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Osmolyte enhanced aqueous two-phase system for virus purification.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan, USA.

Due to the high variation in viral surface properties, a platform method for virus purification is still lacking. A potential alternative to the high-cost conventional methods is aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs). However, optimizing virus purification in ATPS requires a large experimental design space, and the optimized systems are generally found to operate at high ATPS component concentrations. Read More

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Telmisartan Attenuates the Growth of Epithelium-like Cells and Glomerular Injury in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

Curr Med Sci 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.

The abnormal growth of epithelium-like cells has been noticed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with hypertensive nephropathy. However, the characteristics of abnormal epithelium-like cells and their pathogenesis in hypertensive nephropathy are not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the correlation of epithelium-like cells with glomerular injury, and the effects of early drug intervention with telmisartan, an anti-hypertensive drug, on the growth of epithelium-like cells. Read More

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A broadly cross-reactive monoclonal antibody against hepatitis E virus capsid antigen.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute of Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

To generate a hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 (HEV-3)-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), the Escherichia coli-expressed carboxy-terminal part of its capsid protein was used to immunise BALB/c mice. The immunisation resulted in the induction of HEV-specific antibodies of high titre. The mAb G117-AA4 of IgG1 isotype was obtained showing a strong reactivity with the homologous E. Read More

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The molecular basis and cellular effects of distinct CD103 expression on CD4 and CD8 T cells.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Experimental Immunology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Integrin CD103 mediates the adhesion and tissue retention of T cells by binding to E-cadherin which is abundant on epithelial cells. Notably, CD103 is highly expressed on CD8 T cells but conspicuously absent on most CD4 T cells. The mechanism controlling such lineage-specific expression of CD103 remains unclear. Read More

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Differential Effect of Proinflammatory Cytokines on Corneal and Conjunctival Epithelial Cell Mucins and Glycocalyx.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 Jun;10(7):17

Chapman University School of Pharmacy, Chapman University, Irvine, CA, USA.

Purpose: Ocular surface mucins and glycocalyx are critical for providing ocular hydration as well lubrication and repelling pathogens or allergens. Elevated levels of tear proinflammatory cytokines in dry eye may have detrimental effect on mucins and glycocalyx. The present study tested the effect of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ on membrane-tethered mucins expression, glycocalyx, and viability of ocular surface epithelial cells. Read More

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Assessment of P- to delta-wave interval and its relationship with accessory pathway properties in patients with pre-excitation.

Cardiovasc J Afr 2021 May 19;32:1-5. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Cardiology, Samsun Training and Research Hospital, Health Sciences University, Samsun, Turkey. Email:

Background: The first clinical manifestation of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in previously asymptomatic individuals may be sudden cardiac death. The options for non-invasive risk stratification are limited in the current era beyond ambulatory rhythm monitoring and an exercise stress test. In our study, we sought to investigate whether there was a relationship between the shortest measured P- to delta-wave time interval (PDI) on the conduction properties of surface electrocardiogram and accessory pathways expressed as antegrade effective refractory period (APERP). Read More

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Antibody Levels to Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1-DBLγ11 and DBLδ-1 Predict Reduction in Parasite Density.

mSystems 2021 Jun 15:e0034721. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Molecular and Pathogenesis Biomarkers Section, Laboratory of Malaria Immunology and Vaccinology (LMIV), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is a variant surface antigen family expressed on infected red blood cells that plays a role in immune evasion and mediates adhesion to vascular endothelium. PfEMP1s are potential targets of protective antibodies as suggested by previous seroepidemiology studies. Here, we used previously reported proteomic analyses of PfEMP1s of clinical parasite isolates collected from Malian children to identify targets of immunity. Read More

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P32-specific CAR T cells with dual antitumor and antiangiogenic therapeutic potential in gliomas.

Nat Commun 2021 06 14;12(1):3615. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

School of Neurobiology, Biochemistry and Biophysics, The George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Glioblastoma is considered one of the most aggressive malignancies in adult and pediatric patients. Despite decades of research no curative treatment is available and it thus remains associated with a very dismal prognosis. Although recent pre-clinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the feasibility of chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) T cell immunotherapeutic approach in glioblastoma, tumor heterogeneity and antigen loss remain among one of the most important challenges to be addressed. Read More

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Synthetic conjugate peptide Fba-Met6 (MP12) induces complement-mediated resistance against disseminated Candida albicans.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Parasitology, 1901 Perdido St., New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. Electronic address:

The fungal genus Candida includes common commensals of the human mucosal membranes, and the most prevalently isolated species, C. albicans, poses a threat of candidemia and disseminated infection associated with an unacceptably high mortality rate and an immense $4 billion burden (US) yearly. Nevertheless, the demand for a vaccine remains wholly unfulfilled and increasingly pressing. Read More

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Othello Syndrome: Delusional Disorder - Jealous Type ≠ Violence.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):160-161

University of Florida College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Background: Othello syndrome, also known as morbid jealousy, pathological jealousy, and conjugal paranoia, is a rare delusional disorder related to partner's infidelity. There are no large scale or comprehensive studies on delusional jealousy, and only few case reports and cases series leave delusional disorder jealous type (DDJT) largely unknown. Herein, we report a case of DDJT, its possible etiology and describe its characteristics, comorbidities, and interventions. Read More

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Antibody-recruiting protein-catalyzed capture agents to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Chem Sci 2020 Feb 12;11(11):3054-3067. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Institute for Systems Biology 401 Terry Ave North Seattle 98109 USA

Antibiotic resistant infections are projected to cause over 10 million deaths by 2050, yet the development of new antibiotics has slowed. This points to an urgent need for methodologies for the rapid development of antibiotics against emerging drug resistant pathogens. We report on a generalizable combined computational and synthetic approach, called antibody-recruiting protein-catalyzed capture agents (AR-PCCs), to address this challenge. Read More

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February 2020

Thrombomodulin promotes placental function by up-regulating placental growth factor via inhibition of high-mobility-group box 1 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α.

Placenta 2021 Jun 11;111:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Introduction: Pregnancy is a state of maternal systemic stress due to inflammation and hypoxic reactions originating from the utero-placental unit. Maternal tolerance to these stresses is a key for successful outcomes. Thrombomodulin (TM), a glycoprotein expressed on cell surface, regulates local inflammatory pathways by inhibiting proinflammatory factor, High-mobility-group box1(HMGB1). Read More

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Methodological needs in the quality and safety characterisation of nanotechnology-based health products: Priorities for method development and standardisation.

J Control Release 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biotechnology and Nanomedicine, SINTEF Industry, Trondheim, Norway.

Nanotechnology-based health products are providing innovative solutions in health technologies and the pharmaceutical field, responding to unmet clinical needs. However, suitable standardised methods need to be available for the assessment of quality and safety of these innovative products prior to their translation into the clinic and for monitoring it when manufacturing processes are changed. The question arises which technological solutions are currently available within the scientific community to support the requested characterisation of nanotechnology-based products, and which methodological developments should be prioritized to support product developers in their regulatory assessment. Read More

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Chronic histiocytic intervillositis: manifestation of placental alloantibody-mediated rejection.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Université de Paris, INSERM UMR 1163, 75015, Paris, France; Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Département de Néphrologie et Transplantation Rénale, Hôpital Necker, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: Chronic histiocytic intervillositis (chronic intervillositis) is defined by a diffuse infiltration of monocytes into the intervillous space that often results in poor obstetrical outcomes, including recurrent intrauterine growth restriction, miscarriage and fetal death. The pathogenesis of chronic intervillositis is still poorly defined, and there is an unmet medical need for improved management.

Objective: This study aimed to demonstrate the role of anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alloantibodies in the pathogenesis of chronic intervillositis through the application of criteria used in solid-organ transplantation for the diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection. Read More

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Longitudinal assessment of cardiac function in extremely low birth weight children at 7 and 11 years of age: implications for adult medicine.

Kardiol Pol 2021 ;79(5):539-545

Department of Pediatrics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland.

Background: The long-term impact of extreme prematurity on cardiac structure and function has not been fully evaluated.

Aims: The aim of the study was to assess cardiac condition at 11 years of age in a local cohort of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) children born between 2002 and 2004 and to compare it to a previous study in the same group at 7 years of age.

Methods: Sixty-four children with ELBW (median birth weight of 890 g) and 36 children born at full term underwent echocardiography and physical examination. Read More

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January 2021

A Targeted Erythrocyte Membrane-Encapsulated Drug-Delivery System with Anti-osteosarcoma and Anti-osteolytic Effects.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Orthopedics, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410013, Hunan, China.

Chemotherapy is one of the main treatment methods for osteosarcoma. However, conventional chemotherapy lacks targeting properties, and its long-term and extensive use will have serious side effects on patients. For this reason, a multifunctional nanodrug system (V-RZCD) targeting osteosarcoma was developed in this study. Read More

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A remotely controlled NIR-II photothermal-sensitive transgene system for hepatocellular carcinoma synergistic therapy.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

The United Innovation of Mengchao Hepatobiliary Technology Key Laboratory of Fujian Province, Mengchao Hepatobiliary Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350025, People's Republic of China. and Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002, People's Republic of China and Mengchao Med-X Center, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, People's Republic of China and Fujian Cancer Hospital & Fujian Medical University Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou 350014, P. R. China.

Photothermal therapy (PTT) exhibits an excellent therapeutic effect in cancer treatment, but some cancers are still facing rapid recurrence due to the presence of heat-resistant cells, which express heat shock proteins (HSP) to defend against hyperthermia. Inspired by optogenetics, we firstly designed a caged TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expressing plasmid under HSP70 protomer (HSP70-TRAIL) as the thermal-activated gene therapy agent to induce the apoptosis of heat resistant cells. Then, the caged HSP70-TRAIL was decorated on the surface of the photothermal agent (semiconducting nanoparticles, SPNs) through electrostatic adsorption to obtain [email protected] (SPNHT). Read More

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Anti-inflammatory Effects of Empagliflozin and Gemigliptin on LPS-Stimulated Macrophage via the IKK/NF-B, MKK7/JNK, and JAK2/STAT1 Signalling Pathways.

J Immunol Res 2021 2;2021:9944880. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are glucose-lowering drugs whose anti-inflammatory properties have recently become useful in tackling metabolic syndromes in chronic inflammatory diseases, including diabetes and obesity. We investigated whether empagliflozin (SGLT2 inhibitor) and gemigliptin (DPP-4 inhibitor) improve inflammatory responses in macrophages, identified signalling pathways responsible for these effects, and studied whether the effects can be augmented with dual empagliflozin and gemigliptin therapy.

Methods: RAW 264. Read More

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Case Report: Concurrent Occurrence of Abdominal Double Expressor Lymphoma and Jejunum Follicular Lymphoma.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:656219. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama, Japan.

Double expressor lymphoma (DEL), defined as overexpression of BCL2 and MYC, is an aggressive subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here we report a case of a 64-year-old female diagnosed with abdominal DEL transformed from jejunum follicular lymphoma (FL). 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography showed diffuse accumulation of FDG into the peritoneum and small bowel wall. Read More

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Dectin-1-Mediated Production of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Induced by Yeast β-Glucans in Bovine Monocytes.

Front Immunol 2021 28;12:689879. Epub 2021 May 28.

Immunobiology Group, i3S - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Yeast-derived products containing β-glucans have long been used as feed supplements in domesticated animals in an attempt to increase immunity. β-glucans are mainly recognized by the cell surface receptor CLEC7A, also designated Dectin-1. Although the immune mechanisms elicited through Dectin-1 activation have been studied in detail in mice and humans, they are poorly understood in other species. Read More

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D--phenotype due to RHD-RHCE hybrid transcript in a case of severe haemolytic disease of newborn with anti-Rh 17(Hrₒ) antibodies.

Transfus Med 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

Background: D antigen is one among the most immunogenic antigens and is the most common cause of Haemolytic Disease of Fetus and Newborn (HDFN). The D-phenotype is a rare Rh variant in which none of the RhCE antigens are expressed on the red cell surface. Individuals having D-phenotype are capable of producing a rare alloantibody named as anti-Rh17(Hrₒ) in response to pregnancy or transfusion and has the potential to react with C/c and E/e antigens causing severe haemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR) and haemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN). Read More

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High-throughput surface marker screen on primary human breast tissues reveals further cellular heterogeneity.

Breast Cancer Res 2021 Jun 13;23(1):66. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

CRUK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0RE, UK.

Background: Normal human breast tissues are a heterogeneous mix of epithelial and stromal subtypes in different cell states. Delineating the spectrum of cellular heterogeneity will provide new insights into normal cellular properties within the breast tissue that might become dysregulated in the initial stages of cancer. Investigation of surface marker expression provides a valuable approach to resolve complex cell populations. Read More

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PD-1 and PD-L1 gene expressions and their association with Epstein-Barr virus infection in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Clin Transl Oncol 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt.

Purpose: The  PD-1 (programmed cell death-1) receptor is expressed on the surface of activated T cells. Its ligand, programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1), is expressed on the surface of dendritic cells or macrophages. The PD-1/PD-L1 interaction ensures prevention of autoimmunity by activating the immune system only when needed. Read More

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G-Protein-Coupled Receptors and Ischemic Stroke: a Focus on Molecular Function and Therapeutic Potential.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Anatomical Sciences Research Center, Institute for Basic Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

In ischemic stroke, there is only one approved drug, tissue plasminogen activator, to be used in clinical conditions for thrombolysis. New neuroprotective therapies for ischemic stroke are desperately needed. Several targets and pathways have been shown to confer neuroprotective effects in ischemic stroke. Read More

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Full-length transcriptome sequence analysis of Eimeria necatrix unsporulated oocysts and sporozoites identifies genes involved in cellular invasion.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Jun 2;296:109480. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China. Electronic address:

Eimeria necatrix is one of the most pathogenic chicken coccidia and causes avian coccidiosis, an enteric disease of major economic importance worldwide. Eimeria parasites have complex developmental life cycles, with an exogenous phase in the environment and an endogenous phase in the chicken intestine. Oocysts excreted by chickens rapidly undergo meiosis and cell division to form eight haploid sporozoites (SZ). Read More

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Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mediates bone resorption in periodontitis.

BMC Oral Health 2021 Jun 12;21(1):299. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Stomatology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, 8th Gongti South Road, Beijing, China.

Background: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is an important immune factor that mediates bone metabolism by regulating the functions of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Bone loss is a serious and progressive result of periodontitis. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of G-CSF on periodontal inflammation have yet not been completely elucidated. Read More

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IL-10 and TGF-β cytokines decrease immune activation during normothermic ex vivo machine perfusion of the rat liver.

Liver Transpl 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Surgery, Division of Transplantation, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison.

Background: Normothermic ex vivo liver perfusion (NEVLP) is a novel system for organ preservation which may improve over static cold storage (CS) clinically and offers the chance for graft modification prior to transplantation. Although recent studies have shown the presence of inflammatory molecules during perfusion, none have yet shown the effects of NEVLP on liver-resident immune cell activation. We investigated the effects of NEVLP on liver-resident immune cell activation and assessed the ability of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β to improve organ function and reduce immune activation during perfusion. Read More

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Multiple functions of reversine on the biological characteristics of sheep fibroblasts.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12365. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Laboratory Medicine, School of Life Sciences, Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, 233000, China.

Previous reports have demonstrated that Reversine can reverse differentiation of lineage-committed cells to mesenchymal stem cells and suppress tumors growth. However, the molecular mechanisms of antitumor activity and promoting cellular dedifferentiation for reversine have not yet been clearly elucidated. In the present study, it was demonstrated that reversine of 5 μM could induce multinucleated cells through cytokinesis failure rather than just arrested in G2 or M phase. Read More

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Complement Receptor 3 Forms a Compact High-Affinity Complex with iC3b.

J Immunol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark;

Complement receptor 3 (CR3, also known as Mac-1, integrin αβ, or CD11b/CD18) is expressed on a subset of myeloid and certain activated lymphoid cells. CR3 is essential for the phagocytosis of complement-opsonized particles such as pathogens and apoptotic or necrotic cells opsonized with the complement fragment iC3b and, to a lesser extent, C3dg. Although the interaction between the iC3b thioester domain and the ligand binding CR3 α I-domain is structurally and functionally well characterized, the nature of additional CR3-iC3b interactions required for phagocytosis of complement-opsonized objects remains obscure. Read More

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Biochar induced improvement in root system architecture enhances nutrient assimilation by cotton plant seedlings.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Jun 11;21(1):269. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, 712100, China.

Background: Raising nitrogen use efficiency of crops by improving root system architecture is highly essential not only to reduce costs of agricultural production but also to mitigate climate change. The physiological mechanisms of how biochar affects nitrogen assimilation by crop seedlings have not been well elucidated.

Results: Here, we report changes in root system architecture, activities of the key enzymes involved in nitrogen assimilation, and cytokinin (CTK) at the seedling stage of cotton with reduced urea usage and biochar application at different soil layers (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm). Read More

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