966,712 results match your criteria exposure limit


Sexual harassment and assault predict sleep disturbances and is partly mediated by nightmares: Findings from a national survey of all university students in Norway.

J Sleep Res 2021 Jun 15:e13338. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Health Promotion, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway.

Sexual harassment and assault is common in most domains of society, and has been linked to several adverse outcomes, including reduced sleep quality. However, less is known about the possible impact of sexual harassment and assault on various sleep problems among university students. In a sample of 49,051 students in Norway (69. Read More

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Compliance Assessment of the Epithelial or Absorbed Power Density Below 10 GHz Using SAR Measurement Systems.

Bioelectromagnetics 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT'IS), Zurich, Switzerland.

The introduction of new dosimetric quantities, in particular, epithelial or absorbed power density for frequencies above 6 GHz, in exposure guidelines and safety standards requires the development of new experimental assessment procedures for compliance testing. In this study, we propose to approximate the peak spatial-average absorbed power density (psS ) using the same measured data and algorithms that are used for determining the peak spatial-average specific absorption rate psSAR, which is currently limited to frequencies up to 10 GHz. The uncertainty component for the transformation of psSAR to psS was evaluated as less than 0. Read More

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Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Sunitinib Delays Platelet-Induced Coagulation: Additive Effects of Aspirin.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University, The Netherlands.

Background:  Sunitinib is a multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) used for cancer treatment. In platelets, sunitinib affects collagen-induced activation under noncoagulating conditions. We investigated (1) the effects of sunitinib on thrombus formation induced by other TK-dependent receptors, and (2) the effects under coagulating conditions. Read More

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Drug-Induced Vanishing Bile Duct Syndrome: From Pathogenesis to Diagnosis and Therapeutics.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET-UNR), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Rosario, Argentina.

The most concerned issue in the context of drug/herb-induced chronic cholestasis is vanishing bile duct syndrome. The progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts leading to ductopenia is usually not dose dependent, and has a delayed onset that should be suspected when abnormal serum cholestasis enzyme levels persist despite drug withdrawal. Immune-mediated cholangiocyte injury, direct cholangiocyte damage by drugs or their metabolites once in bile, and sustained exposure to toxic bile salts when biliary epithelium protective defenses are impaired are the main mechanisms of cholangiolar damage. Read More

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Cariogenic Potential of Human and Bovine Milk on Enamel Demineralization.

Caries Res 2021 Jun 15:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Piracicaba Dental School, UNICAMP, Piracicaba, Brazil.

The higher cariogenicity of human milk when compared with bovine milk is still a debatable subject. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of human or bovine milk exposure on biofilm composition and enamel demineralization using a validated cariogenic biofilm model. Streptococcus mutans UA159 biofilms (n = 8) were grown on human saliva-coated bovine enamel slabs of known surface hardness. Read More

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Indoleamine-2,3-Dioxygenase Activates Wnt/β-Catenin Inducing Kidney Fibrosis after Acute Kidney Injury.

Gerontology 2021 Jun 15:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Nephrology, Sir Run Run Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Introduction: As disorder of tryptophan metabolism is common in CKD, the rate-limiting enzyme of tryptophan, indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), has been reported to be involved in CKD, while the accurate mechanism remains unknown. This study was designed to explore correlations between IDO and kidney fibrosis after ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI).

Methods: Wild-type (WT) mice and IDO knockout (IDO-/-) mice were divided into the sham group and acute kidney injury (AKI) group. Read More

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Analysis of longitudinal head impact exposure and white matter integrity in returning youth football players.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Jun 15:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Departments of1Biomedical Engineering.

Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize changes in head impact exposure (HIE) across multiple football seasons and to determine whether changes in HIE correlate with changes in imaging metrics in youth football players.

Methods: On-field head impact data and pre- and postseason imaging data, including those produced by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), were collected from youth football athletes with at least two consecutive seasons of data. ANCOVA was used to evaluate HIE variations (number of impacts, peak linear and rotational accelerations, and risk-weighted cumulative exposure) by season number. Read More

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Activity of glutathione S-transferase and its π isoenzyme in the context of single nucleotide polymorphism in the GSTP1 gene (rs1695) and tobacco smoke exposure in the patients with acute pancreatitis and healthy subjects.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 12;140:111589. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Biomedical and Environmental Analyses, Faculty of Pharmacy, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw 50-556, Poland. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress associated with the course of acute pancreatitis (AP) can cause changes in the involvement of antioxidants, which can result in the increased production of free radicals with pro-inflammatory potential. Through its noncatalytic activity, the glutathione S-transferase and its π isoenzyme (GST-π), apart from cellular xenobiotics detoxification, are involved in the regulation of cellular signalling, metabolism and apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of SNP rs1695 in the GSTP1 gene on GST and GST-π activity in healthy subjects and patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). Read More

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The relationship between urine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and depressive symptoms in American adults.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jun 5;292:227-233. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, The School of Public Health of Qingdao University, No.308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao 266021, China. Electronic address:

Background: Studies have shown that Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were neurotoxic, and PAHs exposure may be related to depressive symptoms. Thus, we conducted this study for further explorations.

Methods: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database of the 2005-2014 cycles were used. Read More

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Maternal posttraumatic stress and FKBP5 Genotype interact to predict trauma-related symptoms in preschool-age offspring.

J Affect Disord 2021 May 26;292:212-216. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Children of parents with posttraumatic stress (PTS) face heightened risk for developing emotional and behavioral problems, regardless of whether they experience a traumatic event themselves. The current study investigates whether child FKBP5, a stress relevant gene shown to interact with child trauma exposure to increase risk for PTS, also moderates the well-established link between maternal PTS and child symptoms.

Methods: Data are derived from a longitudinal lab-based study for which 205 dyads of trauma-exposed mothers and their preschool-age children from a sample enriched for violence exposure provided DNA samples and completed measures of maternal and child trauma-related symptoms. Read More

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Acute and chronic toxicity of microcystin-LR and phenanthrene alone or in combination to the cladoceran (Daphnia magna).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Sep 12;220:112405. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China. Electronic address:

Hazardous substances, such as microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and phenanthrene (Phe) are ubiquitous co-contaminants in eutrophic freshwaters, which cause harms to aquatic organisms. However, the risks associated with the co-exposure of aquatic biota to these two chemicals in the environment have received little attention. In this study, the single and mixture toxic effects of MC-LR and Phe mixtures were investigated in Daphnia magna after acute and chronic exposure. Read More

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September 2021

Combined toxicity of nano-TiO and Cd to Scenedesmus obliquus: Effects at different concentration ratios.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 9;418:126354. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China.

The continuous release of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) to environments raised concerns on their combined toxicological risks with co-existing contaminants, since MNMs might severely alter the environmental behavior and fate of the contaminants. In this study, the combined toxicity of nano-sized titanium dioxide (nTiO) and cadmium (Cd) to the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the underlying physicochemical mechanisms were investigated for the first time at different concentration ratios of Cd to nTiO to closely mimic the realistic environment scenarios where the concentration ratios of nTiO to other contaminants are constantly changing. Our results suggested that under the co-exposure to different concentration ratios of Cd to nTiO, the co-exposure contaminants exhibited three different combined toxicity modes (antagonistic, partially additive, and synergistic). Read More

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Effectiveness of first-line abiraterone versus enzalutamide among patients ≥80 years of age with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: A retrospective propensity score-weighted comparative cohort study.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jun 11;152:215-222. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medicine, Medical Oncology Division, BC Cancer, Vancouver Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) disproportionately affects the elderly. There is limited data assessing the efficacy and tolerability of abiraterone acetate (AA) versus enzalutamide in this population.

Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy and tolerability of AA versus enzalutamide in patients ≥ 80 years with mCRPC. Read More

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Repellent activity of acetylcarvacrol and its effects on salivary gland morphology in unfed Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 Jun 4;12(5):101760. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Health Sciences, Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), Av. Dr. Sylvio, Menicucci, 1001 Lavras, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.), commonly known as brown dog tick, is a widely distributed tick species that is substantially important for human and veterinary medicine. Read More

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Early multidrug treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) and reduced mortality among nursing home (or outpatient/ambulatory) residents.

Med Hypotheses 2021 Jun 5;153:110622. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Concerned Ontario Doctors, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

The outbreak of COVID-19 from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread all over the world with tremendous morbidity and mortality in the elderly. In-hospital treatment addresses the multifaceted nature of the illness including initial viral replication, cytokine storm, and endothelial injury with thrombosis. We identified nine reports of early treatment outcomes in COVID-19 nursing home patients. Read More

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The effect of femtosecond laser irradiation on the growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus: An in vitro study.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2021 Jun 4;221:112240. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Laser Institute for Research and Applications LIRA, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt. Electronic address:

We investigated the effect of femtosecond laser irradiation on the growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus. In order to improve laser-based antimicrobial therapy and develop a clinically viable modality, various laser parameters such as laser light wavelength, laser power, exposure time, and energy density were studied. The INSPIRE HF100 laser system (Spectra Physics) provided the femtosecond laser light, which was pumped by a mode-locked femtosecond Ti: sapphire laser MAI TAI HP (Spectra Physics). Read More

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Influence of current and previous smoking on current phenotype in Parkinson's disease.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Jun 8;427:117534. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Therapeutics, Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima, Japan; Epilepsy Center, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan.

Introduction: Although an inverse correlation between smoking and Parkinson's disease (PD) has been reported, research into the effect of smoking on current clinical progression remains limited for PD patients. Elucidation of a specific PD population who would benefit from smoking is challenging.

Methods: We evaluated 110 consecutive PD patients (mean age; 71. Read More

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Three-dimensional mapping for His-bundle pacing in pediatric patients, a case series.

J Electrocardiol 2021 Jun 1;67:98-102. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

University of Minnesota/Masonic Children's Hospital, Minneapolis, USA; University of California at Davis, Sacramento, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Pediatric patients who receive pacemakers may have a lifetime of repeat exposure to fluoroscopy. His bundle pacing may provide better long-term pacing for these patients. To minimize fluoroscopy and for improved localization of the His bundle, we utilized three-dimensional mapping to guide His bundle pacing and we follow-up short-term results. Read More

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The nitrosamine contamination of drugs, part 3: Quantification of 4-Methyl-1-nitrosopiperazine in rifampicin capsules by LC-MS/HRMS.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Jun 10;203:114205. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute for Pharmacy and Food Chemistry, Julius-Maximilians University Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074, Würzburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Upon emergence of nitrosamines in various drugs, e.g in valsartan, metformin and ranitidine, 4-methyl-1-nitrosopiperazine (MeNP) was found in rifampicin in August 2020. Rifampicin is used, amongst others, for post-exposure prophylaxis of leprosy. Read More

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Optic nerve mobilization as an alternative to anterior clinoidectomy in superior carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms: Operative technique.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Padilla Hospital, Tucumán, Argentina.

Background: Carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms arise from the internal carotid artery between the distal dural ring and the origin of the posterior communicating artery. The surgical treatment of these aneurysms usually requires an anterior clinoidectomy. However, this procedure is not without complications. Read More

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UCP1 expression in the mouse adrenal gland is not upregulated by thermogenic conditions.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 12;566:184-189. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Cytology and Histology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene is known to be highly expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) that functions in thermogenesis. It has been shown that UCP1 mRNA is localized to the mouse adrenal gland, but its significance remains elusive. To explore how UCP1 expression in the adrenal gland is regulated, we generated a reporter knock-in mouse in which the GFP gene was inserted into the UCP1 locus using CRISPR-Cas9 system. Read More

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Reproductive toxicity due to herbicide exposure in freshwater organisms.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Jun 12;248:109103. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute of Animal Molecular Biotechnology and Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Excessively used pesticides in agricultural areas are spilled into aquatic environments, wherein they are suspended or sedimented. Owing to climate change, herbicides are the fastest growing sector of the pesticide industry and are detected in surface water, groundwater, and sediments near agricultural areas. In freshwater, organisms, including mussels, snails, frogs, and fish, are exposed to various types and concentrations of herbicides. Read More

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Community Violence Exposure is Associated with Hippocampus-Insula Resting State Functional Connectivity in Urban Youth.

Neuroscience 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, United States.

Our previous work has linked childhood violence exposure in Black youth to functional changes in the hippocampus, a brain region sensitive to stress. However, different contexts of violence exposure (e.g. Read More

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Loss of hepatocyte identity following aberrant YAP activation: a key mechanism in alcoholic hepatitis.

J Hepatol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Univ. Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, U1286 - INFINITE - Institute for Translational Research in Inflammation, F-59000 Lille, France. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a life-threatening disease with limited therapeutic options, because understanding of the molecular drivers leading to death are not well understood. This study evaluates the Hippo/Yes-associated protein (YAP) pathway which has been shown to play a role in liver regeneration.

Method: The Hippo/YAP pathway was dissected in explants of patients transplanted for AH or alcoholic cirrhosis and in control livers, using RNA-Seq, real-time PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and transcriptome analysis after laser microdissection. Read More

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Maternal gestational mercury exposure in relation to cord blood T cell alterations and placental gene expression signatures.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 12;201:111385. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine and the Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth; Hanover, NH, USA.

The immunotoxic impacts of mercury during early life is poorly understood. We investigated the associations between gestational mercury exposure and frequency of cord blood T cells as well as placental gene expression. Frequency of natural Treg cells was positively associated with prenatal and postpartum mercury toenail concentrations. Read More

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A PGE-MEF2A axis enables context-dependent control of inflammatory gene expression.

Immunity 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy; San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy (SR-Tiget), Milan, Italy; Genomics of the Innate Immune System Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Tight control of inflammatory gene expression by antagonistic environmental cues is key to ensure immune protection while preventing tissue damage. Prostaglandin E (PGE) modulates macrophage activation during homeostasis and disease, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely characterized. Here we dissected the genomic properties of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced genes whose expression is antagonized by PGE. Read More

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Human oral mucosa cell atlas reveals a stromal-neutrophil axis regulating tissue immunity.

Cell 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Oral Immunity and Inflammation Section, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

The oral mucosa remains an understudied barrier tissue. This is a site of rich exposure to antigens and commensals, and a tissue susceptible to one of the most prevalent human inflammatory diseases, periodontitis. To aid in understanding tissue-specific pathophysiology, we compile a single-cell transcriptome atlas of human oral mucosa in healthy individuals and patients with periodontitis. Read More

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Temperature and pathogen exposure act independently to drive host phenotypic trajectories.

Biol Lett 2021 Jun 16;17(6):20210072. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia.

Natural populations are experiencing an increase in the occurrence of both thermal stress and disease outbreaks. How these two common stressors interact to determine host phenotypic shifts will be important for population persistence, yet a myriad of different traits and pathways are a target of both stressors, making generalizable predictions difficult to obtain. Here, using the host and its bacterial pathogen , we tested how temperature and pathogen exposure interact to drive shifts in multivariate host phenotypes. Read More

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Discontinued alcohol consumption elicits withdrawal symptoms in honeybees.

Biol Lett 2021 Jun 16;17(6):20210182. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Sławkowska 17, 31-016 Kraków, Poland.

The honeybee continues to be developed as a model species in many research areas, including studies related to the effects of alcohol. Here, we investigate whether workers display one of the key features of alcoholism, namely withdrawal symptoms. We show that workers fed for a prolonged time on food spiked with ethanol, after discontinuation of access to such food, exhibited a marked increase in the consumption of ethanol and a slight increase in mortality. Read More

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Pharmacogenetics-guided advances in antipsychotic treatment.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Pharmacogenetics (PGx) research over the past two decades has produced extensive evidence for the influence of genetic factors on the efficacy and tolerability of antipsychotic treatment. However, the application of these findings to optimize treatment outcomes for patients in clinical practice has been limited. This paper presents a meta-review of key PGx findings related to antipsychotic response and common adverse effects, including antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG), tardive dyskinesia (TD) and clozapine-induced agranulocytosis (CIAG), and highlights advances and challenges in clinical implementation. Read More

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