57,106 results match your criteria exposure detected

A field test of the dilution effect hypothesis in four avian multi-host pathogens.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jun 23;17(6):e1009637. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Wetland Ecology, Doñana Biological Station (EBD-CSIC), Seville, Spain.

The Dilution Effect Hypothesis (DEH) argues that greater biodiversity lowers the risk of disease and reduces the rates of pathogen transmission since more diverse communities harbour fewer competent hosts for any given pathogen, thereby reducing host exposure to the pathogen. DEH is expected to operate most intensely in vector-borne pathogens and when species-rich communities are not associated with increased host density. Overall, dilution will occur if greater species diversity leads to a lower contact rate between infected vectors and susceptible hosts, and between infected hosts and susceptible vectors. Read More

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The Role of Imaging Informatics in Disaster Preparedness During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Digit Imaging 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Disaster preparedness is a major but necessary undertaking for every health care facility. The 2019 coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) provided an unforeseen opportunity to compare the response of two radiology departments, University Health System A (UHSA) and University Health System B (UHSAB). Preparing for this disaster was unique since though unexpected, was thought to be detected early enough to allow for sufficient preparation. Read More

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Chromosome aberrations induced by the non-mutagenic carcinogen acetamide involve in rat hepatocarcinogenesis through micronucleus formation in hepatocytes.

Arch Toxicol 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 3-25-26 Tonomachi, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa, 210-9501, Japan.

Chromosome aberrations (CAs), i.e. changes in chromosome number or structure, are known to cause chromosome rearrangements and subsequently tumorigenesis. Read More

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Interactions between water and rhodium clusters: molecular adsorption cluster adsorption.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Centre for Joint Quantum Studies and Department of Physics, School of Science, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300072, China.

Understanding metal-water interactions and hydrogen-bonding in water droplets is important but highly challenging. Various transition metals may serve as effective coordination centers to water; however, not in all cases is water bonded to a metal center as single molecules. We report here the observations of gas-phase rhodium clusters and their interactions with water. Read More

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Glutathione conjugation and protein modification resulting from metabolic activation of venlafaxine and .

Xenobiotica 2021 Jun 23:1-39. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Wuya College of Innovation, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110016, P. R. China.

Venlafaxine (VLF), an antidepressant agent, is widely used to combat major depressive disorders, particularly for the treatment of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-resistant depression. VLF has been shown to cause liver injury. The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic activation of VLF and explore the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity induced by VLF. Read More

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Rickets in a Thoroughbred-cross foal: case report and review of the literature.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2021 Jun 23:10406387211025232. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, San Bernardino branch, University of California-Davis, CA, USA.

Rickets is a metabolic bone disease associated with failure of endochondral ossification and impaired osteoid mineralization in growing animals. As a consequence, affected individuals can develop gross and microscopic bone malformations. The most common causes of rickets in domestic species include vitamin D and phosphorus deficiency. Read More

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In vitro scolicidal effects of Sideritis perfoliata extract against Echinococcus granulosus.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jun 23:e14498. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Adiyaman University, Adiyaman, Turkey.

Background: Cystic echinococcosis, caused by helminths within the genus Echinococcus, is mainly localised in the liver and lungs of affected hosts. Surgery has been the best choice for the treatment of hydatidosis and using effective scolicidal agents during hydatid surgery is required to prevent secondary infection. Several plant extracts have been shown to exert scolicidal efficacy. Read More

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Occurrence of aflatoxin M in human breast milk in Bangladesh.

Mycotoxin Res 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Sylhet, 3114, Bangladesh.

Breast milk is the best, most complete form of nutrition for newborns and infants. However, human milk can contain aflatoxin M (AFM) upon ingestion of dietary mycotoxin contaminants, namely, aflatoxin B (AFB), by lactating mothers. AFB and its hydroxylated metabolite AFM are potent carcinogens and thus an important issue in food safety and public health. Read More

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Assessment of the potential vaping-related exposure to carbonyls and epoxides using stable isotope-labeled precursors in the e-liquid.

Arch Toxicol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

ABF Analytisch-Biologisches Forschungslabor GmbH, Semmelweisstrasse 5, 82152, Planegg, Germany.

The formation of carbonyls and epoxides in e-cigarette (EC) aerosol is possible due to heating of the liquid constituents. However, high background levels of these compounds have inhibited a clear assessment of exposure during use of ECs. An EC containing an e-liquid replaced with 10% of C-labeled propylene glycol and glycerol was used in a controlled use clinical study with 20 EC users. Read More

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Ventricular septal defect closure using radial incision of the tricuspid valve for exposure: is it really necessary?

Cardiovasc J Afr 2021 Jun 22;32:1-5. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Saglik Bilimleri University, Dr Behcet Uz Children's Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.

Aim: To evaluate the effects of radial incision of the tricuspid valve in patients who had undergone ventricular septal defect (VSD) closure.

Methods: Overall 173 patients were included in this study between 2012 and 2019. In 44 individuals, a tricuspid valve radial incision (TVRI) was included in the surgical process. Read More

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lncRNA FER1L4 is dysregulated in osteoarthritis and regulates IL-6 expression in human chondrocyte cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 22;11(1):13032. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Orthopedics, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 166 Yulong West Road, Yancheng, 224005, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint disease and is one of the major causes of disability in the world. There has been an increase in the incidence of OA, which is associated with an aging population, sedentary lifestyle, and reduced physical activity. Due to the complex OA pathogenesis, there are limited diagnostic tools. Read More

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Transmission of infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine and field strains: the role of degree of contact and transmission by whole blood, plasma and poultry dust.

Vet Res 2021 Jun 22;52(1):91. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Animal Science, School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia.

Understanding the mechanisms of transmission of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is critical to proper control as both vaccine and wild-type strains circulate within chicken flocks with potential adverse consequences. The relative efficiency of transmission by direct contact between chickens and airborne transmission has not been investigated. Furthermore, relatively high levels of ILTV DNA have been detected in poultry dust and blood but the infectivity of these is unknown. Read More

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Concentrations of bisphenol-A in adults from the general population: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 11;775:145755. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Epidemiology, Murcia Regional Health Council, Murcia, Spain; CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Department of Health and Social Sciences, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain; Murcia Biomedical Research Institute (IMIB-Arrixaca), Murcia, Spain.

Background: Human bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure has been linked to adverse health effects even at low doses, which may be of potential public health concern.

Objective: To summarize BPA concentrations in general human population and their variability according to sex, geographic area, and analytical method.

Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting BPA concentrations in adult human populations. Read More

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Pharmaceuticals and alkylphenols in transplanted Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas): Spatial variation and growth effects.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Jun 19;170:112584. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Portland State University, Department of Environmental Science and Management, Science Research and Teaching Center, Rm. 218, 1719 SW 10th Ave, Portland, OR, 97201, USA. Electronic address:

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater discharge can be stressors to estuarine species. We transplanted juvenile Pacific oysters at varying distances within sites near wastewater treatment plant outfalls or oyster aquaculture control sites to assess small scale spatial variation in contaminant uptake and oyster condition. Oysters were transplanted to sites in Coos and Netarts Bays, Oregon and Grays Harbor, Washington, then collected after 9 and 12 months. Read More

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Uptake and translocation of UV-filters and synthetic musk compounds into edible parts of tomato grown in amended soils.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 16;792:148482. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

LEPABE - Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal.

In the last years, the number of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has increased and consequently, sewage sludge production. This residue is very rich in crop nutrients, which makes it prone to be used as organic fertilizer or soil conditioner for agriculture. However, the presence of emerging pollutants in these fertilizers has raised concern, namely their potential accumulation in soil and, eventually their uptake by crops. Read More

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Using machine learning to examine associations between the built environment and physical function: A feasibility study.

Health Place 2021 Jun 19;70:102601. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Melbourne School of Design, University of Melbourne, Australia; Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

Linking geospatial neighbourhood design characteristics to health and behavioural data from population-representative cohorts is limited by data availability and difficulty collecting information on environmental characteristics (e.g. greenery, building setbacks, dwelling structure). Read More

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Whole slide imaging is a high-throughput method to assess Candida biofilm formation.

Microbiol Res 2021 Jun 10;250:126806. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Laboratory of Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, ICB, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

New strategies that enable fast and accurate visualization of Candida biofilms are necessary to better study their structure and response to antifungals agents. Here, we applied whole slide imaging (WSI) to study biofilm formation of Candida species. Three relevant biofilm-forming Candida species (C. Read More

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Hazardous impact of diclofenac on mammalian system: Mitigation strategy through green remediation approach.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 18;419:126135. Epub 2021 May 18.

Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education; School of Chemistry, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

Diclofenac is an anti-inflammatory drug used as an analgesic. It is often detected in various environmental sources around the world and is considered as one of the emerging contaminants (ECs). This paper reviews the distribution of diclofenac at high concentrations in diverse environments and its adverse ecological impact. Read More

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Dynamics of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli in pig farms: A longitudinal study.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2021 Jun 19:106382. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Institute for Infectious Diseases, University of Bern. Electronic address:

Point prevalence estimates of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli (ESC-R-Ec) are important surveillance measures but may not uncover the ESC-R-Ec dynamics within pig farms. We therefore performed a longitudinal study by sampling individual pigs, pig farmers and the environment. Read More

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Free medialis tarsus flap transfer for reconstruction of toe necrosis: A case report.

Microsurgery 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

The medial tarsal area is a commonly used donor site for skin grafts to the digits and toes, with good color and texture match as well as a concealable donor site scar. Yet, there has been no report as a perforator free flap donor site. The purpose of this report is to present a new perforator flap harvested from medial tarsal region. Read More

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RIP3-dependent necroptosis contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

JCI Insight 2021 Jun 22;6(12). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, and.

Necroptosis has emerged as a potential mechanism in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here, we found that markers of necroptosis, including high mobility group box 1 release and phosphorylation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (p-MLKL), were markedly induced in the late stage of cigarette smoking-induced (CS-induced) emphysema in mouse lung tissue as well as in lung epithelial cells and organoids with higher dosage of or more prolonged exposure to cigarette smoking extract (CSE). Apoptotic signals were also detected and maximally induced in the early stage of CS-exposed mice and CSE-treated epithelial cells. Read More

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Microvesicles, blood cells and endothelial cells mediate phosphatidylserine-related prothrombotic state in patients with periodontitis.

J Periodontol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Hematology, the First Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Background: Phosphatidylserine (PS) is essential for inflammation-associated thrombogenesis, but the exact effect of PS on the prothrombotic state in periodontitis is uncertain. This study aimed to determine the PS-related procoagulant state in patients with periodontitis.

Methods: A total of 138 patients with periodontitis were examined compared with 42 healthy controls. Read More

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Photosynthesis-independent production of reactive oxygen species in the rice bundle sheath during high light is mediated by NADPH oxidase.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(25)

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EA, United Kingdom;

When exposed to high light, plants produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In , local stress such as excess heat or light initiates a systemic ROS wave in phloem and xylem cells dependent on NADPH oxidase/respiratory burst oxidase homolog (RBOH) proteins. In the case of excess light, although the initial local accumulation of ROS preferentially takes place in bundle-sheath strands, little is known about how this response takes place. Read More

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Sero-molecular epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in pigs and human contacts in Ghana.

One Health Outlook 2021 Jun 22;3(1):13. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Institute of Virology, Charite, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is among the leading causes of viral hepatitis in most developing countries. Zoonotic acquisition of HEV genotype 3 from swine has come into focus more recently. Available studies on HEV in Ghana and other countries in the region do not provide enough information towards understanding the epidemiology of HEV in human and animal populations. Read More

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Metagenomic profiles and health risks of pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes in various industrial wastewaters and the associated receiving surface water.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 16;283:131224. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Health Risk Control, Guangdong Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory for Contaminants Exposure and Health, Institute of Environmental Health and Pollution Control, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China; Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Environmental Catalysis and Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of City Cluster Environmental Safety and Green Development, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

The aquatic environment may represent an essential route for transmission of antibiotic resistance to opportunistic human pathogens. Since industrial wastewater is discharged into the river after treatment, understanding the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in river systems and the possibility of pathogens acquiring antibiotic resistance are challenges with far-reaching significance. This work mainly studied distribution profiles of pathogens and ARGs, and compared their health risk in various industrial wastewater with that of river water. Read More

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Effect of magnesium ammonium phosphate on the expression of adhesion molecules in sheep renal tubular epithelial cells.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Jun 1;138:167-177. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Hebei Agricultural University, 2596 Lekai South Street, Baoding, Hebei 071000, China.. Electronic address:

Adhesion molecules play an important role in urinary calculus formation. The expressions of adhesion molecules in renal tubular has been reported in some animals. However, the role of adhesion molecules in the process of sheep urinary calculus formation is still unclear. Read More

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Dynamics and epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii oocyst shedding in domestic and wild felids.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE.

Oocyst shedding in domestic and wild felids is a critical yet understudied topic in Toxoplasma gondii ecology and epidemiology that shapes human and animal disease burden. We synthesized published literature dating from the discovery of felids as the definitive hosts of T. gondii in the 1960s through March 2021 to examine shedding prevalence, oocyst genotypes, and risk factors for shedding. Read More

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Molecular surveillance of Cryptosporidium spp. for microbial source tracking of fecal contamination in Laguna Lake, Philippines.

J Water Health 2021 Jun;19(3):534-544

Pathogen-Host-Environment Interactions Research Laboratory, Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines E-mail:

Water quality deterioration in source waters poses increased health, environmental, and economic risks. Here, we genotyped Cryptosporidium spp. obtained from water samples of Laguna Lake, Philippines, and its tributaries for the purpose of source-tracking fecal contamination. Read More

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Potential risk of BPA and phthalates in commercial water bottles: a minireview.

J Water Health 2021 Jun;19(3):411-435

Department of Analytical Chemistry and Physical Chemistry, Federal University of Ceará, R. Humberto Monte S/N, 60455700 Fortaleza, CE, Brazil E-mail:

The global water bottling market grows annually. Today, to ensure consumer safety, it is important to verify the possible migration of compounds from bottles into the water contained in them. Potential health risks due to the prevalence of bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates (PAEs) exposure through water bottle consumption have become an important issue. Read More

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Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) - a bioindicator of marine water contamination by protozoa: laboratory and in situ approaches.

J Appl Microbiol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

UMR-I 02 SEBIO (Stress Environnementaux et BIOsurveillance des milieux aquatiques), University of Reims Champagne Ardenne, UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Campus Moulin de Housse, BP 1039, 51687, Reims cedex 2, France.

Aims: The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Toxoplasma gondii are identified as public health priorities and are present in a wide variety of environments including the marine ecosystem. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that the marine bivalve blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) can be used as a tool to monitor the contamination of marine waters by the three protozoa over time. Read More

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