9,969 results match your criteria exposure hepatitis


Setting a Course for Preventing Hepatitis E in Low and Lower-Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of Burden and Risk Factors.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jun 13;8(6):ofab178. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Médecins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for outbreaks of acute jaundice in Africa and Asia, many of which occur among displaced people or in crisis settings. Although an efficacious vaccine for HEV has been developed, we lack key epidemiologic data needed to understand how best to use the vaccine for hepatitis E control in endemic countries.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of articles published on hepatitis E in low-income and lower-middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. Read More

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Analytic comparison between three high-throughput commercial SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays reveals minor discrepancies in a high-incidence population.

Sci Rep 2021 06 4;11(1):11837. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Infectious Disease Epidemiology Group, Weill Cornell Medicine - Qatar, Qatar Foundation - Education City, Cornell University, P.O. Box 24144, Doha, Qatar.

Performance of three automated commercial serological IgG-based assays was investigated for assessing SARS-CoV-2 "ever" (past or current) infection in a population-based sample in a high exposure setting. PCR and serological testing was performed on 394 individuals. SARS-CoV-2-IgG seroprevalence was 42. Read More

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Hepatitis B and C virus infection among healthcare workers in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Environ Health Prev Med 2021 Jun 2;26(1):61. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dire Dawa University, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.

Background: Healthcare workers are at risk of acquiring hepatitis B and C virus infections through patients' blood and bodily fluids exposure. So far, there is no pooled data that shows the prevalence of HBV and HCV among health care workers in Africa. This study aimed to determine the pooled prevalence of hepatitis B and C infections among health care workers in Africa. Read More

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Factors associated with age of first sex among women screened for an observational contraceptive vaginal ring study in Kisumu, Kenya, 2014.

Afr J Reprod Health 2021 Feb;25(1):101-113

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office of Infectious Diseases, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Sex at an early age can have later life negative health outcomes. Insights on early sexual activity may help in the development of future health-promotion products and interventions related to pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) prevention. Among Kenyan women participating in a contraceptive vaginal ring study, we determined: (1) the proportion with first sex at ≤15 years (early sex) and (2) factors associated with early sex. Read More

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February 2021

Comprehensive Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Dynamic Metabolic Reprogramming in Hep3B Cells with Aflatoxin B1 Exposure.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 May 27;13(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

National Center of Biomedical Analysis, Beijing 100850, China.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure have been recognized as independent risk factors for the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but their combined impacts and the potential metabolic mechanisms remain poorly characterized. Here, a comprehensive non-targeted metabolomic study was performed following AFB1 exposed to Hep3B cells at two different doses: 16 μM and 32 μM. The metabolites were identified and quantified by an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS)-based strategy. Read More

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Hepatitis E Virus in People Who Use Crack-Cocaine: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Remote Region of Northern Brazil.

Viruses 2021 05 17;13(5). Epub 2021 May 17.

Grupo de Estudo e Pesquisa em Populações Vulneráveis, Instituto de Estudos Costeiros, Universidade Federal do Pará, Bragança 68600-000, Brazil.

People who use crack-cocaine (PWUCC) have numerous vulnerabilities and pose a challenge to health and social assistance services. The exposure to pathogens and risk situations occur differently according to each individual, region and social group. This study identified the presence, genotypes and factors associated with hepatitis E virus (HEV) exposure among a community-recruited cohort of 437 PWUCC in northern Brazil. Read More

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Chronic Alcohol Exposure of Cells Using Controlled Alcohol-Releasing Capillaries.

Cells 2021 May 6;10(5). Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Cosmetic Science and Technology, Daegu Haany University, Hanuidae-ro 1, Gyeongsan-si 38610, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea.

Alcohol is one of the main causes of liver diseases such as fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis with liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. To reproduce the conditions of alcohol-induced liver diseases and to identify the disease-causing mechanisms at the cellular level, several methods have been used to expose the cells to ethanol. As ethanol evaporates easily, it is difficult to mimic chronic alcohol exposure conditions at the cellular level. Read More

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Psoriasis and Liver Damage in HIV-Infected Patients.

Cells 2021 May 4;10(5). Epub 2021 May 4.

HIV Unit. Department of Internal Medicine, La Paz University Hospital, 28046 Madrid, Spain.

: Psoriasis is the most frequent skin disease in HIV-infected patients. Nonalcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is more prevalent in patients with psoriasis. We report the prevalence of psoriasis and NAFLD and investigate risk factors of liver damage in HIV-infected patients with psoriasis. Read More

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Detection of Antibodies against Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) by a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Biosensor: A New Diagnosis Tool Based on the Major HAV Capsid Protein VP1 (SPR-HAVP1).

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 3;21(9). Epub 2021 May 3.

Centro de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico em Saúde (CDTS), Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Inovação em Doenças de Populações Negligenciadas (INCT/IDPN), Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro CEP 21040-900, Brazil.

Hepatitis A (HA) is an acute human infectious disease caused by a positive single-stranded RNA virus (HAV). It is mainly acquired through the fecal-oral route and is primarily spread by contact between people and exposure to contaminated water and food. Recently, large outbreaks of HA have been reported by low and moderate endemicity countries, emphasizing its importance in public health and the need for rapid and large-scale diagnostic tests to support public health decisions on HA. Read More

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A Case of Liver Injury after Exposure to Isopropanol: A Challenging Diagnosis.

GE Port J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 16;28(3):198-201. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Internal Medicine Department, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra EPE, Coimbra, Portugal.

Drug-induced liver injury is hardly diagnosed, considering not only the wide range of hepatotoxic substances but also the diversity of associated phenotypes and the absence of specific biomarkers. Symptom chronology, drug or toxic exposure, and temporal association help to establish the diagnosis. Exposure to isopropanol has known but rare toxic effects. Read More

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Therapeutic Effects of Naringin in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Network Pharmacology and Experimental Validation.

Front Pharmacol 2021 14;12:672054. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Joint Surgery, Xi'an Jiaotong University Affiliated HongHui Hospital, Xi'an, China.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by persistent hyperplasia of the synovial membrane and progressive erosion of articular cartilage. Disequilibrium between the proliferation and death of RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RA-FLSs) is the critical factor in progression of RA. Naringin has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect in acute and chronic animal models of RA. Read More

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Gut microbiome-host interactions in driving environmental pollutant trichloroethene-mediated autoimmunity.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 May 27;424:115597. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, TX, United States of America. Electronic address:

Trichloroethene (TCE), a widely used industrial solvent, is associated with the development of autoimmune diseases (ADs), including systemic lupus erythematosus and autoimmune hepatitis. Increasing evidence support a linkage between altered gut microbiome composition and the onset of ADs. However, it is not clear how gut microbiome contributes to TCE-mediated autoimmunity, and initial triggers for microbiome-host interactions leading to systemic autoimmune responses remain unknown. Read More

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Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding infection control measures among dental students during COVID-19 pandemic.

Arch Environ Occup Health 2021 May 28:1-13. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Among health care professionals, dentists are more prone to infection due to their direct contact with blood and saliva. This study highlights the level of compliance with infection control measures among dental students; and linked this to their knowledge and attitudes regarding infection control measures and proper vaccinations. The study is a multi-centre analytical cross-sectional survey. Read More

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Clinical Study of Single Stranded Oligonucleotide RO7062931 in Healthy Volunteers and Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B.

Hepatology 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Roche Innovation Centre, Welwyn Garden City, United Kingdom.

RO7062931 is an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-conjugated single-stranded locked nucleic acid oligonucleotide complementary to HBV RNA. GalNAc conjugation targets the liver via the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR). This two-part phase 1 study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of RO7062931 in healthy volunteers and virologically suppressed patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Read More

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Is it the Right Time to Introduce the Hepatitis B Booster Vaccine in National Immunization Schedule? An Analysis from the Available Evidence.

Indian J Community Med 2021 Jan-Mar;46(1):4-6. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Community Medicine and School of Public Health, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global health concern, and it is considered one of the deadliest infections in the world, having nearly 1.2 million deaths annually. Around 75% of all global HBV carriers live in the Asia-Pacific region. Read More

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Terbinafine used safely in autoimmune hepatitis for treatment of tinea corporis.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 25;14(5). Epub 2021 May 25.

Division of Dermatology, The University of Kansas Health System, Kansas City, Kansas, USA.

Terbinafine is often considered contraindicated in those with liver disease, as one of the known side effects is hepatotoxicity. We report the first case documenting the safe use of oral terbinafine in a 77-year-old woman with stable autoimmune hepatitis presenting with extensive tinea corporis. Precautions were carried out to minimise the risk of worsening hepatotoxicity, including consultation with the patient's hepatologist, limiting terbinafine exposure to less than 6 weeks, monitoring of liver function tests, and patient education. Read More

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Absence of interferon-λ 4 enhances spontaneous clearance of acute hepatitis C virus genotypes 1-3 infection.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 May 25:1-7. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Infectious Diseases/Virology, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Objectives: Absence of a functional interferon-λ 4 (IFN-λ4) gene () predicts spontaneous resolution of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in regions with a predominance of genotype 1, whereas variants of the inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase (ITPase) gene () entailing reduced activity associate with increased sustained virologic response rates following some therapeutic regimens. This study aimed at investigating the impact of on acute HCV genotype 2 or 3 infections, and whether ITPase activity influenced outcome.

Materials And Methods: Two hundred and seven people who injected drugs (PWID) with documented anti-HCV seroconversion, and 57 PWID with reinfection with HCV were analyzed regarding (rs368234815 and rs12979860) and (rs1127354 and rs7270101), and longitudinally followed regarding HCV RNA. Read More

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Association of hepatitis C infection and acute coronary syndrome: A case-control study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(21):e26033

Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Maryland School of Medicine.

Abstract: Infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) represent a substantial national and international public health burden. HCV has been associated with numerous extrahepatic conditions and can lead to metabolic derangements that are associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether HCV infection is associated with an increased number of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) events among hospitalized patients in an inner-city tertiary hospital. Read More

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Comparative cost-effectiveness of a 2-dose versus 3-dose vaccine for hepatitis B prevention in selected adult populations.

Vaccine 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Clinical Development, Dynavax Technologies Corporation, Emeryville, CA, USA. Electronic address:

The hepatitis B virus is highly infectious and can cause incurable liver disease, leading to high morbidity rates, increased healthcare utilization, and high mortality. Multiple preventative hepatitis B vaccine options have been available for decades, but adherence to the traditional 6-month vaccine schedule for the approved 3-dose series remains low in adult populations at risk of hepatitis B exposure. A 2-dose hepatitis B vaccine (HEPLISAV-B) approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2017 induces rapid seroprotection within 1 month and has a safety profile comparable to a commonly used 3-dose vaccine. Read More

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Prevalence of serological markers of hepatitis B in inflammatory bowel disease - Experience from a tertiary care centre in South India.

Trop Doct 2021 May 21:494755211015571. Epub 2021 May 21.

Professor, Department of Gastroenterology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India.

Inflammatory bowel disease patients are at risk of hepatitis B infection. Data on this prevalence from South Asia are limited. We conducted a prospective study comprising of 76 inflammatory bowel disease patients between October 2013 and August 2014. Read More

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Knowledge, awareness, and vaccination compliance of hepatitis B among medical students in Riyadh's governmental universities.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Jan 30;10(1):485-490. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Masters of Science in Epidemiology, Bachelor of Pharmacy, Member of Research Unit in King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Hepatitis B is a blood-borne infectious liver disease caused by the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and it is best prevented by immunization. Due to occupational exposure, medical students have an increased risk of contracting HBV. Therefore, it is essential for all medical students to have good knowledge about HBV and to complete their HBV vaccinations. Read More

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January 2021

Reduced mortality in patients with extended duration of methadone maintenance treatment: a five-year retrospective nationwide study.

Psychol Med 2021 May 20:1-9. Epub 2021 May 20.

Center for Drug Abuse and Addiction, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

Background: The retention of patients under methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is an indication for the effectiveness of the therapy. We aimed to explore the relation between mortality and the cumulative MMT duration.

Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using Taiwan Illicit Drug Issue Database (TIDID) and National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) during 2012-2016. Read More

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Hepatitis E Virus Infection and Butchers: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study.

Gastroenterology Res 2021 Apr 21;14(2):96-103. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Biomedical Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juarez University of Durango State, Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Dgo, Mexico.

Background: Very few case-control studies to assess the risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in meat workers have been published. Therefore, we sought to determine: 1) the association of HEV IgG seropositivity and the occupation of butcher; and 2) the sociodemographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of butchers associated with HEV exposure.

Methods: We performed a case-control seroprevalence study of 101 butchers (mean age: 38. Read More

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Dairy consumption and hepatocellular carcinoma risk.

Authors:
Bodo C Melnik

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):736

Department of Dermatology, Environmental Medicine and Health Theory, University of Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany.

This review provides epidemiological and translational evidence for milk and dairy intake as critical risk factors in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Large epidemiological studies in the United States and Europe identified total dairy, milk and butter intake with the exception of yogurt as independent risk factors of HCC. Enhanced activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a hallmark of HCC promoted by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Read More

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Characterization of occupational accidents occurred at the Occupational Health Referral Center of the state of Amapá between 2007 and 2016.

Rev Bras Med Trab 2021 Apr 30;19(1):35-42. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Amapá, Macapá, AP, Brazil.

Introduction: Occupational accidents involving biological material have consequences that range from physical damage to public expenses. The study of this topic may help evaluate conducts and form preventive measures.

Objectives: To characterize the notifications of occupational accidents involving biological material that occurred between 2007 and 2016 in the state of Amapá, Brazil. Read More

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Estimated proportion of an urban academic emergency department patient population eligible for HIV preexposure prophylaxis.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 May 4;48:198-202. Epub 2021 May 4.

University of Cincinnati, Department of Emergency Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA; Center for Addiction Research, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective but underutilized method of HIV prevention. Emergency departments (EDs) have access to at-risk populations meeting CDC eligibility criteria for PrEP. Characterizing this population could help motivate, develop, and implement ED interventions to promote PrEP uptake. Read More

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Autoimmune Processes Involved in Organ System Failure Following Infection with SARS-CoV-2.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:355-368

Biological Safety and Security, Frederick, MD, USA.

During the COVID-19 pandemic associated with high incidence, transmissibility, and mortality, this chapter focuses on three phases of the disease: initial exposure, initiation of the immune response to the agent, and finally, an inflammatory/autoimmune-like presentation with pulmonary, neurological, and renal failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation which occurs in a small proportion of the patients. The elegant demonstration of the site of interaction between the spike (S) protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the causative agent of COVID-19, and the ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) 2 receptor of cells distributed throughout the body has enabled research efforts to develop pharmacological and immune countermeasures to the viral phase of the disease. This chapter rapidly reviews the molecular and structural organization of SARS-CoV-2 and its interaction with ACE2. Read More

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