2,764 results match your criteria exposed polyethylene

Serum Protects Cells and Increases Intracellular Delivery of Molecules by Nanoparticle-Mediated Photoporation.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 31;16:3707-3724. Epub 2021 May 31.

School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332, USA.

Introduction: Intracellular delivery of molecules is central to applications in biotechnology, medicine, and basic research. Nanoparticle-mediated photoporation using carbon black nanoparticles exposed to pulsed, near-infrared laser irradiation offers a physical route to create transient cell membrane pores, enabling intracellular delivery. However, nanoparticle-mediated photoporation, like other physical intracellular delivery technologies, necessitates a trade-off between achieving efficient uptake of exogenous molecules and maintaining high cell viability. Read More

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Microplastic Fibers Increase Sublethal Effects of AgNP and AgNO in Daphnia magna by Changing Cellular Energy Allocation.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

CESAM-Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies & Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.

The effects of combined exposure to microplastics and contaminants are still not completely understood. To fill this gap, we assessed the effects of polyethylene terephthalate microplastic fibers (MF) (100 mg/L; 360 µm average length) on the toxicity of AgNP (32 nm) and AgNO (0.1 - 10 µg Ag/L) to Daphnia magna. Read More

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Suborganismal responses of the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius to polyethylene microplastics.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 9;783:146981. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Environmental Toxicology and Biology Group, Mathematical and Fluid Physics, Department, Sciences Faculty, UNED, Madrid, Spain.

Freshwater riverbeds are a major repository of microplastics (MPs) from inland activities. Benthic macroinvertebrates that live in close contact with sediments seem to ingest a considerable amount of such plastic particles. The effects of MPs on life-history traits are relatively well-known, but the suborganismal mechanisms underlying such effects remain unclear. Read More

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Tough hydrogels with rapid self-reinforcement.

Science 2021 06;372(6546):1078-1081

Material Innovation Research Center (MIRC) and Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561, Japan.

Most tough hydrogels are reinforced by introducing sacrificial structures that can dissipate input energy. However, because the sacrificial damage cannot rapidly recover, the toughness of these gels drops substantially during consecutive cyclic loadings. We propose a damageless reinforcement strategy for hydrogels using strain-induced crystallization. Read More

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Cellulose acetate-polyvinyl alcohol blend hemodialysis membranes integrated with dialysis performance and high biocompatibility.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jul 23;126:112127. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan.

Hemodialysis considered as therapy of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) for the separation of protein and uremic toxins based on their molecular weights using semi-permeable membranes. Cellulose Acetate (CA) hemodialysis membrane has been widely used in the biomedical field particularly for hemodialysis applications. The main issue of CA membrane is less selectivity and hemocompatibility. Read More

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Laboratory Study of the Ultraviolet Radiation Effect on an HDPE Geomembrane.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 May 26;11(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo-USP, São Paulo 13566-590, Brazil.

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes are polymeric geosynthetic materials usually applied as a liner in environmental facilities due to their good mechanical properties, good welding conditions, and excellent chemical resistance. A geomembrane's field performance is affected by different conditions and exposures, including ultraviolet radiation, thermal and oxidative exposure, and chemical contact. This article presents an experimental study with a 1. Read More

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Ultraviolet light accelerates the degradation of polyethylene plastics.

Mustafa Doğan

Microsc Res Tech 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

The Scientific and Technological Researches Application and Research Center, Kirikkale University, Kirikkale, Turkey.

Polyethylene plastics are widely used in daily life in the packaging of foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, and chemicals. In this study, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was exposed to an ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence lamp in simulated aging and degradation experiments. Ultraviolet degradation mechanisms were investigated on the surface after sunlight and UV lamp exposure. Read More

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Toxicogenomic Profiling of 28 Nanomaterials in Mouse Airways.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 05 8;8(10):2004588. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Human Microbiome Research Program (HUMI) University of Helsinki Helsinki 00014 Finland.

Toxicogenomics opens novel opportunities for hazard assessment by utilizing computational methods to map molecular events and biological processes. In this study, the transcriptomic and immunopathological changes associated with airway exposure to a total of 28 engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are investigated. The ENM are selected to have different core (Ag, Au, TiO, CuO, nanodiamond, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes) and surface chemistries (COOH, NH, or polyethylene glycosylation (PEG)). Read More

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Site-Specific Small Molecule Labeling of an Internal Loop in JC Polyomavirus Pentamers Using the π-Clamp-Mediated Cysteine Conjugation.

Chembiochem 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Biological Sciences, SUNY Cortland, Cortland, NY, 13045, USA.

The major capsid protein VP1 of JC Polyomavirus assembles into pentamers that serve as a model for studying viral entry of this potentially severe human pathogen. Previously, labeling of viral proteins utilized large fusion proteins or non-specific amine- or cysteine-functionalization with fluorescent dyes. Imaging of these sterically hindered fusion proteins or heterogeneously labeled virions limits reproducibility and could prevent the detection of subtle trafficking phenomena. Read More

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Effects induced by polyethylene microplastics oral exposure on colon mucin release, inflammation, gut microflora composition and metabolism in mice.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 18;220:112340. Epub 2021 May 18.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Center for Global Health, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China; Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China. Electronic address:

Microplastics are plastic fragments widely distributed in the environment and accumulate in the organisms. However, the research on microplastics effects in mammals is limited. Polyethylene is the main kind of microplastics in the environment. Read More

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In situ effects of a microplastic mixture on the community structure of benthic macroinvertebrates in a freshwater pond.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia.

Benthic communities contain some of the most threatened organisms in aquatic habitats due to different anthropogenic pressures. The high abundance of microplastics (MPs) in sediments will continue to increase in the future, further increasing the probability of interactions between macroinvertebrates and MPs. In the present study, a benthic community in a relatively pristine shallow pond was exposed either to an environmentally relevant high concentration of an MP mixture of 80 g m in the sediment, or a control sediment, without the addition of MPs. Read More

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Biochemical assessment of the neurotoxicity of gold nanoparticles functionalized with colorectal cancer-targeting peptides in a rat model.

Hum Exp Toxicol 2021 May 18:9603271211017611. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Human Physiology, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

The application of gold nanoparticle-peptide conjugates as theranostic agents for colorectal cancer shows much promise. This study aimed at determining the neurotoxic impact of 14 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with colorectal cancer-targeting peptides (namely p.C, p. Read More

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Microplastic fibers in the gut of highly consumed fish species from the southern Caspian Sea.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Jul 12;168:112461. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA; Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. Electronic address:

This study assesses the frequency, distribution, characteristics, and chemical composition of microplastics (MPs) in the gut of highly consumed fish species, namely leaping mullet (Chelon saliens), common carp (Cyprinus carpioi), and Caspian kutum (Rutilus caspicus), in the southern Caspian Sea biome. Fibers are found to be the only shape of MPs. Black MPs and polystyrene, polypropylene, and polyethylene terephthalate polymers are dominant. Read More

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Assessment of the effect of long-term exposure to microplastics and depuration period in Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758: Liver and blood biomarkers.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 3;786:147479. Epub 2021 May 3.

Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Centro Oceanográfico de Baleares, Muelle de Poniente s/n, E-07015 Palma de Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain. Electronic address:

The constant increase in plastic pollution has attracted great attention in recent years due to its potential detrimental effects on organisms and ecosystems. While the consequences of ingestion of large plastic litter are mostly understood, the impacts resulting from a long-term exposure and a recovery period of microplastics (MPs) are still limited. The aims were to monitor oxidative stress, detoxification and inflammatory biomarkers in liver, plasma and erythrocytes of Sparus aurata exposed during 90 days to low-density polyethylene (LDPE)-MPs enriched diet (10% by weight) followed by 30 days of depuration. Read More

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September 2021

Comparative Evaluation of Cellular Uptake of Free and Liposomal Doxorubicin Following Short Term Exposure.

Anticancer Res 2021 May;41(5):2363-2370

Laboratory of Immunology, National Cancer Institute, Vilnius, Lithuania.

Background/aim: Liposomal Doxorubicin (lipDOX) and free Doxorubicin (DOX) are reported to exhibit similar antitumor efficacy. However, cellular internalization mechanisms of lipDOX are still a subject of controversy.

Materials And Methods: Intact and permeabilized cells were exposed for short time to lipDOX and free DOX and drug intracellular content was evaluated by flow cytometry. Read More

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Refocusing the Immune Response to Selected Epitopes on a Zika Virus Protein Antigen by Nanopatterning.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Apr 30:e2002140. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332, USA.

Infections with Zika virus (ZIKV) are linked to the development of severe central nervous system disorders, but the need for a ZIKV vaccine remains unmet. Although the design of vaccines that elicit antibodies targeting domain III (DIII) of the ZIKV envelope (E) protein as an antigen is an attractive strategy, poorly neutralizing or cross-reactive antibodies that target the E protein may lead to antibody-dependent enhancement of disease. It is therefore decided to use the previously reported nanopatterning technique, which combines the site-specific incorporation of non-canonical amino acids with site-specific functionalization of the protein with polyethylene glycol (PEG), to shield selected epitopes on DIII. Read More

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The Role of Polymeric Coatings for a Safe-by-Design Development of Biomedical Gold Nanoparticles Assessed in Zebrafish Embryo.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milan, Italy.

In the biomedical field, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have attracted the attention of the scientific community thanks to their high potential in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The extensive use of GNPs led researchers to investigate their toxicity, identifying stability, size, shape, and surface charge as key properties determining their impact on biological systems, with possible strategies defined to reduce it according to a Safe-by-Design (SbD) approach. The purpose of the present work was to analyze the toxicity of GNPs of various sizes and with different coating polymers on the developing vertebrate model, zebrafish. Read More

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Impacts to Larval Fathead Minnows Vary between Preconsumer and Environmental Microplastics.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Microplastics are a complex suite of contaminants varying in size, shape, polymer, and associated chemicals and are sometimes referred to as a "multiple stressor." Still, the majority of studies testing hypotheses about their effects use commercially bought microplastics of a uniform size, shape, and type. We investigated the effects of polyethylene and polypropylene microplastics purchased as preproduction pellets (referred to as "preconsumer") and a mixture of polyethylene and polypropylene collected from the environment (environmental microplastic). Read More

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Ecotoxicological effects of different size ranges of industrial-grade polyethylene and polypropylene microplastics on earthworms Eisenia fetida.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 10;783:147007. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment in Universities of Shandong, College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, China. Electronic address:

The effects of microplastics (MPs) on terrestrial organisms remain poorly understood, even though soil is an important MPs sink. In this study, the earthworms Eisenia fetida were exposed to 0.25% (w/w) of industrial-grade high-density polyethylene (HDPE, 28-145, 133-415 and 400-1464 μm) and polypropylene (PP, 8-125, 71-383 and 761-1660 μm) MPs in an agricultural soil for 28 d. Read More

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The sub-lethal impact of plastic and tire rubber leachates on the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 4;283:117081. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

University of Bologna, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, Via Sant'Alberto 163, 48123, Ravenna, Italy. Electronic address:

Ocean contamination by synthetic polymers can represent a risk for the fitness of marine species due to the leaching of chemical additives. This study evaluated the sub-lethal effects of plastic and rubber leachates on the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis through a battery of biomarkers encompassing lysosomal endpoints, oxidative stress/detoxification parameters, and specific responses to metals/neurotoxicants. Mussels were exposed for 7 days to leachates from car tire rubber (CTR), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), containing organic additives and metals in the ng-μg/L range. Read More

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Polyethylene glycol acute and sub-lethal toxicity in neotropical Physalaemus cuvieri tadpoles (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 4;283:117054. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Biological Research Laboratory, Goiano Federal Institute - Urutaí Campus, Urutaí, GO, Brazil; Post-Graduation Program in Biotechnology and Biodiversity, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO, Brazil; Graduate Program in Conservation of Cerrado Natural Resources, Goiano Federal Institute, Urutaí, GO, Brazil; Post-Graduation Program in Ecology and Natural Resources Conservation, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Although many polymers are known by their toxicity, we know nothing about the impact of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on anurofauna. Its presence in different products and disposal in aquatic environments turn assessments about its impact on amphibians an urgent matter. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that short-time exposure (72 h) of tadpoles belonging to the species Physalaemus cuvieri (Anura, Leptodactylidae) to PEG induces oxidative stress and neurotoxicity on them. Read More

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Photosensitive Composite Inks for Digital Light Processing Four-Dimensional Printing of Shape Memory Capture Devices.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 12;13(15):18110-18119. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Centre for Composite Materials and Structures, Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), No. 2 Yikuang Street, Harbin 150080, People's Republic of China.

High-performance shape memory thermosetting polymers and their composites for four-dimensional (4D) printing are essential in practical applications. To date, most printable thermosets suffer from complicated processes, poor thermodynamic performances, and low printing speed. Here, photosensitive composite inks for fast photocuring printing are developed. Read More

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Effects of polyethylene microplastics on the microbiome and metabolism in larval zebrafish.

Environ Pollut 2021 Aug 31;282:117039. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310032, China. Electronic address:

Various microplastics (MPs) are found in the environment and organisms. MP residues in organisms can affect health; however, their impacts on metabolism in aquatic organisms remain unclear. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to polyethylene MPs with sizes ranging from 1 to 4 μm at concentrations of 0, 10, 100, and 1000 μg/L for 7 days. Read More

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Preliminary Assessment on the Histological Changes in Juvenile Siganus guttattus (Bloch, 1787) Exposed to Plastic Debris.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Animal Biology Division, Institute of Biological Science, University of the Philippines Los Baños, College, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines.

Plastic debris is ubiquitous in the marine environment and many of this is polyethylene based plastic bags. Its potential effect on marine organisms is still understudied. Hence, this study determined the histological changes induced in the intestine and liver of the juvenile rabbit fish, Siganus guttatus. Read More

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Acoustic focusing of beads and cells in hydrogel droplets.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 5;11(1):7479. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 75121, Uppsala, Sweden.

The generation of hydrogel droplets using droplet microfluidics has emerged as a powerful tool with many applications in biology and medicine. Here, a microfluidic system to control the position of particles (beads or astrocyte cells) in hydrogel droplets using bulk acoustic standing waves is presented. The chip consisted of a droplet generator and a 380 µm wide acoustic focusing channel. Read More

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Impact of polyethylene terephthalate microfiber length on cellular responses in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Jun 27;168:105320. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Environmental Biology Research Group, Korea Institute of Toxicology, 17 Jegok-gil, Jinju, 52834, Republic of Korea; Human and Environmental Toxicology Program, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217, Gajeong-ro, Daejeon, 34113, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Many studies have investigated the toxic effects of microplastics in marine organisms, but most studied nano-sized round microplastics at high concentrations and were not environmentally relevant. To understand the cellular toxicity of polyethylene terephthalate microfibers (PET-MFs) by length (50 and 100 μm), Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed to environmental (0.5 μg/L) and high (100 mg/L) MF concentrations for four days. Read More

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In vivo local transcranial static magnetic field stimulation alters motor behavior in normal rats.

Neurosci Lett 2021 05 1;753:135864. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Rehabilitation Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 12 Nishi 5, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan.

Transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) has inhibitory neuromodulatory effects on the human brain. Most of the studies on static magnetic fields have been performed in vitro. To further understand the biological mechanisms of tSMS, we investigated the effects of in vivo tSMS on motor behavior in normal awake rats. Read More

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Degradation of Plastics in Simulated Landfill Conditions.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 25;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Departamento de Energía, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, Ciudad de México C.P. 02200, Mexico.

Different degradable plastics have been promoted as a solution for the accumulation of waste in landfills and the natural environment; in Mexico, the most popular options are oxo-degradable, which degrade in a sequential abiotic-biotic process, and compostable plastics. In this research, high-density polyethylene, oxo-degradable high-density polyethylene, and certified compostable plastic were exposed to simulated landfill conditions in an 854-day-long experiment to assess their degradation. High-density polyethylene showed limited degradation, due mainly to surface erosion, evidenced by a 13% decrease in elongation at break. Read More

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Cell Suspension Culture and In Vitro Screening for Drought Tolerance in Soybean Using Poly-Ethylene Glycol.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Mar 10;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Biotechnology Centre, Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University, Jabalpur 482004, India.

Soybean ( (L) Merrill) is used in India mostly as a substantial fund of protein and oil, which makes the crop significantly important. Somaclonal variation has been researched as a base of additional variability for drought in soybean. In the present experiment calli/cell clumps/embryoids rose from immature and mature embryonic axis and cotyledons explants were exposed to different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG6000). Read More

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Measurements of alpha radioactivity in thermal power plant effluents employing CR-39 detector based improved alpha track detection method.

J Environ Radioact 2021 Jul 30;233:106574. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Nuclear & Radiochemistry, Kishinchand Chellaram College, Vidyasagar Principal K. M. Kundnani Chowk, D.W. Road, Churchgate, Mumbai, 400020, India. Electronic address:

Natural radioactivity is released into the environment during the combustion process of coal at various thermal power plants. Coal contains higher contents of α-emitting radionuclides such as U, Th along with their decay elements, which pose a potential health risk to the population. In the present studies, the effluent waste samples were collected from a coal fired Thermal Power Plant. Read More

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