98 results match your criteria exposure thimerosal-containing

Exposure to mercury and aluminum in early life: developmental vulnerability as a modifying factor in neurologic and immunologic effects.

José G Dórea

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2015 Jan 23;12(2):1295-313. Epub 2015 Jan 23.

Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 DF Brasilia, Brazil.

Currently, ethylmercury (EtHg) and adjuvant-Al are the dominating interventional exposures encountered by fetuses, newborns, and infants due to immunization with Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs). Despite their long use as active agents of medicines and fungicides, the safety levels of these substances have never been determined, either for animals or for adult humans—much less for fetuses, newborns, infants, and children. I reviewed the literature for papers reporting on outcomes associated with (a) multiple exposures and metabolism of EtHg and Al during early life; (b) physiological and metabolic characteristics of newborns, neonates, and infants relevant to xenobiotic exposure and effects; (c) neurobehavioral, immunological, and inflammatory reactions to Thimerosal and Al-adjuvants resulting from TCV exposure in infancy. Read More

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January 2015

Early exposure to the combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and thimerosal-containing vaccines and risk of autism spectrum disorder.

Vaccine 2015 May 3;33(21):2511-6. Epub 2015 Jan 3.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550, Japan; Department of Psychiatry, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550, Japan. Electronic address:

Objective: This case-control study investigated the relationship between the risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) onset, and early exposure to the combined Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine and thimerosal consumption measured from vaccinations in the highly genetically homogenous Japanese population.

Methods: Vaccination histories at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months from birth were investigated in ASD cases (189 samples), and controls (224 samples) matching age and sex in each case. Crude odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to determine relationship between MMR vaccination and ASD. Read More

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Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccination and the risk for diagnosed specific delays in development in the United States: a case-control study in the vaccine safety datalink.

N Am J Med Sci 2014 Oct;6(10):519-31

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

Background: Within the first 3 years of life, the brain develops rapidly. Its development is characterized by critical developmental periods for speech, vision, hearing, language, balance, etc.; and alteration in any of the processes occurring in those critical periods can lead to specific delays in development. Read More

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October 2014

Neurodevelopment outcomes in children exposed to organic mercury from multiple sources in a tin-ore mine environment in Brazil.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2015 Apr 26;68(3):432-41. Epub 2014 Nov 26.

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 27930-560, Brazil,

Methylmercury (from fresh-water fish) and ethylmercury [from thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs)] are the most prevalent source of neurotoxic exposure during early life in families consuming fish and using these vaccines. But children living in Amazonian mining environments are exposed to additional toxic metals in waste materials. We studied mercury (Hg) exposure and neurodevelopment in 294 children (105 boys and 189 girls) from Bom Futuro (Rondonia, Brazil), the epicenter of a tin-ore open-pit mine. Read More

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A case-control study evaluating the relationship between thimerosal-containing haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine administration and the risk for a pervasive developmental disorder diagnosis in the United States.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2015 Feb 11;163(1-2):28-38. Epub 2014 Nov 11.

The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, 14 Redgate Ct, Silver Spring, MD, 20905, USA.

Thimerosal is an organic mercury (Hg)-containing compound (49.55 % Hg by weight) historically added to many multi-dose vials of vaccine as a preservative. A hypothesis testing case-control study evaluated automated medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) for organic Hg exposure from Thimerosal in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-containing vaccines administered at specific times within the first 15 months of life among subjects diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) (n = 534) in comparison to controls. Read More

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February 2015

Environmental chemical exposures and autism spectrum disorders: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 2014 Nov 5;44(10):277-318. Epub 2014 Sep 5.

Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI.

In the past decade, the number of epidemiological publications addressing environmental chemical exposures and autism has grown tremendously. These studies are important because it is now understood that environmental factors play a larger role in causing autism than previously thought and because they address modifiable risk factors that may open up avenues for the primary prevention of the disability associated with autism. In this review, we covered studies of autism and estimates of exposure to tobacco, air pollutants, volatile organic compounds and solvents, metals (from air, occupation, diet, dental amalgams, and thimerosal-containing vaccines), pesticides, and organic endocrine-disrupting compounds such as flame retardants, non-stick chemicals, phthalates, and bisphenol A. Read More

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November 2014

A dose-response relationship between organic mercury exposure from thimerosal-containing vaccines and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014 Sep 5;11(9):9156-70. Epub 2014 Sep 5.

Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., 14 Redgate Ct., Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA.

A hypothesis testing case-control study evaluated concerns about the toxic effects of organic-mercury (Hg) exposure from thimerosal-containing (49.55% Hg by weight) vaccines on the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs). Automated medical records were examined to identify cases and controls enrolled from their date-of-birth (1991-2000) in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) project. Read More

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September 2014

Early exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines and children's cognitive development. A 9-year prospective birth cohort study in Poland.

Eur J Pediatr 2015 Mar 5;174(3):383-91. Epub 2014 Sep 5.

Department of Epidemiology, Chair of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7a St, 31-034, Krakow, Poland,

Unlabelled: The controversial topic of the early exposure to mercury is regarding ethylmercury, which is present in the thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs). The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the early exposure to TCVs and cognitive development in children during the first 9 years of life. The cohort included 318 children vaccinated in an early period (neonatal and up to 6 months) against hepatitis B and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) using formulation with or without thimerosal. Read More

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Transcriptomic analyses of neurotoxic effects in mouse brain after intermittent neonatal administration of thimerosal.

Toxicol Sci 2014 Jun 27;139(2):452-65. Epub 2014 Mar 27.

State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Thimerosal is a vaccine antimicrobial preservative which has long been suspected an iatrogenic factor possibly contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders including autism. The association between infant vaccine thimerosal exposure and autism remains an open question. Although thimerosal has been removed from mandatory childhood vaccines in the United States, thimerosal-preserved vaccines are still widely used outside of the United States especially in developing countries. Read More

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Milestone achievement and neurodevelopment of rural Amazonian toddlers (12 to 24 months) with different methylmercury and ethylmercury exposure.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2014 ;77(1-3):1-13

a Department of Nutrition , Universidade de Brasília , Brasília , Brazil.

Neurological outcomes (Gesell development schedules [GDS]), age of walking, and age of talking were studied in 299 toddlers (12 to 24 mo) in relation to environmental (fish consumption and tin mining) exposure. Exposure to fish methylmercury (MeHg) consumption and iatrogenic ethylmercury (EtHg) in Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV) was quantified in toddlers from two rural villages (n = 91, Itapuã; n = 218, Bom Futuro) respectively populated by fishers and cassiterite miners. Median total hair Hg (HHg) concentrations of infants from Itapuã (3. Read More

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Perinatal multiple exposure to neurotoxic (lead, methylmercury, ethylmercury, and aluminum) substances and neurodevelopment at six and 24 months of age.

Environ Pollut 2014 Apr 28;187:130-5. Epub 2014 Jan 28.

Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21941-902 RJ, Brazil.

We studied neurodevelopment in infants from two communities. Children living in the vicinity of tin-ore kilns and smelters - TOKS; n = 51) were compared to children from a fishing village (Itapuã; n = 45). Mean hair-Hg (HHg) concentrations were significantly higher in Itapuã children which received significantly (p = 0. Read More

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A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States.

Transl Neurodegener 2013 Dec 19;2(1):25. Epub 2013 Dec 19.

The Institute of Chronic Illnesses Inc, 14 Redgate Ct, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by standardized criteria of qualitative impairments in social interaction, qualitative impairments in communication, and restricted and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. A significant number of children diagnosed with ASD suffer a loss of previously-acquired skills, which is suggestive of neurodegeneration or a type of progressive encephalopathy with an etiological pathogenic basis occurring after birth. To date, the etiology of ASD remains under debate, however, many studies suggest toxicity, especially from mercury (Hg), in individuals diagnosed with an ASD. Read More

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December 2013

Low-dose mercury exposure in early life: relevance of thimerosal to fetuses, newborns and infants.

José G Dórea

Curr Med Chem 2013 ;20(32):4060-9

Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia, DF, Brazil.

This review explores the different aspects of constitutional factors in early life that modulate toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of low-dose mercury resulting from acute ethylmercury (etHg) exposure in Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV). Major databases were searched for human and experimental studies that addressed issues related to early life exposure to TCV. It can be concluded that: a) mercury load in fetuses, neonates, and infants resulting from TCVs remains in blood of neonates and infants at sufficient concentration and for enough time to penetrate the brain and to exert a neurologic impact and a probable influence on neurodevelopment of susceptible infants; b) etHg metabolism related to neurodevelopmental delays has been demonstrated experimentally and observed in population studies; c) unlike chronic Hg exposure during pregnancy, neurodevelopmental effects caused by acute (repeated/cumulative) early life exposure to TCV-etHg remain unrecognized; and d) the uncertainty surrounding low-dose toxicity of etHg is challenging but recent evidence indicates that avoiding cumulative insults by alkyl-mercury forms (which include Thimerosal) is warranted. Read More

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Comparative study on methyl- and ethylmercury-induced toxicity in C6 glioma cells and the potential role of LAT-1 in mediating mercurial-thiol complexes uptake.

Neurotoxicology 2013 Sep 30;38:1-8. Epub 2013 May 30.

Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Electronic address:

Various forms of mercury possess different rates of absorption, metabolism and excretion, and consequently, toxicity. Methylmercury (MeHg) is a highly neurotoxic organic mercurial. Human exposure is mostly due to ingestion of contaminated fish. Read More

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September 2013

Toxicity of ethylmercury (and Thimerosal): a comparison with methylmercury.

J Appl Toxicol 2013 Aug 11;33(8):700-11. Epub 2013 Feb 11.

Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.

Ethylmercury (etHg) is derived from the metabolism of thimerosal (o-carboxyphenyl-thio-ethyl-sodium salt), which is the most widely used form of organic mercury. Because of its application as a vaccine preservative, almost every human and animal (domestic and farmed) that has been immunized with thimerosal-containing vaccines has been exposed to etHg. Although methylmercury (meHg) is considered a hazardous substance that is to be avoided even at small levels when consumed in foods such as seafood and rice (in Asia), the World Health Organization considers small doses of thimerosal safe regardless of multiple/repetitive exposures to vaccines that are predominantly taken during pregnancy or infancy. Read More

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Neonatal exposure to Thimerosal from vaccines and child development in the first 3 years of life.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2012 Nov-Dec;34(6):592-7. Epub 2012 Oct 13.

Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Background: Despite the common use of Thimerosal as a preservative in childhood vaccines since the 1930s, there are not many studies on ethylmercury toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics in infants. The knowledge of ethylmercury's potential adverse effects is derived mostly from parallel methylmercury research or from animal and theoretical models.

Aim Of The Study: This study was designed to examine the relationship between neonatal exposure to Thimerosal-containing vaccine (TCV) and child development. Read More

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[Lack of association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism].

Przegl Epidemiol 2011 ;65(3):491-5

Katedra Epidemiologii i Medycyny Zapobiegawczej, Uniwersytet Jagielloński - Collegium Medicum, Kraków.

In Poland, administered childhood vaccines still contain thimerosal as a preservative. Despite the access to mercury free formulas, the most of children are still vaccinated by thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV) owing to economical reasons. That circumstances caused the rising discussion on potential harmful influence of TCVs on children health. Read More

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January 2012

Administration of thimerosal to infant rats increases overflow of glutamate and aspartate in the prefrontal cortex: protective role of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate.

Neurochem Res 2012 Feb 21;37(2):436-47. Epub 2011 Oct 21.

Marie Curie Chairs Program, Department of Pharmacology and Physiology of Nervous System, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, 02-957, Warsaw, Poland.

Thimerosal, a mercury-containing vaccine preservative, is a suspected factor in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. We previously showed that its administration to infant rats causes behavioral, neurochemical and neuropathological abnormalities similar to those present in autism. Here we examined, using microdialysis, the effect of thimerosal on extracellular levels of neuroactive amino acids in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC). Read More

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February 2012

Thimerosal exposure in early life and neuropsychological outcomes 7-10 years later.

J Pediatr Psychol 2012 Jan-Feb;37(1):106-18. Epub 2011 Jul 23.

Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, USA.

Objective: The authors used a public use data set to investigate associations between the receipt of thimerosal-containing vaccines and immune globulins early in life and neuropsychological outcomes assessed at 7-10 years.

Methods: The data were originally created by evaluating 1,047 children ages 7-10 years and their biological mothers. This study developed seven latent neuropsychological factors and regressed them on a comprehensive set of covariates and thimerosal exposure variables. Read More

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Speciation of methyl- and ethyl-mercury in hair of breastfed infants acutely exposed to thimerosal-containing vaccines.

Clin Chim Acta 2011 Aug 7;412(17-18):1563-6. Epub 2011 May 7.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background: Different chemical forms of mercury occur naturally in human milk. The most controversial aspect of early post-natal exposure to organic mercury is ethylmercury (EtHg) in thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV) still being used in many countries. Thus exclusively breastfed infants can be exposed to both, fish derived methylmercury (MeHg) in maternal diets and to EtHg from TCV. Read More

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Integrating experimental (in vitro and in vivo) neurotoxicity studies of low-dose thimerosal relevant to vaccines.

José G Dórea

Neurochem Res 2011 Jun 25;36(6):927-38. Epub 2011 Feb 25.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidade de Brasília, CP 04322, 70919-970, Brasília, DF, Brazil.

There is a need to interpret neurotoxic studies to help deal with uncertainties surrounding pregnant mothers, newborns and young children who must receive repeated doses of Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs). This review integrates information derived from emerging experimental studies (in vitro and in vivo) of low-dose Thimerosal (sodium ethyl mercury thiosalicylate). Major databases (PubMed and Web-of-science) were searched for in vitro and in vivo experimental studies that addressed the effects of low-dose Thimerosal (or ethylmercury) on neural tissues and animal behaviour. Read More

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Toxicokinetics of mercury after long-term repeated exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccine.

Toxicol Sci 2011 Apr 20;120(2):499-506. Epub 2011 Jan 20.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, SE 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.

The preservative thimerosal contains ethyl mercury (EtHg). Concerns over possible toxicity have re-emerged recently due to its presence in (swine and other) flu vaccines. We examined the potential accumulation of mercury in adults given repeated injections of a thimerosal-preserved vaccine for many years. Read More

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Research into mercury exposure and health education in subsistence fish-eating communities of the Amazon basin: potential effects on public health policy.

José G Dórea

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2010 09 16;7(9):3467-77. Epub 2010 Sep 16.

Department of Nutrition, Universidade de Brasília, P.O. Box 04322, Brasília, DF 70919-970, Brasil.

The neurotoxic effects of fish-methylmercury (meHg) consumed regularly are considered hazardous to fetuses and newborn infants; as a result fish consumption advisories are an important asset to control meHg exposure in affluent societies. These concerns are now part of health promotion programs for Amazon subsistence villagers. While urban dwellers in affluent societies can choose an alternative nutritious diet, traditional and subsistence communities are caught up in controversial issues and lifestyle changes with unintended health consequences. Read More

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September 2010

Prenatal and infant exposure to thimerosal from vaccines and immunoglobulins and risk of autism.

Pediatrics 2010 Oct 13;126(4):656-64. Epub 2010 Sep 13.

Abt Associates Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA.

Objective: Exposure to thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative that is used in vaccines and immunoglobulin preparations, has been hypothesized to be associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study was designed to examine relationships between prenatal and infant ethylmercury exposure from thimerosal-containing vaccines and/or immunoglobulin preparations and ASD and 2 ASD subcategories: autistic disorder (AD) and ASD with regression.

Methods: A case-control study was conducted in 3 managed care organizations (MCOs) of 256 children with ASD and 752 controls matched by birth year, gender, and MCO. Read More

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October 2010

Delayed acquisition of neonatal reflexes in newborn primates receiving a thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine: influence of gestational age and birth weight.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2010 ;73(19):1298-313

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

This study examined whether acquisition of neonatal reflexes in newborn rhesus macaques was influenced by receipt of a single neonatal dose of hepatitis B vaccine containing the preservative thimerosal (Th). Hepatitis B vaccine containing a weight-adjusted Th dose was administered to male macaques within 24 h of birth (n = 13). Unexposed animals received saline placebo (n = 4) or no injection (n = 3). Read More

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September 2010

Making sense of epidemiological studies of young children exposed to thimerosal in vaccines.

José G Dórea

Clin Chim Acta 2010 Nov 16;411(21-22):1580-6. Epub 2010 Jul 16.

C.P. 04322, Universidade de Brasilia, 70919-970 Brasilia, DF, Brazil.

Objective: To compare epidemiological studies dealing with neurological issues (compatible with Hg toxicity) linked to exposing newborns and infants to intramuscular doses of preservative-Hg resulting from vaccination with thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV).

Methods: Major databases were searched for studies that addressed neurodevelopment outcomes other than autism. Eight studies were identified and compared. Read More

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November 2010

Thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism: a review of recent epidemiologic studies.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2010 Jul;15(3):173-81

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

Although epidemiologic evidence has not supported the hypothesis of a causal relationship between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism, concerns continue about pediatric exposure to mercury through vaccine administration. A statement issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the US Public Health Service in 1999 prompted the removal of thimerosal from many vaccines. In 2004, the Immunization Safety Review Committee of the Institute of Medicine rejected the hypothesis of a causal relationship between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism. Read More

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Thimerosal exposure & increasing trends of premature puberty in the vaccine safety datalink.

Indian J Med Res 2010 Apr;131:500-7

The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc., Silver Spring, MD 20905, USA.

Background & Objectives: The US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) reports that mercury (Hg) is a known endocrine disruptor and it adversely affects the steroid synthesis pathway in animals and humans, and may interact to enhance the risk for a child developing premature puberty. An association between premature puberty and exposure to Hg from thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) was evaluated in computerized medical records within the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD).

Methods: A total of 278,624 subjects were identified in birth cohorts from 1990-1996. Read More

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Automated speciation of mercury in the hair of breastfed infants exposed to ethylmercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2011 Jun 24;140(3):262-71. Epub 2010 Apr 24.

Universidade de Brasília, C.P.04322, 70919-970, Brasília, Federal District, Brasil.

A simplified thiourea-based chromatography method, originally developed for methyl and inorganic mercury, was adapted to separate methylmercury (MeHg), ethylmercury (EtHg), and inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) in infants' hair. Samples were weighed and leached with an acidic thiourea solution. Leachates were concentrated on a polymeric resin prior to analysis by Hg-thiourea liquid chromatography/cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Read More

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