48 results match your criteria exposed opium

Opium Effect in Pregnancy on the Dynamics of Maternal Behavior: Testing a Neurochemical Model.

Neuropsychobiology 2021 19;80(2):147-157. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Investigations into neurochemical mechanisms of opioid addiction are difficult due to the complexity of behavior and multiplicity of involved neurotransmitter and hormonal systems. The aim of this study was to examine the benefits of structured analysis of these mechanisms using the framework of the neurochemical model Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET) and the example of maternal behavior under the condition of opium consumption in pregnancy. The FET differentiates between (a) endurance, (b) speed of integration, and (c) emotionality aspects of behavior suggesting that these systems are differentially regulated by (a) serotonin-neuropeptides-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), (b) dopamine-GABA, and (c) opioid receptor systems, correspondingly. Read More

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February 2021

Opium-associated QT Interval Prolongation: A Cross-sectional Comparative Study.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2021 Jan;25(1):43-47

Faculty of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Background: Toxicity and side effects of long-term use of opioids are well studied, but little information exists regarding electrophysiological disturbances of opium consumption. While natural opium has been regarded safe to a great extent among traditional communities, concerns are emerging owing to the available evidence of QT prolongation that have been exposed during recent outcome surveillance of patients under opioid use. Potential QT prolonging interactions would raise a higher level of such concern in opium users during COVID pandemic and warrant attention. Read More

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January 2021

Blood Lead Levels in Opium-Poisoned Children: One Cross-Sectional Study in Iran.

Addict Health 2020 Jul;12(3):159-166

Legal Medicine Research Center, Legal Medicine Organization, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Lead poisoning is now more common due to accidental or intentional exposure to opium impregnated with lead. We aimed to determine the relationship between the blood lead levels (BLLs) and basic characteristics in opium-poisoned children.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 32 children younger than 13 years old who had been admitted to Loghman Hakim Poison Center, Tehran, Iran, due to opium poisoning, were evaluated for BLLs. Read More

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Association between mitochondrial DNA content and opium exposure.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2020 Oct 6;34(10):e22559. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

To date, not much study has been done to investigate the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number as the potential biomarker for opium exposure. Here, we conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the relative mtDNA content as the potential biomarker for opium exposure. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to investigate the mtDNA copy number variation across 205 individuals, including blood samples of 45 opium users, 41 cigarette users, 47 dual users, and 72 never users of any product. Read More

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October 2020

Noscapine Modulates Neuronal Response to Oxygen-glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion Injury Via Activation of Sigma-1 Receptor in Primary Cortical Cultures.

Iran J Pharm Res 2020 ;19(1):331-342

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

In the present study, we investigated the effects of noscapine (0.5-2 µM), an alkaloid from the opium poppy (), on primary murine cortical neurons exposed to 60 min oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in the presence of 5 µM BD-1047, a selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist. The experiments were performed on cortical neurons after 11-16 days of culture. Read More

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January 2020

Clinical trials and the COVID-19 pandemic.

Spyros Retsas

Hell J Nucl Med 2020 Jan-Apr;23(1):4-5

Former Consultant Medical Oncologist, Formerly, Lead Clinician of the Melanoma Unit, Imperial College at Charing Cross Hospital, London, U.K.

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Blood lead level risk factors and reference value derivation in a cross-sectional study of potentially lead-exposed workers in Iran.

BMJ Open 2019 07 2;9(7):e023867. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Medical Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research Center (MTDRC), Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

Objectives: This exploratory investigation aimed to measure blood lead levels and associated risk factors in exposed workers in Iran, and to derive appropriate reference values for blood lead in this population as a means of epidemiological comparison.

Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting: Manufacturing plants with potential lead exposure in Southern Khorasan Province, Iran. Read More

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Opium use during pregnancy and infant size at birth: a cohort study.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2018 Oct 1;18(1):358. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Clinical Epidemiology Unit & Centre for Pharmacoepidemiology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.

Background: The reported positive association between opiatic drug use during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes might be confounded by other factors related to high-risk behaviors, including the use of other harmful substances. In rural areas of Iran, opium use during pregnancy is relatively common among women who otherwise do not have a hazardous lifestyle, which reduces the risk of residual confounding and increasing the possibility to identify its effects. We aimed to examine the association of antenatal exposure to opium with risks of small for gestational age, short birth length, and small head circumference at birth. Read More

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October 2018

The Effects of Opium Addiction on the Immune System Function in Patients with Fungal Infection.

Addict Health 2016 ;8(4):218-226

Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Background: The use of narcotics such as opium exposes addicts as susceptible targets of different diseases so that they might easily be exposed to different diseases such as fungal infections. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of addiction to opium and fungal infection on plasma levels of certain cytokines including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-17, Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β).

Methods: Present study included 72 individuals who were divided into 4 groups: 1) opium-addicted with fungal infection; 2) opium-addicted without fungal infection; 3) non-opium-addicted with fungal infection; and 4) normal individuals (non-opium-addicted and non-fungal infection). Read More

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January 2016

Examining of Thallium in Cigarette Smokers.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2018 Apr 1;182(2):224-230. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

Medical Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research Center (MTDRC), Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

Smoking is one of the sources of thallium which is considered as a toxic heavy metal. The aim of this study was to determine urinary thallium levels and related variables in smokers, compared to a control group. The study was conducted on 56 participants who had smoked continuously during the year before they were referred to Kashan Smoking Cessation Clinic. Read More

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Morphine Inhibited the Rat Neural Stem Cell Proliferation Rate by Increasing Neuro Steroid Genesis.

Neurochem Res 2016 Jun 30;41(6):1410-9. Epub 2016 Jan 30.

Department of Medical Education, Medical Education Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Up to present, a large number of reports unveiled exacerbating effects of both long- and short-term administration of morphine, as a potent analgesic agent, on opium-addicted individuals and a plethora of cell kinetics, although contradictory effect of morphine on different cells have been introduced until yet. To address the potent modulatory effect of morphine on neural multipotent precursors with emphasis on endogenous sex-related neurosteroids biosynthesis, we primed the rat neural stem cells isolated from embryonic rat telencephalon to various concentrations of morphine including 10, 20, 50 and 100 µM alone or in combination with naloxone (100 µM) over period of 72 h. Flow cytometric Ki-67 expression and Annexin-V/PI based necrosis and apoptosis of exposed cells were evaluated. Read More

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Effects of Different Concentrations of Opium on the Secretion of Interleukin-6, Interferon-γ and Transforming Growth Factor Beta Cytokines from Jurkat Cells.

Addict Health 2015 Winter-Spring;7(1-2):47-53

Assistant Professor, Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.

Background: The risk of infectious, autoimmune and immunodeficiency diseases and cancers rise in opioid addicts due to changes in innate and acquired immune responses. Three types of opioid receptors (К-δ-μ) are expressed on the surface of lymphocytes and mononuclear phagocytes. The present study was designed to examine the effects of different concentrations of opium on the secretion of some cytokines produced by lymphocyte cells. Read More

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October 2015

Neuroprotective effect of noscapine on cerebral oxygen-glucose deprivation injury.

Pharmacol Rep 2015 Apr 30;67(2):281-8. Epub 2014 Oct 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The present study aims to investigate the effect of noscapine (0.5-2.5 μM), an alkaloid from the opium poppy, on primary murine fetal cortical neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro model of ischemia. Read More

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The effects of co-administration of opium and morphine with nicotine during pregnancy on spatial learning and memory of adult male offspring rats.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2014 Sep;17(9):694-701

NPRC and Physiology Dept., School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ; Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences Kerman, Iran.

Objectives: Smoking opium/cigarette is a global health concern. The aim of this study was to examine learning and memory of rat male offsprings whose mothers had been exposed to either opium or morphine with nicotine during pregnancy.

Materials And Methods: Wistar rats were used for the experiments. Read More

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September 2014

Development and implementation of a pharmacist-managed, neonatal and pediatric, opioid-weaning protocol.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2014 Jul;19(3):165-73

United States Air Force, Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Objectives: To compare the length of wean and abstinence severity in neonatal and pediatric patients with neonatal abstinence syndrome or iatrogenic opioid dependence treated with a pharmacist-managed, methadone-based protocol compared with physician-managed patients treated with either methadone or dilute tincture of opium (DTO).

Methods: This was a prospective, single-centered, interventional evaluation of 54 pharmacist-managed patients versus 53 retrospective, physician-managed patients. Wean duration and severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome were compared between groups using the Student t test. Read More

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Renal failure prevalence in poisoned patients.

Nephrourol Mon 2014 Mar 11;6(2):e11910. Epub 2014 Mar 11.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, IR Iran.

Background: Renal failure is an important adverse effect of drug poisoning. Determining the prevalence and etiology of this serious side effect could help us find appropriate strategies for the prevention of renal failure in most affected patients.

Objectives: The present study is aimed to identify drugs that induce renal failure and also to find the prevalence of renal failure in patients referred to emergency departments with the chief complaint of drug poisoning, in order to plan better therapeutic strategies to minimize the mortality associated with drug poisoning induced renal failure. Read More

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Neonatal opiate withdrawal and rooming-in: a retrospective analysis of a single center experience.

Klin Padiatr 2013 Sep 21;225(5):247-51. Epub 2013 Aug 21.

Neonatology, Children's Hospital of the University of Cologne, Germany.

Aim: To evaluate our treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), our experience with rooming-in of opiate-dependent mothers and to examine the influence of rooming-in on short term outcome of infants exposed to opiates in utero.

Method: Retrospective analysis of maternal and perinatal data of newborn infants with NAS treated between 2004 and 2011 in a level 3 academic children's hospital in a German metropolis. Therapy of NAS and duration of therapy, length of hospital stay and costs were considered in particular. Read More

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September 2013

The Effect of Opium Dependency of Parent (s) on Offspring's Spatial Learning & Memory in Adult Male Rats.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2013 May;16(5):694-9

Kerman Neuroscience Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences Kerman, Iran.

Objective(s): As far as we know, there has been no report regarding the effects of opium addiction or dependency of both parents on the learning and memory process in offspring. The aim of this study was to examine the learning and memory changes of adult male offspring whose mothers, fathers and/or both parents had dependency to opium before and during pregnancy. Materials and Methods : All experiments were carried out on Wistar rats. Read More

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Maternal and neonatal complications of substance abuse in Iranian pregnant women.

Acta Med Iran 2012 ;50(6):411-6

Infertility & Reproductive Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

There is an increased prevalence of maternal substance abuse during pregnancy in younger women in all socioeconomic classes and races. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported substance abuse among pregnant women and obstetric complications or neonatal outcomes in Iran. This retrospective cohort study is covering a five year period on medical records of pregnant women attending the maternity unit of four major hospitals (Mahdieh, Taleghani, Imam Hossein and Akbarabadi Hospitals). Read More

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November 2012

Crystal structure of the µ-opioid receptor bound to a morphinan antagonist.

Nature 2012 Mar 21;485(7398):321-6. Epub 2012 Mar 21.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

Opium is one of the world's oldest drugs, and its derivatives morphine and codeine are among the most used clinical drugs to relieve severe pain. These prototypical opioids produce analgesia as well as many undesirable side effects (sedation, apnoea and dependence) by binding to and activating the G-protein-coupled µ-opioid receptor (µ-OR) in the central nervous system. Here we describe the 2. Read More

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Auditory sensitivity in opiate addicts with and without a history of noise exposure.

Noise Health 2011 Sep-Oct;13(54):356-63

Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA.

Several case reports suggest that some individuals are susceptible to hearing loss from opioids. A combination of noise and opium exposure is possible in either occupational setting such as military service or recreational settings. According to the Drug Enforcement Agency of the U. Read More

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December 2011

Treatment of neonatal withdrawal with clonidine after long-term, high-dose maternal use of tramadol.

Ann Pharmacother 2010 Jul-Aug;44(7-8):1342-4. Epub 2010 Jun 29.

Women's Hospital of Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27401, USA.

Objective: To describe a case of tramadol withdrawal in a neonate and treatment with clonidine after exposure to long-term maternal use of high-dose tramadol.

Case Summary: A 34-week gestational age neonate displayed symptoms of tramadol withdrawal within 48 hours of delivery. Due to a confusing initial clinical picture, including presumed congenital Chlamydia, questionable seizures, and an original report of maternal use of ketorolac (Toradol), diagnosis was delayed until day of life 5. Read More

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October 2010

The effect of passive opium smoking on cardiovascular indices of rabbits with normal and ischemic hearts.

Open Cardiovasc Med J 2010 Jan 5;4:1-6. Epub 2010 Jan 5.

Department of Physiology and Physiology Research Center.

Some Asian people believe that opium can protect the cardiovascular system. To assess this belief, we investigated the effect of passive opium smoking (POS) on cardiovascular indices in rabbits with ischemic and non-ischemic hearts.Rabbits (n = 43) were divided into control (CTL), short term opium (SO) and long term opium (LO) groups. Read More

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January 2010

Perinatal isolated atrial flutter associated with maternal cocaine and opiate use in a late preterm infant.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2010 Sep;23(9):1062-5

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, NY Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, New York, USA.

Atrial flutter is a serious form of neonatal tachyarrhythmia. Maternal drug use of cocaine and/or opiate is associated with central and autonomic nervous signs in fetuses and newborn infants. The fetal cardiovascular effects of cocaine and opiate exposure are not well characterized. Read More

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September 2010

Passive opium smoking does not have beneficial effect on plasma lipids and cardiovascular indices in hypercholesterolemic rabbits with ischemic and non-ischemic hearts.

J Ethnopharmacol 2010 Feb 13;127(2):257-63. Epub 2009 Nov 13.

Department of Physiology and Physiology Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Medical Faculty, Bulvd. 22 Bahman, Postal Code 7616914111, Kerman, Iran.

Background: To scientifically test a traditionally belief of some Asian countries residents that opium may prevent or have ameliorating effects on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) we investigated the effect of passive opium smoking (POS) on plasma lipids and some cardiovascular parameters in hypercholesterolemic rabbits with ischemic and non-ischemic hearts.

Methods: 40 rabbits were fed for 2 weeks with cholesterol-enriched diet and divided to control (CTL), short-term opium (SO) and long-term opium (LO) groups. SO and LO groups were exposed to POS for 3 days and 4 weeks respectively. Read More

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February 2010

Morphine does no promote esophageal carcinogenesis in rats exposed to diethylnitrosamine.

Arq Gastroenterol 2008 Jan-Mar;45(1):87-92

Department of Surgery, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Background: The high incidence of esophageal cancer in the north of Iran has been associated to the consumption of opium and exposure to nitrosamines. Diethylnitrosamine has an established potential of producing experimental cancer in the esophagus and liver.

Aim: To evaluate by histopathology the effect of oral administration of morphine and diethylnitrosamine during 23 weeks on the hepatic and esophageal carcinogenesis on 176 rats. Read More

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December 2008

Risk of road traffic accidents associated with the prescription of drugs: a registry-based cohort study.

Ann Epidemiol 2007 Aug 18;17(8):597-602. Epub 2007 Jun 18.

Norwegian Institute of Public Health, University of Bergen, Norway.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the risk of a car driver being involved in a road traffic accident while using prescribed drugs. We used data from population-based registries.

Methods: Information on prescriptions, road traffic accidents, and emigrations/deaths was obtained from population-based registries. Read More

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Changes in high-risk behaviors over time among young drug users in South Vietnam: a three-province study.

AIDS Behav 2006 Jul;10(4 Suppl):S47-56

Ho Chi Minh City Provincial AIDS Committee, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Vietnam is in the midst of an expanding HIV epidemic, primarily driven by an increase in injection drug use in young people. This study was conducted to understand the patterns and initiation of drug use, and the sexual risk behavior among youth in three provinces in southern Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among male and female drug users under age 25 recruited from drug treatment centers (N = 560) and the community (N = 240) in Ho Chi Minh City, Dong Nai and Ba Ria-Vung Tau. Read More

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The effect of isoquinoline alkaloids on opiate withdrawal.

Curr Med Chem 2006 ;13(7):807-12

Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università di Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084, Italy.

Our interest has been centered on isoquinoline alkaloids obtained from Argemone mexicana (Papaveraceae), Aristolochia constricta (Aristolochiaceae) and the opium alkaloid, papaverine. In this respect, the effect of these isoquinoline alkaloids was investigated on contractions induced by naloxone of isolated guinea pig ileum acutely exposed to morphine in vitro. The activity of these alkaloids was compared to the control compound, papaverine. Read More

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