128,361 results match your criteria expression systems

Developmental partitioning of SYK and ZAP70 prevents autoimmunity and cancer.

Mol Cell 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Center of Molecular and Cellular Oncology, Yale Cancer Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:

Even though SYK and ZAP70 kinases share high sequence homology and serve analogous functions, their expression in B and T cells is strictly segregated throughout evolution. Here, we identified aberrant ZAP70 expression as a common feature in a broad range of B cell malignancies. We validated SYK as the kinase that sets the thresholds for negative selection of autoreactive and premalignant clones. Read More

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Cis-epistasis at the LPA locus and risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Deutsches Herzzentrum München, Klinik für Herz- und Kreislauferkrankungen, Technische Universität München, 80636, Munich, Germany.

Aims: Coronary artery disease (CAD) has a strong genetic predisposition. However, despite substantial discoveries made by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), a large proportion of heritability awaits identification. Non-additive genetic-effects might be responsible for part of the unaccounted genetic variance. Read More

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An Interscholastic Network To Generate LexA Enhancer Trap Lines in Drosophila.

G3 (Bethesda) 2019 Jul;9(7):2097-2106

Dept. of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford CA 94305.

Binary expression systems like the LexA-LexAop system provide a powerful experimental tool kit to study gene and tissue function in developmental biology, neurobiology, and physiology. However, the number of well-defined LexA enhancer trap insertions remains limited. In this study, we present the molecular characterization and initial tissue expression analysis of nearly 100 novel StanEx LexA enhancer traps, derived from the StanEx1 index line. Read More

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Quantitative Comparison of the Anterior-Posterior Patterning System in the Embryos of Five Drosophila Species.

G3 (Bethesda) 2019 Jul;9(7):2171-2182

Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 20115.

Complex spatiotemporal gene expression patterns direct the development of the fertilized egg into an adult animal. Comparisons across species show that, in spite of changes in the underlying regulatory DNA sequence, developmental programs can be maintained across millions of years of evolution. Reciprocally, changes in gene expression can be used to generate morphological novelty. Read More

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Expression Signatures of Cisplatin- and Trametinib-Treated Early-Stage Medaka Melanomas.

G3 (Bethesda) 2019 Jul;9(7):2267-2276

Physiological Chemistry, Biocenter, University of Wuerzburg, 97074 Wuerzburg, Germany.

Small aquarium fish models provide useful systems not only for a better understanding of the molecular basis of many human diseases, but also for first-line screening to identify new drug candidates. For testing new chemical substances, current strategies mostly rely on easy to perform and efficient embryonic screens. Cancer, however, is a disease that develops mainly during juvenile and adult stage. Read More

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A Novel Competence Pathway in the Oral Pathogen .

J Dent Res 2021 May;100(5):542-548

Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA.

is an etiologic cause of dental caries (tooth decay) in humans. Our knowledge of is scant despite the organism's important role in oral health. It is widely believed that lacks the natural competence pathways that are used by other streptococci to regulate growth, virulence, and quorum sensing. Read More

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Harnessing pluripotent stem cells as models to decipher human evolution.

FEBS J 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Center for Genomics, Evolution and Medicine, Institute of Genomics, University of Tartu, Riia 23b, 51010, Tartu, Estonia.

The study of human evolution, long constrained by a lack of experimental model systems, has been transformed by the emergence of the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) field. iPSCs can be readily established from non-invasive tissues sources, both from humans and other primates; they can be maintained in the laboratory indefinitely and they can be differentiated into other tissue types. These qualities mean that iPSCs are rapidly becoming established as viable and powerful model systems with which it is possible to address questions in human evolution that were until now logistically and ethically intractable, especially in the quest to understand humans' place amongst the great apes, and the genetic basis of human uniqueness. Read More

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Nisin variants from Streptococcus and Staphylococcus successfully express in Lactococcus lactis NZ9800.

J Appl Microbiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Co. Cork, Ireland.

Aims: Increases in antimicrobial resistance has meant that the antimicrobial potential of lantibiotics is now being investigated irrespective of the nature of the producing organism. The aim of this study was to investigate if natural nisin variants produced by non- GRAS strains, such as nisin H, nisin J and nisin P, could be expressed in a well characterized GRAS host.

Methods And Results: This study involved cloning the nisin A promoter and leader sequence fused to either nisin H, nisin J or nisin P structural gene sequences originally produced by Streptococcus hyointestinalis DPC 6484, Staphylococcus capitis APC 2923, and Streptococcus agalactiae DPC 7040, respectively. Read More

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Mucinous Colorectal Cancer is Associated With Expression of the TIM-3 Immune Checkpoint Independently of Microsatellite Instability (MSI) Status.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2, Ireland.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibition has demonstrated success in overcoming tumor-mediated immune suppression in several types of cancer. However, its clinical use is limited to a small subset of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, and response is highly variable between CRC subtypes. This study aimed to determine the profile of immune checkpoints and factors associated with immune checkpoint inhibitor response in mucinous CRC. Read More

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Deep learning of gene relationships from single cell time-course expression data.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

FORE Systems Professor of Computational Biology and Machine Learning at CMU, USA.

Time-course gene-expression data have been widely used to infer regulatory and signaling relationships between genes. Most of the widely used methods for such analysis were developed for bulk expression data. Single cell RNA-Seq (scRNA-Seq) data offer several advantages including the large number of expression profiles available and the ability to focus on individual cells rather than averages. Read More

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Proton transfer in bulk water using the full adaptive QM/MM method: integration of solute- and solvent-adaptive approaches.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Apr 1;23(14):8344-8360. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Quantum Computing Center, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522, Japan.

The quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) method is a hybrid molecular simulation technique that increases the accessibility of local electronic structures of large systems. The technique combines the benefit of accuracy found in the QM method and that of cost efficiency found in the MM method. However, it is difficult to directly apply the QM/MM method to the dynamics of solution systems, particularly for proton transfer. Read More

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Activation of Sympathetic Signaling in Macrophages Blocks Systemic Inflammation and Protects against Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of CKD Pathophysiology, University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The sympathetic nervous system regulates immune cell dynamics. However, the detailed role of sympathetic signaling in inflammatory diseases is still unclear because it varies according to the disease situation and responsible cell types. This study focused on identifying the functions of sympathetic signaling in macrophages in LPS-induced sepsis and renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Read More

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CRISPeering: Bioengineering the Host Cells through CRISPR-Cas9 Genome Editing System as the Next-Generation of Cell Factories.

Recent Pat Biotechnol 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 71468-64685, Shiraz. Iran.

Background: Nowadays, CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing system has become a popular bioengineering-based tool for various applications. Owing to its high-target specificity, efficiency, versatility and simplicity, it has gained attraction as a robust tool for molecular biology research, which unveils the biological functions of unstudied genes. As well as engineering the metabolic pathways. Read More

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The role of active oxygen in the response of plants to water deficit and desiccation.

New Phytol 1993 Sep;125(1):27-58

University of Exeter, Department of Biological Sciences, Hatherly Laboratories, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter EX4 4PS, UK.

Water deficits cause a reduction in the rate of photosynthesis. Exposure to mild water deficits, when relative water content (RWC) remains above 70%, primarily causes limitation to carbon dioxide uptake because of stomatal closure. With greater water deficits, direct inhibition of photosynthesis occurs. Read More

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September 1993

Tansley Review No. 75 Arabidopsis- its use in the genetic and molecular analysis of plant morphogenesis.

Kevin Pyke

New Phytol 1994 Sep;128(1):19-37

Department of Biology, University of York, Heslington, York YO1 5DD, UK.

In the last decade, the weed Arabidopsis thaliana has come to prominence as a major new model system for investigating genetic and molecular aspects of developmental plant morphology. Extensive genetic and molecular information about the Arabidopsis genome, facilitated by international collaborations and the production of novel mutagenic systems, has enabled a vast array of mutants to be identified, most of which reveal nuclear genes that control different aspects of plant developmental processes. An ever increasing number of these newly identified genes have been isolated and within the next few years an overall view of the molecular control of plant development is likely to emerge. Read More

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September 1994

Effects of soil temperature and nitrogen status on kinetics of NO uptake by roots of field-grown Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. ex Link) Schult.

New Phytol 1993 Mar;123(3):485-489

Department of Range Science and The Ecology Center, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84322-5230, USA.

Plant NO - acquisition is largely determined by root uptake capacity. Although root uptake capacity has been shown to be sensitive to both root temperature and previous nitrogen (N) supply in hydroponic systems, the uptake capacity response to similar environmental factors under field conditions has not been investigated. Using NO , root uptake capacities were determined in excised roots of Agropyron desertorum (Fisch. Read More

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The cell cycle in plant development.

Dennis Francis

New Phytol 1992 Sep;122(1):1-20

School of Pure and Applied Biology, University of Wales College of Cardiff, P.O. Box 915, Cardiff CF1 3TL, UK.

The aim of this review is to discuss the molecular controls of the cell cycle in relation to higher plant development. An analysis is made of the current models of the cell cycle based on the biochemistry and genetics of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. What emerges are universal mechanisms observed in a wide range of taxonomic groups involving a group of protein kinases which regulate the transition from both post-synthetic interphase (G2) to mitosis and from pre-synthetic interphase (G1) to DNA synthetic-(S) phase. Read More

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September 1992

Common gene expression in Medicago truncatula roots in response to Pseudomonas fluorescens colonization, mycorrhiza development and nodulation.

New Phytol 2004 Mar 8;161(3):855-863. Epub 2004 Jan 8.

UMR INRA 1088/CNRS 5184/U. Bourgogne Plante-Microbe-Environnement, INRA-CMSE, BP 86510, F-21065 Dijon cedex, France.

•  Beneficial rhizosphere microorganisms may share similar molecular steps during root colonization. To test this hypothesis, we compared Medicago truncatula Gaertn. gene expression in roots colonized, or not colonized, by Glomus mosseae BEG12, Pseudomonas fluorescens C7R12 or Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011. Read More

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Molecular genetic analysis of pollen irradiation mutagenesis in Arabidopsis.

New Phytol 2004 Nov;164(2):279-288

Plant Sciences Division, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough LE12 5RD, UK.

•  Pollen γ-irradiation mutagenesis was systematically investigated to generate targeted mutations in Arabidopsis. •  Irradiation effects on viability, germination and frequency of loci deletions were evaluated. •  Mutation frequency increased with irradiation dose and varied depending upon pollen developmental stage. Read More

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November 2004

Isolation and analysis of a symbiosis-regulated and Ras-interacting vesicular assembly protein gene from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor.

New Phytol 2004 Feb 24;161(2):529-538. Epub 2003 Nov 24.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA.

•  A yeast two-hybrid library prepared from Laccaria bicolor × Pinus resinosa mycorrhizas was screened using a LbRAS clone, previously characterized, as a bait to isolate LbRAS interacting signaling-related genes from L. bicolor. •  Using this method, a novel line of Ras-interacting yeast two-hybrid mycorrhizal (Rythm) clones were isolated and analysed for their symbiosis-regulation. Read More

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February 2004

PEP carboxylase kinase is a novel protein kinase controlled at the level of expression.

New Phytol 2001 Jul;151(1):91-97

Plant Molecular Science Group, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK.

Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase plays a number of key roles in the central metabolism of higher plants. The enzyme is regulated by reversible phosphorylation in response to a range of signals in many different plant tissues. The data discussed here illustrate several novel features of this system. Read More

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UV and blue light signalling: pathways regulating chalcone synthase gene expression in Arabidopsis.

New Phytol 2001 Jul;151(1):121-131

present address: Biology Department, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.

UV-B, UV-A and blue light control a variety of aspects of plant development via distinct photoreceptors and signalling pathways. The known photoreceptors for UV-A/blue light are cryptochrome (cry)1 and cry2, and the phototropism photoreceptor, phototropin. Redox processes are important in cry and phototropin signal transduction. Read More

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A deep analysis of the proteomic and phosphoproteomic alterations that occur in skeletal muscle after the onset of immobilization.

J Physiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

 A decrease in protein synthesis plays a major role in the loss of muscle mass that occurs in response to immobilization.  In mice, immobilization leads to a rapid (within 6 hr) and progressive decrease in the rate of protein synthesis and this effect is mediated by a decrease in translational efficiency.  Deep proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of mouse skeletal muscles revealed that the rapid immobilization-induced decrease in protein synthesis cannot be explained by changes in the abundance or phosphorylation state of proteins that have been implicated in the regulation of translation. Read More

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Population scale nucleic acid delivery to Caenorhabditis elegans via electroporation.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Alkek Center for Metagenomics and Microbiome Research and Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

The free-living nematode C.elegans remains one of the most robust and flexible genetic systems for interrogating the complexities of animal biology. Targeted genetic manipulations, such as RNA interference (RNAi), CRISPR/Cas9- or array-based transgenesis, all depend on initial delivery of nucleic acids. Read More

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The actin nucleation factors JMY and WHAMM enable a rapid Arp2/3 complex-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis.

PLoS Genet 2021 Apr 19;17(4):e1009512. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Institute for Systems Genomics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, United States of America.

The actin cytoskeleton is a well-known player in most vital cellular processes, but comparably little is understood about how the actin assembly machinery impacts programmed cell death pathways. In the current study, we explored roles for the human Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP) family of actin nucleation factors in DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Inactivation of each WASP-family gene revealed that two of them, JMY and WHAMM, are necessary for rapid apoptotic responses. Read More

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50 Years of Topical Retinoids for Acne: Evolution of Treatment.

Am J Clin Dermatol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Ortho Dermatologics, a Division of Bausch Health US, LLC, Bridgewater, NJ, USA.

Since the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved tretinoin in 1971, retinoids alone or combined with other agents have become the mainstay of acne treatment. Retinoids act through binding to retinoic acid receptors, altering expression levels of hundreds of cellular proteins affecting multiple pathways involved in acne pathogenesis. Retinoids have evolved from first-generation agents, such as tretinoin, through chemical modifications resulting in a second generation (etretinate and acitretin for psoriasis), a third generation (adapalene and tazarotene) and, most recently, a fourth (trifarotene). Read More

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Network analysis in aged C. elegans reveals candidate regulatory genes of ageing.

Biogerontology 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Chemical Biology, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, 116 35, Athens, Greece.

Ageing is a biological process guided by genetic and environmental factors that ultimately lead to adverse outcomes for organismal lifespan and healthspan. Determination of molecular pathways that are affected with age and increase disease susceptibility is crucial. The gene expression profile of the ideal ageing model, namely the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans mapped with the microarray technology initially led to the identification of age-dependent gene expression alterations that characterize the nematode's ageing process. Read More

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Downregulation of glial genes involved in synaptic function mitigates Huntington's Disease pathogenesis.

Elife 2021 Apr 19;10. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, United States.

Most research on neurodegenerative diseases has focused on neurons, yet glia help form and maintain the synapses whose loss is so prominent in these conditions. To investigate the contributions of glia to Huntington's disease (HD), we profiled the gene expression alterations of expressing human mutant (m) in either glia or neurons and compared these changes to what is observed in HD human and HD mice striata. A large portion of conserved genes are concordantly dysregulated across the three species; we tested these genes in a high-throughput behavioral assay and found that downregulation of genes involved in synapse assembly mitigated pathogenesis and behavioral deficits. Read More

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Competitive binding of STATs to receptor phospho-Tyr motifs accounts for altered cytokine responses.

Elife 2021 Apr 19;10. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Cell Signaling and Immunology, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom.

Cytokines elicit pleiotropic and non-redundant activities despite strong overlap in their usage of receptors, JAKs and STATs molecules. We use IL-6 and IL-27 to ask how two cytokines activating the same signaling pathway have different biological roles. We found that IL-27 induces more sustained STAT1 phosphorylation than IL-6, with the two cytokines inducing comparable levels of STAT3 phosphorylation. Read More

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