168 results match your criteria exposures motivated


A Bayesian approach for estimating the partial potential impact fraction with exposure measurement error under a main study/internal validation design.

Stat Methods Med Res 2021 Nov 29:9622802211060514. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Biostatistics, 50296Yale University School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA.

The partial potential impact fraction describes the proportion of disease cases that can be prevented if the distribution of modifiable continuous exposures is shifted in a population, while other risk factors are not modified. It is a useful quantity for evaluating the burden of disease in epidemiologic and public health studies. When exposures are measured with error, the partial potential impact fraction estimates may be biased, which necessitates methods to correct for the exposure measurement error. Read More

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November 2021

Activity Locations, Residential Segregation, and the Significance of Residential Neighborhood Boundary Perceptions.

Urban Stud 2021 Oct 18;58(13):2758-2781. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Institute for Population Research, The Ohio State University, 060 Townshend Hall, Columbus, OH 43210.

The inadequacies of residential census geography in capturing urban residents' routine exposures have motivated efforts to more directly measure residents' activity spaces. In turn, insights regarding urban activity patterns have been used to motivate alternative measurement strategies incorporating dimensions of activity space in the form of neighborhoods-measurement approaches that place individuals at the center of their own residential neighborhood units. Unexamined, however, is the extent to which the boundaries of residents' own self-defined residential neighborhoods compare with census-based and egocentric neighborhood measurement approaches in aligning with residents' routine activity locations. Read More

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October 2021

Evidence of Arctic Fox Survival following Exposure to Rabies Virus.

J Wildl Dis 2021 Nov 23. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

US Department of Agriculture, National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 Laporte Avenue, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA.

The arctic fox variant of the rabies virus (RABV) is enzootic in the circumpolar north. Reports of abortive RABV exposures motivated a retrospective analysis of sera from 41 arctic foxes captured at Karrak Lake in Nunavut, Canada, during 2011-2015. Estimated RABV antibody prevalence among foxes was 14% (95% confidence interval, 7-28%). Read More

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November 2021

Relations Between Bone Quantity, Microarchitecture, and Collagen Cross-links on Mechanics Following In Vivo Irradiation in Mice.

JBMR Plus 2021 Nov 26;5(11):e10545. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California Berkeley CA USA.

Humans are exposed to ionizing radiation via spaceflight or cancer radiotherapy, and exposure from radiotherapy is known to increase risk of skeletal fractures. Although irradiation can reduce trabecular bone mass, alter trabecular microarchitecture, and increase collagen cross-linking, the relative contributions of these effects to any loss of mechanical integrity remain unclear. To provide insight, while addressing both the monotonic strength and cyclic-loading fatigue life, we conducted total-body, acute, gamma-irradiation experiments on skeletally mature (17-week-old) C57BL/6J male mice ( = 84). Read More

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November 2021

Exposure of paediatric healthcare personnel to nitrous oxide in paediatric care units.

Ind Health 2021 Oct 25. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Unité Mixte de Recherche Épidémiologique et de Surveillance Transport Travail Environnement (UMRESTTE), France.

Nitrous oxide (NO) was found responsible for genetic and reproductive toxicities, whereas it is widely used in paediatric care units where most healthcare providers are women of childbearing age. This motivated investigating occupational overexposure and overexposure factors in several paediatric hospital units. A cross-sectional study was carried out in seven healthcare units. Read More

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October 2021

Evaluating Litigation as a Structural Strategy for Addressing Bias-Based Bullying Among Youth.

JAMA Pediatr 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Human Development and Family Sciences, University of Texas at Austin School of Human Ecology, Austin.

Importance: Homophobic bullying-which is motivated by actual or perceived sexual orientation-is a common experience among youth and is more strongly associated with adverse outcomes than bullying unrelated to bias. Yet current approaches to reducing homophobic bullying either lack empirical evidence or encounter significant obstacles. Thus, the field requires the identification of strategies that hold promise for reducing homophobic bullying. Read More

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October 2021

IDENTIFYING MAIN EFFECTS AND INTERACTIONS AMONG EXPOSURES USING GAUSSIAN PROCESSES.

Ann Appl Stat 2020 Dec 19;14(4):1743-1758. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Statistical Science, Duke University.

This article is motivated by the problem of studying the joint effect of different chemical exposures on human health outcomes. This is essentially a nonparametric regression problem, with interest being focused not on a black box for prediction but instead on selection of main effects and interactions. For interpretability we decompose the expected health outcome into a linear main effect, pairwise interactions and a nonlinear deviation. Read More

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December 2020

Paper-in-Facemask Device for Direct Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Human Respiratory Aerosols and Environmental Exposures via Wearable Continuous-Flow Adsorptive Sampling: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

Anal Chem 2021 10 5;93(41):13743-13748. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Institute of Mass Spectrometry and Atmospheric Environment, Guangdong Provincial Engineering Research Center for On-line Source Apportionment System of Air Pollution, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China.

Facemasks are considered safe and wearable devices that cover the human mouth and nose for filtering exhaled aerosols and inhaled environmental exposures; various chemical and environmental residues thus can remain in facemasks. Therefore, direct analysis of residues in facemasks can be used to investigate the wearer's health and behavior. Here, we developed a simple paper-in-facemask sampling method for adsorbing a wearer's respiratory aerosol and environmental exposures by fixing paper strips at the outside and inside surfaces of facemasks, and the paper strips were then analyzed by paper spray mass spectrometry (PSMS) for directly detecting adsorbed analytes without any sample pretreatment. Read More

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October 2021

Risk Communication After Health Care Exposures: An Experimental Vignette Survey With Patients.

MDM Policy Pract 2021 Jul-Dec;6(2):23814683211045659. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Center for Innovation to Implementation, VA Palo Alto Healthcare System, Menlo Park, California.

We investigated how health care systems should communicate with patients about possible exposures to blood-borne pathogens that may have occurred during their care. Our goal was to determine how best to communicate uncertain risk information in a way that would minimize harm to patients, maintain their trust, and encourage patients to seek follow-up treatment. Participants ( = 1103) were randomized to receive one of six vignette surveys; 997 (98. Read More

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September 2021

Characterizing Bias Due to Differential Exposure Ascertainment in Electronic Health Record Data.

Health Serv Outcomes Res Methodol 2021 Sep 4;21(3):309-323. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA.

Data derived from electronic health records (EHR) are heterogeneous with availability of specific measures dependent on the type and timing of patients' healthcare interactions. This creates a challenge for research using EHR-derived exposures because gold-standard exposure data, determined by a definitive assessment, may only be available for a subset of the population. Alternative approaches to exposure ascertainment in this case include restricting the analytic sample to only those patients with gold-standard exposure data available (exclusion); using gold-standard data, when available, and using a proxy exposure measure when the gold standard is unavailable (best available); or using a proxy exposure measure for everyone (common data). Read More

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September 2021

Association Between COVID-19 Exposure and Self-reported Compliance With Public Health Guidelines Among Essential Employees at an Institution of Higher Education in the US.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 07 1;4(7):e2116543. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

Importance: Detailed analysis of infection rates paired with behavioral and employee-reported risk factors is vital to understanding how transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection may be exacerbated or mitigated in the workplace. Institutions of higher education are heterogeneous work units that supported continued in-person employment during the COVID-19 pandemic, providing a test site for occupational health evaluation.

Objective: To evaluate the association between self-reported protective behaviors and prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among essential in-person employees during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US. Read More

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Methodological improvements to meta-analysis of low dose rate studies and derivation of dose and dose-rate effectiveness factors.

Radiat Environ Biophys 2021 08 4;60(3):485-491. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Institute of Biostatistics and Registry Research, Brandenburg Medical School Theodor Fontane, Fehrbelliner Strasse 38, 16816, Neuruppin, Germany.

Epidemiological studies of cancer rates associated with external and internal exposure to ionizing radiation have been subject to extensive reviews by various scientific bodies. It has long been assumed that radiation-induced cancer risks at low doses or low-dose rates are lower (per unit dose) than those at higher doses and dose rates. Based on a mixture of experimental and epidemiologic evidence the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommended the use of a dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor for purposes of radiological protection to reduce solid cancer risks obtained from moderate-to-high acute dose studies (e. Read More

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Targeting Parenting Quality to Reduce Early Life Adversity Impacts on Lifespan Cardiometabolic Risk.

Front Psychol 2021 3;12:678946. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Child, Family, and Population Health Nursing, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

Mounting evidence that early life adversity (ELA) exposures confer risk for cardiometabolic disease over the lifespan motivated this narrative review to examine parenting quality as a potential intervention target to reduce ELA exposures or mitigate their impact as a way of reducing or preventing cardiometabolic disease. We describe findings from the limited number of family-based intervention studies in ELA-exposed children that have tested parenting impacts on cardiometabolic health outcomes. We then describe the implications of this work and make recommendations for future research that will move this field forward. Read More

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First international workshop of the ATM and cancer risk group (4-5 December 2019).

Fam Cancer 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, USA.

The first International Workshop of the ATM and Cancer Risk group focusing on the role of Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) gene in cancer was held on December 4 and 5, 2019 at Institut Curie in Paris, France. It was motivated by the fact that germline ATM pathogenic variants have been found to be associated with different cancer types. However, due to the lack of precise age-, sex-, and site-specific risk estimates, no consensus on management guidelines for variant carriers exists, and the clinical utility of ATM variant testing is uncertain. Read More

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Photochemical Production and Photolysis of Acrylate in Seawater.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 05 6;55(10):7135-7144. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Chemistry, State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, 1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, New York 13210, United States.

The marine organosulfur cycle has been studied intensively for over 30 years motivated by the hypothesis that dimethylsulfide (DMS) affects Earth's radiation balance and climate. The main source of DMS is from the enzymatic lysis of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), the latter of which is a significant component of carbon, sulfur, and energy fluxes in the oceans. Acrylate is also produced during DMSP lysis, but unlike DMS or DMSP, very little is known about the marine acrylate cycle. Read More

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Prenatal exposure to nicotine in mice is associated with alterations in development and cellular and synaptic effects of alcohol in a brainstem arousal nucleus.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2021 Sep-Oct;87:106980. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark. Electronic address:

Using drugs of abuse while pregnant has tremendous negative consequences for the offspring, including an enhanced risk for substance use disorder (SUD). This vulnerability suggests that gestational exposure to drugs alters the developmental trajectory of neurons important in SUD processes, which could lead to later life changes in responsiveness to motivationally salient stimuli. The laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) gates the behaviorally relevant firing pattern signaling stimuli saliency in mesoaccumbal circuits. Read More

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Hunting and consumption of rodents by children in the Lassa fever endemic area of Faranah, Guinea.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 03 17;15(3):e0009212. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Center for International Health Protection, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.

As a consequence of the Ebola outbreak, human-animal contact has gained importance for zoonotic transmission surveillance. In Faranah (Upper Guinea), daily life is intertwined with rodents, such as the Natal multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis; a reservoir for Lassa virus (LASV). However, this contact is rarely perceived as a health risk by residents, although Lassa fever (LF) is known to be endemic to this region. Read More

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Meta-analysis of in vitro and in vivo studies of the biological effects of low-level millimetre waves.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2021 07 16;31(4):606-613. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: With the roll-out of new technologies such as 5G, there has been renewed community concern regarding the adequacy of research on possible health effects from associated radiofrequency radiation, mainly in the millimetre wave (MMW) band.

Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis of in vitro and in vivo studies investigating bioeffects of MMWs at low exposure levels.

Methods: We identified 107 in vitro and in vivo studies investigating MMWs and biological effects in which the power density employed has been below 100 W/m, which is below the current standards for occupational local exposures. Read More

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Low Doses of Psilocybin and Ketamine Enhance Motivation and Attention in Poor Performing Rats: Evidence for an Antidepressant Property.

Front Pharmacol 2021 26;12:640241. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Long term benefits following short-term administration of high psychedelic doses of serotonergic and dissociative hallucinogens, typified by psilocybin and ketamine respectively, support their potential as treatments for psychiatric conditions such as major depressive disorder. The high psychedelic doses induce perceptual experiences which are associated with therapeutic benefit. There have also been anecdotal reports of these drugs being used at what are colloquially referred to as "micro" doses to improve mood and cognitive function, although currently there are recognized limitations to their clinical and preclinical investigation. Read More

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February 2021

Bayesian semi-parametric G-computation for causal inference in a cohort study with MNAR dropout and death.

J R Stat Soc Ser C Appl Stat 2021 Mar 6;70(2):398-414. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Statistics, University of Florida.

Causal inference with observational longitudinal data and time-varying exposures is often complicated by time-dependent confounding and attrition. The G-computation formula is one approach for estimating a causal effect in this setting. The parametric modeling approach typically used in practice relies on strong modeling assumptions for valid inference, and moreover depends on an assumption of missing at random, which is not appropriate when the missingness is missing not at random (MNAR) or due to death. Read More

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The Impact of Environmental Factors on Monogenic Mendelian Diseases.

Toxicol Sci 2021 04;181(1):3-12

Genes Environment and Health Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709.

Environmental factors and gene-environment interactions modify the variable expressivity, progression, severity, and onset of some classic (monogenic) Mendelian-inherited genetic diseases. Cystic fibrosis, Huntington disease, Parkinson's disease, and sickle cell disease are examples of well-known Mendelian disorders that are influenced by exogenous exposures. Environmental factors may act by direct or indirect mechanisms to modify disease severity, timing, and presentation, including through epigenomic influences, protein misfolding, miRNA alterations, transporter activity, and mitochondrial effects. Read More

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Factors Associated With Prescriptions for Branded Medications in the Medicare Part D Program.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 03 1;4(3):e210483. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Health Policy and Management, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Importance: Branded products of multisource drugs are frequently dispensed in the Medicare Part D program, increasing costs for the program and patients.

Objective: To examine the reasons for dispensing branded multisource drugs in Medicare Part D.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study examined claims for multisource drugs with more than 1000 branded claims dispensed in Medicare Part D using Medicare Prescription Drug Event data from a 2017 nationwide random sample of 20% of Medicare beneficiaries. Read More

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Quantitative modeling of multigenerational effects of chronic ionizing radiation using targeted and nontargeted effects.

Sci Rep 2021 02 26;11(1):4776. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, 630 West 168th Street, VC-11-234/5, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Stress response signals can propagate between cells damaged by targeted effects (TE) of ionizing radiation (e.g. energy depositions and ionizations in the nucleus) and undamaged "bystander" cells, sometimes over long distances. Read More

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February 2021

On the Use of Regression Calibration in a Complex Sampling Design With Application to the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 07;190(7):1366-1376

Regression calibration is the most widely used method to adjust regression parameter estimates for covariate measurement error. Yet its application in the context of a complex sampling design, for which the common bootstrap variance estimator can be less straightforward, has been less studied. We propose 2 variance estimators for a multistage probability-based sampling design, a parametric and a resampling-based multiple imputation approach, where a latent mean exposure needed for regression calibration is the target of imputation. Read More

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Optimizing Helmet Pad Placement Using Computational Predicted Injury Pattern to Reduce Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

Mil Med 2021 01;186(Suppl 1):592-600

Materials Science and Technology Division-Code 6300, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA.

Introduction: This effort, motivated and guided by prior simulated injury results of the unprotected head, is to assess and compare helmet pad configurations on the head for the effective mitigation of blast pressure transmission in the brain in multiple blast exposure environments.

Materials And Methods: A finite element model of blast loading on the head with six different helmet pad configurations was used to generate brain model biomechanical responses. The blast pressure attenuation performance of each pad configuration was evaluated by using the calculated pressure exposure fraction in the brain model. Read More

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January 2021

Accounting for cross-immunity can improve forecast accuracy during influenza epidemics.

Epidemics 2021 03 17;34:100432. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG, UK; Christ Church, University of Oxford, St Aldates, Oxford, OX1 1DP, UK; Present address: Mathematics Institute, University of Warwick, Zeeman Building, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK.

Previous exposure to influenza viruses confers cross-immunity against future infections with related strains. However, this is not always accounted for explicitly in mathematical models used for forecasting during influenza outbreaks. We show that, if an influenza outbreak is due to a strain that is similar to one that has emerged previously, then accounting for cross-immunity explicitly can improve the accuracy of real-time forecasts. Read More

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DNA Methylation Patterns of Chronic Explosive Breaching in U.S. Military Warfighters.

Front Neurol 2020 23;11:1010. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Medical Epigenetics, Bronx, NY, United States.

Injuries from exposure to explosions rose dramatically during the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, which motivated investigation of blast-related neurotrauma. We have undertaken human studies involving military "breachers" -exposed to controlled, low-level blast during a 3-days explosive breaching course. We screened epigenetic profiles in peripheral blood samples from 59 subjects (in two separate U. Read More

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October 2020

Association of Diet With Erectile Dysfunction Among Men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 11 2;3(11):e2021701. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco.

Importance: Erectile dysfunction, especially in younger men, is an early sign of cardiovascular disease and may decrease quality of life. Men may be motivated to adopt a healthy dietary pattern if it lowers their risk of erectile dysfunction.

Objective: To assess the association between adherence to a diet quality index based on healthy dietary patterns and erectile dysfunction in men. Read More

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November 2020

Air pollution and COVID-19 mortality in the United States: Strengths and limitations of an ecological regression analysis.

Sci Adv 2020 11 4;6(45). Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Assessing whether long-term exposure to air pollution increases the severity of COVID-19 health outcomes, including death, is an important public health objective. Limitations in COVID-19 data availability and quality remain obstacles to conducting conclusive studies on this topic. At present, publicly available COVID-19 outcome data for representative populations are available only as area-level counts. Read More

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November 2020

A comparative study of conducted electrical weapon incapacitation during a goal-directed task.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2020 12 18;16(4):613-621. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Conducted electrical weapons (CEW) are ubiquitous in law enforcement given their unique ability to physically incapacitate violently resisting subjects. Early use of animal models to study CEW incapacitation effectiveness (e.g. Read More

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December 2020