9,070 results match your criteria explore diversity


How organizational culture influences holistic review: a qualitative multiple case study.

Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Edson College of Nursing and Health Innovation, Arizona State University, Downtown Phoenix Campus, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Studies primarily involving single health professions programs suggest that holistic review in admissions can increase underrepresented minority (URM) representation among admitted students. However, data showing little improvement in the overall proportion of URMs in many health professions, despite widespread use of holistic review, suggest that relatively few programs using holistic review admit substantial proportions of underrepresented minorities. Therefore, more research is needed to understand factors that facilitate holistic review practices that successfully promote diverse student enrollment. Read More

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Association between vaginal microbiota and risk of early pregnancy miscarriage.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 May 10;77:101669. Epub 2021 May 10.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Embryo Original Diseases, International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030, China. Electronic address:

Approximately 15 % of clinically recognized pregnancies end in miscarriage. To explore the vaginal microbiota profile in women diagnosed with early pregnancy miscarriage (including missed miscarriage [M] or empty-sac miscarriage [E]), the microbial community structure in vaginal fluid was evaluated by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V4 region and compared with that in women with normal pregnancy (P). Taxa identified in samples from the P, E, and M groups formed distinct clusters. Read More

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Population history of Brazilian south and southeast shellmound builders inferred through dental morphology.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: The Southeast and South Coast of Brazil was inhabited during most of the Holocene by shellmound builders. Although there are cultural differences in the archaeological record between regions, it is still debatable how these differences may relate to different population histories. Here, we contribute to this discussion by exploring dental morphological affinities between several regional series. Read More

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Going to extremes - a metagenomic journey into the dark matter of life.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Matis ohf, Vinlandsleid 12, Reykjavik 113, Iceland.

The Virus-X-Viral Metagenomics for Innovation Value-project was a scientific expedition to explore and exploit uncharted territory of genetic diversity in extreme natural environments such as geothermal hot springs and deep-sea ocean ecosystems. Specifically, the project was set to analyse and exploit viral metagenomes with the ultimate goal of developing new gene products with high innovation value for applications in biotechnology, pharmaceutical, medical, and the life science sectors. Viral gene pool analysis is also essential to obtain fundamental insight into ecosystem dynamics and to investigate how viruses influence the evolution of microbes and multicellular organisms. Read More

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An emerging role of Prevotella histicola on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss through the gut microbiota-bone axis in postmenopausal women and in ovariectomized mice.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Background: The gut microbiota (GM)-bone axis has emerged as a crucial mediator of bone homeostasis. Estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss is closely associated with an altered GM. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Read More

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Rumen Microbiota of Tibetan Sheep () Adaptation to Extremely Cold Season on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

Front Vet Sci 2021 25;8:673822. Epub 2021 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Grassland Livestock Industry Innovation, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is characterized by low temperatures and hypoxia, and this feature is more obvious in the winter. However, it is not clear how Tibetan sheep adapt to extreme cold climates. To address this, we used physiological methods combined with next-generation sequencing technology to explore the differences in growth performance, forage nutrient digestion, serum biochemical indexes, and rumen microbial communities of Tibetan sheep () between the summer and winter. Read More

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Resequencing of 672 Native Rice Accessions to Explore Genetic Diversity and Trait Associations in Vietnam.

Rice (N Y) 2021 Jun 10;14(1):52. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Earlham Institute, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7UZ, UK.

Background: Vietnam possesses a vast diversity of rice landraces due to its geographical situation, latitudinal range, and a variety of ecosystems. This genetic diversity constitutes a highly valuable resource at a time when the highest rice production areas in the low-lying Mekong and Red River Deltas are enduring increasing threats from climate changes, particularly in rainfall and temperature patterns.

Results: We analysed 672 Vietnamese rice genomes, 616 newly sequenced, that encompass the range of rice varieties grown in the diverse ecosystems found throughout Vietnam. Read More

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Using Co-design to Explore How Midwives Can Support the Emerging Mother-Infant Relationship During the Early Postnatal Period: Protocol for a Mixed Methods Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Jun 10;10(6):e29770. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Women's and Children's Health Network, Adelaide, Australia.

Background: The postnatal period can be a challenging time for women, with mothers experiencing a range of emotions. As a woman transitions to motherhood, she adjusts to a new sense of self and forms a new relationship with her infant. Becoming a mother is a complex cognitive and social process that is unique for each woman and is influenced and shaped by culture. Read More

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Novel Tests of the Key Innovation Hypothesis: Adhesive Toepads in Arboreal Lizards.

Syst Biol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.

The evolution of key innovations-unique features that enable a lineage to interact with the environment in a novel way-may drive broad patterns of adaptive diversity. However, traditional tests of the key innovation hypothesis, those which attempt to identify the evolutionary effect of a purported key innovation by comparing patterns of diversity between lineages with and without the key trait, have been challenged on both conceptual and statistical grounds. Here, we explore alternative, untested hypotheses of the key innovation framework. Read More

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Metabolomic Profiling of Human Urine Samples Using LC-TIMS-QTOF Mass Spectrometry.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Dynamic Omics, Antibody Discovery, and Protein Engineering (ADPE), R&D, AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20850, United States.

The identification of metabolites in biological samples is challenging due to their chemical and structural diversity. Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) separates ionized molecules based on their mobility in a carrier buffer gas giving information about the ionic shape by measuring the rotationally averaged collision cross-section (CCS) value. This orthogonal descriptor, in combination with the /, isotopic pattern distribution, and MS/MS spectrum, has the potential to improve the identification of molecular molecules in complex mixtures. Read More

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Disentangling the role of oomycete soil pathogens as drivers of plant-soil feedbacks.

Ecology 2021 Jun 9:e03430. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, Avenida Reina Mercedes, 10, 41012, Sevilla, Spain.

Interactions among plant species and their soil biota drive plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) that play a major role in the dynamics and diversity of plant communities. Among the different components of the soil community, pathogens are considered main drivers of negative PSFs. Despite this, the number of studies that have experimentally quantified the contribution of soil pathogens to PSFs remains considerably low. Read More

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Large-scale investigation of single cell activities and response dynamics in a microarray chip with a microfluidics-fabricated microporous membrane.

Analyst 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Pathology, School of Basic Medical Science, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410013, China.

Microengineering technology involving microfabrication, micropatterning and microfluidics enables promising advances in single cell manipulation and analysis. Herein, we describe a parallel, large-scale, and temporal investigation of diverse single cell activities and response dynamics using a facile-assembled microwell array chip with a microfluidics-molded microporous membrane. We demonstrated that the versatility with respect to geometrical homogeneity and diversity of microporous membrane fabrication, as well as the stability, repeatability, and reproducibility rely on the well-improved molding. Read More

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Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FH-1 significantly affects cucumber seedlings and the rhizosphere bacterial community but not soil.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 8;11(1):12055. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Tianjin Key Laboratory for Industrial Biological Systems and Bioprocessing Engineering, Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin, 300308, People's Republic of China.

Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) inoculants have been applied worldwide. However, the ecological roles of PGPB under different soil conditions are still not well understood. The present study aimed to explore the ecological roles of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FH-1 (FH) on cucumber seedlings, rhizosphere soil properties, and the bacterial community in pot experiments. Read More

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Characterization of SARS-CoV-2 different variants and related morbidity and mortality: a systematic review.

Eur J Med Res 2021 Jun 8;26(1):51. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Introduction: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (SARS-CoV-2) started its devastating trajectory into a global pandemic in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Ever since, several variants of SARS-CoV-2 have been identified. In the present review, we aimed to characterize the different variants of SARS-CoV-2 and explore the related morbidity and mortality. Read More

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The dilution effect behind the scenes: testing the underlying assumptions of its mechanisms through quantifying the long-term dynamics and effects of a pathogen in multiple host species.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Jun 9;288(1952):20210773. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Mitrani Department of Desert Ecology, Swiss Institute for Dryland Environmental and Energy Research, The Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 849900 Midreshet Ben-Gurion, Israel.

Disentangling the mechanisms that mediate the relationships between species diversity and disease risk has both theoretical and applied implications. We employed a model system of rodents and their pathogens, in which an extreme negative diversity-disease relationship was demonstrated, to test the assumptions underlying three mechanisms that may explain this field pattern. Through quantifying the long-term dynamics and effects of the pathogen in its three host species, we estimated the between-host differences in pathogen spreading and transmission potentials, and host recovery potential and vulnerability to infection. Read More

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[Preliminary analysis of intestinal microflora in patients with different severity of OSAHS].

Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2021 Jun;44(6):543-549

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, the Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, China.

To analyze the diversity, abundance and structural composition of intestinal microflora in patients with different severity of OSAHS, and to explore their potential role in the occurrence and development of OSAHS. A total of 27 healthy volunteers(N) [male 19, female 8, age 22-78(44.4±2. Read More

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Nothing About Us Without Us - Towards Genuine Inclusion of Disabled Scientists and Science Students Post Pandemic.

Authors:
Julia P Sarju

Chemistry 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD, UK.

Scientists and students with disabilities have been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and this must be urgently addressed to avoid further entrenching existing inequalities. The need for rapid decision-making, often by senior colleagues without lived experience of disabilities, can lead to policies which discriminate against scientists with disabilities. This article reflects on disability declaration statistics and research in critical disability studies and social science to explore the challenges experienced by disabled scientists before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and highlights recommendations and examples of good practice to adopt in order to challenge ableism in STEM communities and workplaces. Read More

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Dissecting Disease-Suppressive Rhizosphere Microbiomes by Functional Amplicon Sequencing and 10× Metagenomics.

mSystems 2021 Jun 8:e0111620. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Bioinformatics Group, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Disease-suppressive soils protect plants against soilborne fungal pathogens that would otherwise cause root infections. Soil suppressiveness is, in most cases, mediated by the antagonistic activity of the microbial community associated with the plant roots. Considering the enormous taxonomic and functional diversity of the root-associated microbiome, identification of the microbial genera and mechanisms underlying this phenotype is challenging. Read More

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Genetic Polymorphism of 24 Autosomal STR in the Population of Rwanda.

Biochem Genet 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

College of Medicine & Forensic, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiao Tong University, 76 Yan Ta West Road, Xi'an, 710061, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China.

Rwanda is one of the smallest countries of Africa, where forensic genetic studies are rarely being conducted and very few DNA databases have been developed. Short tandem repeats (STRs) polymorphisms were investigated in 505 unrelated Rwandese by using the HUMDNA TYPING (Yanhuang) Kit. The following STRs were targeted: D3S1358, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, SE33, D10S1248, D5S818, D21S11, TPOX, D1S1656, D6S1043, D19S433, D22S1045, D8S1179, Penta E, D2S441, D12S391, D2S1338, vWA, Penta D, TH01, D18S51, CSF1PO and FGA. Read More

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Neighbourhoods and dementia: An updated realist review of the qualitative literature to inform contemporary practice and policy understanding.

Dementia (London) 2021 Jun 7:14713012211023649. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

University of Stirling, Stirling, UK.

This realist review of the literature provided a contemporary understanding of neighbourhoods and dementia and described how people living with dementia and their neighbourhood interacted via ongoing place-making and remaking processes. Drawing on 44 articles, neighbourhoods were revealed to have fluid and dynamic qualities where people with dementia used their strength and resources to connect to significant people and places. The review also indicated that the person with dementia-neighbourhood relationship was underpinned by four themes: 'home', 'social interactions', 'activities' and 'transportation'. Read More

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Defocus Blur Detection via Boosting Diversity of Deep Ensemble Networks.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 8;30:5426-5438. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Existing defocus blur detection (DBD) methods usually explore multi-scale and multi-level features to improve performance. However, defocus blur regions normally have incomplete semantic information, which will reduce DBD's performance if it can't be used properly. In this paper, we address the above problem by exploring deep ensemble networks, where we boost diversity of defocus blur detectors to force the network to generate diverse results that some rely more on high-level semantic information while some ones rely more on low-level information. Read More

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Distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes in a large, multi-centre cohort of Chinese donors.

Ann Hum Biol 2021 Mar;48(2):133-141

Hematologic Disease Center, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China.

Background: The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR), which mediates the killing function of NK cells, is an attractive candidate for adoptive cellular therapy. The ethnic distribution for China provides a unique opportunity to investigate KIR gene distribution.

Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between population history and the rapidly evolving KIR genetic diversity. Read More

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Provider Attitudes on Regionalization of Maternity Care: A National Survey.

Matern Child Health J 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Objectives: To explore provider perspectives surrounding national guidelines proposing regionalization of maternal care.

Methods: An 18-item survey focused on provider attitudes and practices surrounding regionalized maternity care was administered to a national sample of practicing obstetricians. We classified respondants reporting less than 500 annual deliveries at their hospital as low-volume providers and those practicing at hospitals performing 500 or more annual deliveries as high-volume providers. Read More

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Resolving Human Lactation Heterogeneity Using Single Milk-Derived Cells, a Resource at the Ready.

J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Physiology, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, 73104, USA.

Single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) of human milk-derived cells (HMDCs) makes highly detailed analyses of the biology of human lactation possible. We explore this powerful application as an exciting tool to inspect the cellular composition of human milk. We point out some important challenges unique to this approach and highlight the importance of collaborations between biologists and well-trained bioinformaticians to utilize these data to their maximum potential. Read More

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Virus Diversity and Loads in Crickets Reared for Feed: Implications for Husbandry.

Front Vet Sci 2021 20;8:642085. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Insects generally have high reproductive rates leading to rapid population growth and high local densities; ideal conditions for disease epidemics. The parasites and diseases that naturally regulate wild insect populations can also impact when these insects are produced commercially, on farms. While insects produced for human or animal consumption are often reared under high density conditions, very little is known about the microbes associated with these insects, particularly those with pathogenic potential. Read More

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Diabetes, Oxidative Stress, and DNA Damage Modulate Cranial Neural Crest Cell Development and the Phenotype Variability of Craniofacial Disorders.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 20;9:644410. Epub 2021 May 20.

Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO, United States.

Craniofacial malformations are among the most common birth defects in humans and they often have significant detrimental functional, aesthetic, and social consequences. To date, more than 700 distinct craniofacial disorders have been described. However, the genetic, environmental, and developmental origins of most of these conditions remain to be determined. Read More

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Black Men's Experiences With Health care: Individuals' Accounts of Challenges, Suggestions for Change, and the Potential Utility of Virtual Agent Technology to Assist Black Men With Health Management.

Qual Health Res 2021 Jun 7:10497323211013323. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Black men have the highest age-adjusted death rate of any major race-gender group in America. Understanding their perceived barriers to accessing health care may benefit future interventions working to increase Black men's health care engagement. Data collected from focus groups of Black men( = 67), key informant interviews( = 12), and interviews( = 5) with participants who pilot tested an online health education system (called "Gabe") were analyzed to explore their health care experiences and how computer-based health programs might better assist Black men. Read More

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Interpreting the lipidome: bioinformatic approaches to embrace the complexity.

Metabolomics 2021 Jun 6;17(6):55. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, 99352, USA.

Background: Improvements in mass spectrometry (MS) technologies coupled with bioinformatics developments have allowed considerable advancement in the measurement and interpretation of lipidomics data in recent years. Since research areas employing lipidomics are rapidly increasing, there is a great need for bioinformatic tools that capture and utilize the complexity of the data. Currently, the diversity and complexity within the lipidome is often concealed by summing over or averaging individual lipids up to (sub)class-based descriptors, losing valuable information about biological function and interactions with other distinct lipids molecules, proteins and/or metabolites. Read More

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Structural perspectives on HCV humoral immune evasion mechanisms.

Curr Opin Virol 2021 Jun 3;49:92-101. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47904, USA; Purdue Institute of Inflammation, Immunology, and Infectious Disease, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47904, USA. Electronic address:

The molecular mechanisms of hepatitis C virus (HCV) persistence and pathogenesis are poorly understood. The design of an effective HCV vaccine is challenging despite a robust humoral immune response against closely related strains of HCV. This is primarily because of the huge genetic diversity of HCV and the molecular evolution of various virus escape mechanisms. Read More

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The effect of dietary fiber (oat bran) supplement on blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension: A randomized controlled trial.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Division of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Shizi Street, Suzhou, 215006, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Insufficient dietary fiber (DF) intake is associated with increased blood pressure (BP) and the mode of action is unclear. The intake of DF supplements by participants in previous interventional studies was still far below the amount recommended by the World Health Organization. Therefore, this study aims to explore the effect of supplementing relatively sufficient DF on BP and gut microbiota in patients with essential hypertension (HTN). Read More

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