239,617 results match your criteria expressing cre

Axially- and torsionally-polarized radially converging shear wave MRE in an anisotropic phantom made via Embedded Direct Ink Writing.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 Mar 31;119:104483. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

University of Illinois at Chicago, Richard and Loan Hill Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA.

Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) is a non-invasive imaging method to quantitatively map the shear viscoelastic properties of soft tissues. In this study, Embedded Direct Ink Writing is used to fabricate a muscle mimicking anisotropic phantom that may serve as a standard for imaging studies of anisotropic materials. The technique allowed us to obtain a long shelf life silicone-based phantom expressing transverse isotropic mechanical properties. Read More

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GILT in tumor cells improves T cell-mediated anti-tumor immune surveillance.

Immunol Lett 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China; Key Laboratory of Immune Microenvironment and Disease, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology in Tianjin, Excellent Talent Project, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

The lysosomal thiol reductase GILT catalyzes the reduction of disulfide bonds of protein antigens, facilitating antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to present antigen to T cells. However, whether GILT expression in tumor cells can be associated with improved T cell-mediated anti-tumor responses remains unknown. Here, we identify that GILT is able to facilitate anti-tumor immune surveillance via promoting MHC class I mediated-antigen presentation in colon carcinoma. Read More

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Identification of CXCL12-abundant reticular cells in human adult bone marrow.

Br J Haematol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology and Developmental Immunology, Immunology Frontier Research Center, World Premier International Research Center (WPI), Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.

A population of mesenchymal stem cells, termed CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)12-abundant reticular (CAR) cells or leptin receptor-expressing cells, are the major cellular component of niches for haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in murine bone marrow. CAR cells are characterized by several salient features, including much higher expression of CXCL12, stem cell factor (SCF), forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) and early B-cell factor 3 (EBF3), which are essential for HSC maintenance, than other cells. However, the human counterpart of CAR cells has not been fully described. Read More

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Surfactant cocamide monoethanolamide causes eye irritation by activating nociceptor TRPV1.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines and Department of TCM pharmacology, School of Traditional Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, 211198.

Background And Purpose: Cocamide monoethanolamide (CMEA) is commonly used as a surfactant-foam booster in cosmetic formulations. Upon contact with the eye or other sensitive skin areas, CMEA elicits sting and lasting irritation. We hypothesized a specific molecular interaction with TRPV1 by which CMEA caused eye irritation. Read More

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Induction of resistance to sugarcane mosaic virus by RNA interference targeting coat protein gene silencing in transgenic sugarcane.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Center for Development of Advanced Science and Technology (CDAST), Jember University, Jln. Kalimantan 37, Jember, 68121, Indonesia.

Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is a serious disease of monocotyledonous plants, including sugarcane, causing deterioration in both growth and productivity. RNA interference (RNAi) inhibits gene expression through RNA-mediated sequence-specific interactions and is considered an effective approach to control viral infection in plants. In this study, the SCMVCp gene encoding the coat protein (CP) was inserted into the pGreen-0179 plasmid in both sense and antisense orientations. Read More

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Uncertainty in protein-ligand binding constants: asymmetric confidence intervals versus standard errors.

Eur Biophys J 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Biothermodynamics and Drug Design, Institute of Biotechnology, Life Sciences Center, Vilnius University, Saulėtekio 7, 10257, Vilnius, Lithuania.

Equilibrium binding constants (K) between chemical compounds and target proteins or between interacting proteins provide a quantitative understanding of biological interaction mechanisms. Reported uncertainties of measured experimental parameters are critical for decision-making in many scientific areas, e.g. Read More

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Dicer represses the interferon response and the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase pathway in mouse embryonic stem cells.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jan 8;296:100264. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, USA. Electronic address:

Recent studies have demonstrated that embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are deficient in expressing type I interferons (IFN), the cytokines that play key roles in antiviral responses. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and biological implications of this finding are poorly understood. In this study, we developed a synthetic RNA-based assay that can simultaneously assess multiple forms of antiviral responses. Read More

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January 2021

Silencing of SARS-CoV-2 with modified siRNA-peptide dendrimer formulation.

Allergy 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Federal Medico-biological Agency of Russia.

Background: First vaccines for prevention of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are becoming available but there is a huge and unmet need for specific forms of treatment. In this study we aimed to evaluate the anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect of siRNA both in vitro and in vivo.

Methods: To identify the mosteffective molecule out of a panel of 15 in silico designed siRNAs, an in vitro screening system based on vectors expressing SARS-CoV-2 genes fused with the firefly luciferase reporter gene and SARS-CoV-2-infected cells was used. Read More

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MiR-20a-5p overexpression prevented diabetic cardiomyopathy via inhibition of cardiomyocyte apoptosis, hypertrophy, fibrosis, and JNK/NF-κB signaling pathway.

J Biochem 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050000, China.

Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a common cardiovascular disease. A declined miR-20a-5p was observed in hearts of diabetic mice, while its effect on DCM remains unknown. Herein, we established streptozotocin-induced DCM rat model and high glucose-stimulated H9C2 model of DCM. Read More

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Neuroendocrine control of appetite and metabolism.

Exp Mol Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, South Korea.

Body homeostasis is predominantly controlled by hormones secreted by endocrine organs. The central nervous system contains several important endocrine structures, including the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Conventionally, neurohormones released by the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland (hypophysis) have received much attention owing to the unique functions of the end hormones released by their target peripheral organs (e. Read More

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Serum-derived exosomal PD-L1 expression to predict anti-PD-1 response and in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 9;11(1):7830. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Surgery, Tokyo Medical University Hospital, 6-7-1 Nishishinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 160-0023, Japan.

PD-L1 expression is the most useful predictive biomarker for immunotherapy efficacy on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (CD8+ TILs) play an essential role in the clinical activity of immunotherapy. PD-L1 is found on the exosome's surface, and PD-L1 expressing exosomes can inhibit antitumor immune responses. This study aimed to analyze tumor PD-L1 expression, serum exosomal PD-L1, and CD8+ TILs to investigate anti-PD-1 response and clinicopathological outcomes in NSCLC. Read More

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Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals the mesangial identity and species diversity of glomerular cell transcriptomes.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 9;12(1):2141. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Karolinska Institute/AstraZeneca Integrated Cardio Metabolic Center (ICMC), Huddinge, Sweden.

Molecular characterization of the individual cell types in human kidney as well as model organisms are critical in defining organ function and understanding translational aspects of biomedical research. Previous studies have uncovered gene expression profiles of several kidney glomerular cell types, however, important cells, including mesangial (MCs) and glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs), are missing or incompletely described, and a systematic comparison between mouse and human kidney is lacking. To this end, we use Smart-seq2 to profile 4332 individual glomerulus-associated cells isolated from human living donor renal biopsies and mouse kidney. Read More

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Total number and ratio of GABAergic neuron types in the mouse lateral and basal amygdala.

J Neurosci 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

ELRN Institute of Experimental Medicine, 1083 Budapest, Hungary

GABAergic neurons are key circuit elements in cortical networks. In spite of growing evidence showing that inhibitory cells play a critical role in the lateral (LA) and basal (BA) amygdala functions, neither the number of GABAergic neurons nor the ratio of their distinct types have been determined in these amygdalar nuclei. Using unbiased stereology, we found that the ratio of GABAergic neurons in the BA (22%) is significantly higher than in the LA (16%) in both male and female mice. Read More

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Synovial fluid neutrophils in oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis have an altered phenotype and impaired effector functions.

Arthritis Res Ther 2021 Apr 9;23(1):109. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Wallenberg Center for Molecular Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Neutrophils are the most prevalent immune cells in the synovial fluid in inflamed joints of children with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Despite this, little is known about neutrophil function at the site of inflammation in JIA and how local neutrophils contribute to disease pathogenesis. This study aimed to characterize the phenotype and function of synovial fluid neutrophils in oligoarticular JIA. Read More

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Child witchcraft confessions as an idiom of distress in Sierra Leone; results of a rapid qualitative inquiry and recommendations for mental health interventions.

Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2021 Apr 9;15(1):18. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Reports about child witchcraft are not uncommon in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we approach child witchcraft as an idiom of distress. In an environment that may prohibit children from openly expressing distress, the shared imagery of witchcraft can provide a cultural idiom to communicate about psychosocial suffering. Read More

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Kinetic analysis reveals that independent nucleation events determine the progression of polyglutamine aggregation in .

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Department of Molecular Biosciences, Rice Institute for Biomedical Research, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3500;

Protein aggregation is associated with a wide range of degenerative human diseases with devastating consequences, as exemplified by Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. In vitro kinetic studies have provided a mechanistic understanding of the aggregation process at the molecular level. However, it has so far remained largely unclear to what extent the biophysical principles of amyloid formation learned in vitro translate to the complex environment of living organisms. Read More

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Involvement of cytotoxic Eomes-expressing CD4 T cells in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Department of Immunology, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, 187-8502 Japan;

Multiple sclerosis (MS), a putative autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), commonly presents as relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), characterized by recurrent episodes of peripheral disabling symptoms resulting from inflammatory CNS damage. Many RRMS patients transition to a chronic disease course with progressive neurological dysfunctions (secondary progressive MS, SPMS), with the progression rate varying between patients and over time. SPMS pathogenesis is now linked to immune-cell-mediated processes, although the mechanisms driving SPMS transition and progression remain elusive, and SPMS lacks biomarkers and effective treatments. Read More

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Impacts and challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic on emergency medicine physicians in the United States.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 2;48:38-47. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care, Kendall Regional Medical Center, Miami, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Emergency medicine (EM) physicians have been on the front line of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to determine the impact of COVID-19 pandemic and other related factors such as resource availability and institutional support on well-being, burnout and job-satisfaction of EM physicians in the United States.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey study of EM physicians was conducted through the Emergency Medicine Practice Research Network of the ACEP. Read More

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A small molecule inhibitor of the chloride channel TMEM16A blocks vascular smooth muscle contraction and lowers blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Kidney Int 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of California San Francisco, CA, USA.

Hypertension is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, despite the availability of antihypertensive drugs with different targets and mechanisms of action. Here, we provide evidence that pharmacological inhibition of TMEM16A (ANO1), a calcium-activated chloride channel expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, blocks calcium-activated chloride currents and contraction in vascular smooth muscle in vitro and decreases blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. The acylaminocycloalkylthiophene TMinh-23 fully inhibited calcium-activated TMEM16A chloride current with nanomolar potency in Fischer rat thyroid cells expressing TMEM16A, and in primary cultures of rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Read More

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Immune cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of Ugandan adults who resist versus those who develop latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0249477. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Tuberculosis Research Unit and Division of Infectious Diseases, Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.

Background: The search for immune correlates of protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection in humans is limited by the focus on peripheral blood measures. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can safely be done and provides insight into cellular function in the lung where infection is first established. In this study, blood and lung samples were assayed to determine if heavily MTB exposed persons who resist development of latent MTB infection (RSTR) vs those who develop latent MTB infection (LTBI), differ in the make-up of resident BAL innate and adaptive immune cells. Read More

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Mutations derived from horseshoe bat ACE2 orthologs enhance ACE2-Fc neutralization of SARS-CoV-2.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Apr 9;17(4):e1009501. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, FL, United States of America.

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein mediates infection of cells expressing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 is also the viral receptor of SARS-CoV (SARS-CoV-1), a related coronavirus that emerged in 2002-2003. Horseshoe bats (genus Rhinolophus) are presumed to be the original reservoir of both viruses, and a SARS-like coronavirus, RaTG13, closely related to SARS-CoV-2, has been identified in one horseshoe-bat species. Read More

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Generation and utilization of a HEK-293T murine GM-CSF expressing cell line.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0249117. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, United States of America.

Macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are innate immune cells that play a key role in defense against pathogens. In vitro cultures of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and dendritic cells (BMDCs) are well-established and valuable methods for immunological studies. Typically, commercially available recombinant GM-CSF is utilized to generate BMDCs and is also used to culture alveolar macrophages. Read More

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Effects of TNFα receptor TNF-Rp55- or TNF-Rp75- deficiency on corneal neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis in the mouse.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0245143. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt- Universität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α is an inflammatory cytokine likely to be involved in the process of corneal inflammation and neovascularization. In the present study we evaluate the role of the two receptors, TNF-receptor (TNF-R)p55 and TNF-Rp75, in the mouse model of suture-induced corneal neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis. Corneal neovascularization and lymphangiogenesis were induced by three 11-0 intrastromal corneal sutures in wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice and TNF-Rp55-deficient (TNF-Rp55d) and TNF-Rp75-deficient (TNF-Rp75d) mice. Read More

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Synthesis and Comparative Evaluation of Site-Specifically Labeled Radioimmunoconjugates for DLL3-Targeted ImmunoPET.

Bioconjug Chem 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, United States.

Delta-like ligand 3 (DLL3) is a therapeutic target for the treatment of small cell lung cancer, neuroendocrine prostate cancer, and isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant glioma. In the clinic, DLL3-targeted Zr-immunoPET has the potential to aid in the assessment of disease burden and facilitate the selection of patients suitable for therapies that target the antigen. The overwhelming majority of Zr-labeled radioimmunoconjugates are synthesized via the random conjugation of desferrioxamine (DFO) to lysine residues within the immunoglobulin. Read More

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Investigating oligodendrocyte connexins: Heteromeric interactions between Cx32 and mutant or wild-type forms of Cx47 do not contribute to or modulate gap junction function.

Glia 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Oligodendrocytes express two gap junction forming connexins, connexin 32 (Cx32) and Cx47; therefore, formation of heteromeric channels containing both Cx47 and Cx32 monomers might occur. Mutations in Cx47 cause both Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease Type 1 (PMLD1) and hereditary spastic paraparesis Type 44 (SPG44) and heteromer formation between these mutants and Cx32 may contribute to the pathogenesis of these disorders. Here, we utilized electrophysiological and antibody-based techniques to examine this possibility. Read More

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Dura promotes metastatic potential in prostate cancer through the CXCR2 pathway.

J Neurooncol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, 3552 Taubman Center, 1500 E. Medical Center Dr., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Purpose: Spinal metastases are common in cancer. This preferential migration/growth in the spine is not fully understood. Dura has been shown to affect the surrounding microenvironment and promote cancer growth. Read More

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Increased ERK phosphorylation and caveolin-1 expression on K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells by jacalin, a dietary plant lectin.

Glycoconj J 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Life Sciences, B S A Crescent Institute of Science and Technology, Vandalur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 600048, India.

The potential antitumor effects of jacalin, the plant lectin that specifically recognizes the tumor-associated Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen has been extensively studied. We had earlier reported jacalin to be mitogenic to K562, the Bcr-Abl expressing erythroleukemia cell line. The dearth of studies highlighting the proliferative effects of jacalin and other lectins motivated us to unveil the mechanism underlying the mitogenic effects of jacalin. Read More

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Clinician Facial Expression of Emotion Corresponds with Patient Mindset.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Y. Versluijs, M. G. Moore, D. Ring, P. Jayakumar, Department of Surgery and Perioperative Care, Dell Medical School, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Background: Mental health has a notable and perhaps underappreciated relationship with symptom intensity related to musculoskeletal pathophysiology. Tools for increasing awareness of mental health opportunities may help musculoskeletal specialists identify and address psychological distress and unhealthy misconceptions with greater confidence. One such type of technology-software that identifies emotions by analyzing facial expressions-could be developed as a clinician-awareness tool. Read More

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Over-Expression of Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Attenuates Atherosclerosis.

Circ Res 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Internal Medicine, VCU Medical Center, UNITED STATES.

Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase (IAP) is secreted by enterocytes and is present on the apical surface. It not only detoxifies bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the gut lumen and limits intestinal inflammation but also restricts translocation of LPS into systemic circulation. Diet-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and subsequent development of metabolic endotoxemia seen in diabetes and heart disease is associated with reduced IAP levels. Read More

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TSC-insensitive Rheb mutations induce oncogenic transformation through a combination of constitutively active mTORC1 signalling and proteome remodelling.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Lifelong Health, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA, 5001, Australia.

The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is an important regulator of cellular metabolism that is commonly hyperactivated in cancer. Recent cancer genome screens have identified multiple mutations in Ras-homolog enriched in brain (Rheb), the primary activator of mTORC1 that might act as driver oncogenes by causing hyperactivation of mTORC1. Here, we show that a number of recurrently occurring Rheb mutants drive hyperactive mTORC1 signalling through differing levels of insensitivity to the primary inactivator of Rheb, tuberous sclerosis complex. Read More

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