) was evaluated during a 2-year follow-up. Read More

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Characterization of HIV infection in cisgender men and transgender women who have sex with men receiving injectable cabotegravir for HIV prevention: HPTN 083.

J Infect Dis 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Dept. of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Introduction: The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 083 trial demonstrated that long-acting cabotegravir (CAB-LA) was more effective than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) for HIV prevention in cisgender men and transgender women who have sex with men. We characterized HIV infections that occurred in the blinded phase of HPTN 083.

Methods: Retrospective testing included HIV testing, viral load testing, quantification of study drugs and HIV drug resistance testing. Read More

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Effect of Cross-Sex Hormones on Body Composition, Bone Mineral Density, and Muscle Strength in Trans Women.

J Bone Metab 2021 Feb 28;28(1):59-66. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Cross-sex hormone therapy (CHT) changes the physical characteristics of transgender women to match their gender identity and expression. This study aimed to determine the effects of feminizing cross-sex hormones on body composition, bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle strength in transgender women.

Methods: A prospective observational study assessed 11 participants who underwent feminizing CHT. Read More

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February 2021

Transgender-specific developmental milestones and associated experiences of violence, discrimination, and stigma among Filipinx transgender women who are sexually active with men.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(3):e0248248. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island, United States of America.

Background: For transgender people, reaching transgender (trans)-specific developmental milestones, including recognizing and expressing one's identity, plays an integral role in overall health, wellbeing, and the pursuit of gender affirmation. Yet trans people continue to face minority stressors, including structural violence (i.e. Read More

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Implications for management of ovarian cancer in a transgender man: Impact of androgens and androgen receptor status.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 May 2;161(2):342-346. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Oncology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Center, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. Electronic address:

A 36-year-old transgender man (assigned female at birth) on exogenous testosterone therapy was found to have stage IIA ovarian endometrioid carcinoma, and underwent adjuvant chemotherapy. Diffuse androgen receptor expression in the tumor initiated a multidisciplinary discussion regarding the safety of continuing exogenous testosterone as gender-affirming hormone therapy. Read More

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The Transgender Phenomenon and its Effect on the Practice of Anatomic Pathology: A Futuristic Perspective.

C A Okolo

West Afr J Med 2021 Feb;38(2):185-188

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Introduction of the 'Transgender Phenomenon' "Dave King and Richard Ekins are the leading world sociologists in the field of transgender research. They have put together a brilliant synthesis of history, case studies, ideas and positions as they have emerged over the past thirty years, and bring together a rich and grounded account of this field, providing a state of the art of critical concepts and ideas in this field further during the twenty first century."¹ Based on two decades of fieldwork, life history work, qualitative analysis, archival work and contact with several thousand cross-dressers and sex-changers around the world, these researchers have distinguished a number of contemporary Transgendering 'stories'. Read More

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February 2021

Experience of and factors associated with violence against sexual and gender minorities in nine African countries: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Public Health 2021 02 15;21(1):357. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Friends of Rainka, Lusaka, Zambia.

Objective: The objective of this research was to assess physical and sexual violence experienced by sexual and gender minorities in nine African countries, and to examine factors associated with violence.

Methods: We conducted an exploratory multi-country cross-sectional study among self-identifying sexual and gender minorities, using a survey tool available in paper and online. Participants were sampled through venue-based and web-based convenience sampling. Read More

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February 2021

Long-Term Care Expectations and Plans of Transgender and Nonbinary Older Adults.

J Appl Gerontol 2021 Feb 12:733464821992919. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

JustUs Health, Saint Paul, MN, USA.

Problem: Transgender and nonbinary (TNB) older adults endure discrimination from medical providers and expect it in institutional long-term care. Gender identity-based discrimination is connected to negative health outcomes and reluctance to access needed care.

Objective: The aim of this study is to explore how gender identity affects TNB older adults' fears, hopes, and plans for use of institutional long-term care. Read More

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February 2021

Testosterone therapy masculinizes speech and gender presentation in transgender men.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 10;11(1):3494. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Psychology, Nipissing University, North Bay, ON, Canada.

Voice is one of the most noticeably dimorphic traits in humans and plays a central role in gender presentation. Transgender males seeking to align internal identity and external gender expression frequently undergo testosterone (T) therapy to masculinize their voices and other traits. We aimed to determine the importance of changes in vocal masculinity for transgender men and to determine the effectiveness of T therapy at masculinizing three speech parameters: fundamental frequency (i. Read More

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February 2021

Decision-making Criteria When Contemplating Disclosure of Transgender Identity to Medical Providers.

Health Commun 2021 Feb 10:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Communication, Rutgers University.

As identified in HealthyPeople 2020, the transgender population faces various barriers in accessing quality health care. One barrier includes the fear of negative response or refusal of treatment after disclosing one's transgender identity. In an effort to address this concern, it is essential to understand the criteria that transgender patients consider when determining if they will disclose their gender identity. Read More

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February 2021

Time to First Onset of Chest Binding-Related Symptoms in Transgender Youth.

Pediatrics 2021 Mar 4;147(3). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background And Objectives: Most transgender individuals assigned female at birth use chest binding (ie, wearing a tight garment to flatten chest tissue for the purpose of gender expression), often beginning in adolescence, to explore their gender identity. Although binding is often critical for mental health, negative physical side effects, ranging from chronic pain to rib fractures, are common. Time to first onset of symptoms is unknown. Read More

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Sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression-based violence in Catalan universities: qualitative findings from university students and staff.

Arch Public Health 2021 Feb 4;79(1):16. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Hate crimes have raised in Spain and the gender and sexuality-based conflicts persist worldwide which leads to this problem having an effect on health and wellbeing. Following a focus of transforming Higher Education Institutions, this research analysed the problem that affects undergraduate students in six Spanish universities. The research goal is to improve the life quality of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and intersex university students, breaking the silence that exists around the violence that this group suffer in Catalonia, Spain. Read More

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February 2021

Lactation Induction in a Transgender Woman Wanting to Breastfeed: Case Report.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr;106(5):e2047-e2052

Division of Endocrinology, Kingston Health Sciences Center, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Context: Breastfeeding is known to have many health and wellness benefits to the mother and infant; however, breastfeeding in trans women has been greatly under-researched.

Objective: To review potential methods of lactation induction in trans women wishing to breastfeed and to review the embryological basis for breastfeeding in trans women.

Design: This article summarizes a case of successful lactation in a trans woman, in which milk production was achieved in just over 1 month. Read More

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Androgens, the kidney, and COVID-19: an opportunity for translational research.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2021 02 19;320(2):F243-F248. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reached pandemic proportions, affecting millions of people worldwide. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of COVID-19. Epidemiological reports have shown that the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with preexisting comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic kidney diseases, all of which are also risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI). Read More

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February 2021

Trans intracommunity support & knowledge sharing in the United States & Canada: A scoping literature review.

Vern Harner

Health Soc Care Community 2021 Jan 13. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Intracommunity support and knowledge sharing is used in transgender ("trans") communities as they navigate systems of oppression. Even for individuals with access to accepting families and service providers, connecting with other trans individuals can provide useful insight and resources. Conducted between December 2018 and April 2019, this scoping literature review examines the extent, range and nature of research activity regarding intracommunity knowledge and support sharing within trans communities. Read More

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January 2021

The scope and nature of sexual orientation and gender identity and expression change efforts: a systematic review protocol.

Syst Rev 2021 01 8;10(1):14. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Division of Social and Behavioural Health Sciences, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Sexual orientation and gender identity and expression change efforts (SOGIECE) are a set of scientifically discredited practices that aim to deny and suppress the sexual orientations, gender identities, and/or gender expressions of sexual and gender minorities (SGM). SOGIECE are associated with significant adverse health and social outcomes. SOGIECE continue to be practiced around the world, despite denouncements from professional bodies and survivors, as well as calls for legislative advocacy to prohibit SOGIECE and protect SGM. Read More

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January 2021

Prevalence and minority-stress correlates of past 12-month prescription drug misuse in a national sample of transgender and gender nonbinary adults: Results from the U.S. Transgender Survey.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 02 21;219:108474. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Columbia University Irving Medical Center, 622 W. 168(th) Street, New York, NY 10032, USA; New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Prescription drug (PD) misuse, particularly opioid misuse, is a major US public health concern. While transgender and gender nonbinary (TGNB) individuals experience numerous health disparities, including substance use disparities, little research has focused on PD misuse in this population.

Methods: Data for this secondary analysis come from the US Transgender Survey (N = 26,689). Read More

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February 2021