121 results match your criteria exploratory roi

Neural correlates of posttraumatic anhedonia symptoms: Decreased functional connectivity between ventral pallidum and default mode network regions.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 May 27;140:30-34. Epub 2021 May 27.

Laboratory for Traumatic Stress Studies, CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Beijing, China; Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Anhedonia is common in individuals with traumatic experience. Anhedonia symptoms play an important role in posttraumatic psychopathology, and are related to various adverse outcomes. The current study is a preliminary neuroimaging study of the neural correlates of posttraumatic anhedonia symptoms. Read More

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In vivo detection of beta-amyloid at the nasal cavity and other skull-base sites: a retrospective evaluation of ADNI1/GO.

Ann Nucl Med 2021 Jun 12;35(6):728-734. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, M4N 3M5, Canada.

Introduction: Amyloid beta (Aβ) is partially cleared from the CSF via skull base perivascular and perineural lymphatic pathways, particularly at the nasal cavity. In vivo differences in Aβ level at the nasal cavity between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitively normal (CN) individuals have not been previously assessed.

Methods: This is a retrospective evaluation of subject level data from the ADNI-1/GO database. Read More

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The role of maternal BMI on brain food cue reactivity in children: a preliminary study.

Brain Imaging Behav 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA.

Children of overweight and obese parents have an increased risk of obesity. Little is known the neural mechanisms underlying this relationship, specifically the brain systems implicated in self-regulation of food intake. The primary goal here is to examine relationships between maternal body mass index (BMI) and brain responses to food cues in children. Read More

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[Risk perception of COVID-19 pandemic among health care providers: qualitative study conducted at the King Baudoin Hospital in Guédiawaye, the first hospital faced with managing a community-acquired COVID-19 case in Senegal].

Pan Afr Med J 2020 13;37(Suppl 1):23. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Département de Médecine Préventive et Santé Publique, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Sénégal.

Introduction: health care systems in West Africa have been under strain since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The exposure of health personnel to infection during the COVID-19 pandemic has been reported in several studies. The purpose of this study was to analyze health workers' actual and perceived risk in the first hospital faced with managing a community-acquired COVID-19 case in Senegal. Read More

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February 2021

CNN color-coded difference maps accurately display longitudinal changes in liver MRI-PDFF.

Eur Radiol 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Liver Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Objectives: To assess the feasibility of a CNN-based liver registration algorithm to generate difference maps for visual display of spatiotemporal changes in liver PDFF, without needing manual annotations.

Methods: This retrospective exploratory study included 25 patients with suspected or confirmed NAFLD, who underwent PDFF-MRI at two time points at our institution. PDFF difference maps were generated by applying a CNN-based liver registration algorithm, then subtracting follow-up from baseline PDFF maps. Read More

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January 2021

Mifepristone enhances the neural efficiency of human visuospatial memory encoding and recall.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Mar 17;125:105116. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Centre for Affective Disorders, Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry & Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College of London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonism is a promising new treatment for cognitive dysfunction in psychiatric disorders but the effects of GR antagonism on cognition related brain activity is poorly understood. This study examines the effects of the GR and progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone on the neural correlates of visuospatial learning and working memory in healthy male participants. The study used a pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design to determine mifepristone effects on visuospatial paired associates learning (vPAL) and n-back working memory (WM) fMRI task related brain activations. Read More

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Association of Aβ deposition and regional synaptic density in early Alzheimer's disease: a PET imaging study with [C]UCB-J.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 01 5;13(1):11. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Alzheimer's Disease Research Unit, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 8th Floor, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA.

Background: Attempts to associate amyloid-β (Aβ) pathogenesis with synaptic loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have thus far been limited to small numbers of postmortem studies. Aβ plaque burden is not well-correlated with indices of clinical severity or neurodegeneration-at least in the dementia stage-as deposition of Aβ reaches a ceiling. In this study, we examined in vivo the association between fibrillar Aβ deposition and synaptic density in early AD using positron emission tomography (PET). Read More

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January 2021

Radiomics Feature Activation Maps as a New Tool for Signature Interpretability.

Front Oncol 2020 8;10:578895. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Introduction: In the field of personalized medicine, radiomics has shown its potential to support treatment decisions. However, the limited feature interpretability hampers its introduction into the clinics. Here, we propose a new methodology to create radiomics feature activation maps, which allows to identify the spatial-anatomical locations responsible for signature activation based on local radiomics. Read More

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December 2020

Gray matter volume of rostral anterior cingulate cortex predicts rapid antidepressant response to ketamine.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 Feb 11;43:63-70. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12203 Berlin, Germany; MSB -Medical School Berlin, Calandrellistraße 1-9, 12247 Berlin, Germany.

Ketamine was recently approved for treatment resistant depression. However, despite its therapeutic potential, about 50% of patients do not show improvement under this therapy. In this prospective two-site study, we investigated baseline brain structural predictors for rapid symptom improvement after a single subanesthetic ketamine infusion. Read More

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February 2021

Quantitative CEST and MT at 1.5T for monitoring treatment response in glioblastoma: early and late tumor progression during chemoradiation.

J Neurooncol 2021 Jan 16;151(2):267-278. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Physical Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Purpose: Quantitative MRI (qMRI) was performed using a 1.5T protocol that includes a novel chemical exchange saturation transfer/magnetization transfer (CEST/MT) approach. The purpose of this prospective study was to determine if qMRI metrics at baseline, at the 10th and 20th fraction during a 30 fraction/6 week standard chemoradiation (CRT) schedule, and at 1 month following treatment could be an early indicator of response for glioblastoma (GBM). Read More

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January 2021

Neural evidence of dysfunction of reward processing in women with premenstrual syndrome.

Neuropsychologia 2020 12 5;149:107669. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Psychology, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China. Electronic address:

Background: Most studies on the mechanism behind premenstrual syndrome (PMS) have focused on negative emotional overreaction, but little evidence exists regarding the weakening of positive emotions. Given the close relationship between positive emotions and reward processing, the aim of this study is to investigate the dysfunction of reward processing in women with PMS.

Method: Seventeen women with PMS and seventeen healthy women were scanned during a card guessing task in the late luteal phase. Read More

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December 2020

SeSBAT: Single Subject Brain Analysis Toolbox. Application to Huntington's Disease as a Preliminary Study.

Front Syst Neurosci 2020 29;14:488652. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Cognition, Development and Educational Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers require complex processing routines that are time-consuming and labor-intensive for clinical users. The Single Subject Brain Analysis Toolbox (SeSBAT) is a fully automated MATLAB toolbox with a graphical user interface (GUI) that offers standardized and optimized protocols for the pre-processing and analysis of anatomical MRI data at the single-subject level. In this study, the two-fold strategy provided by SeSBAT is illustrated through its application on a cohort of 42 patients with Huntington's disease (HD), in pre-manifest and early manifest stages, as a suitable model of neurodegenerative processes. Read More

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September 2020

The role of anterior and posterior insula in male genital response and in visual attention: an exploratory multimodal fMRI study.

Sci Rep 2020 10 28;10(1):18463. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

CPUP, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Several studies highlighted the role of insula on several functions and in sexual behavior. This exploratory study examines the relationships among genital responses, brain responses, and eye movements, to disentangle the role played by the anterior and posterior insula during different stages of male sexual response and during visual attention to sexual stimuli. In 19 healthy men, fMRI, eye movement, and penile tumescence data were collected during a visual sexual stimulation task. Read More

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October 2020

No Effects of Cognitive Remediation on Cerebral White Matter in Individuals at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis-A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Front Psychiatry 2020 28;11:873. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Copenhagen Research Center for Mental Health, CORE, Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark.

Background: Individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) present with subtle alterations in cerebral white matter (WM), which appear to be associated with clinical and functional outcome. The effect of cognitive remediation on WM organization in UHR individuals has not been investigated previously.

Methods: In a randomized, clinical trial, UHR individuals aged 18 to 40 years were assigned to treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU plus cognitive remediation for 20 weeks. Read More

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Heterogeneity of EEG resting-state brain networks in absolute pitch.

Int J Psychophysiol 2020 11 25;157:11-22. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Division Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; University Research Priority Program (URPP), Dynamics of Healthy Aging, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The neural basis of absolute pitch (AP), the ability to effortlessly identify a musical tone without an external reference, is poorly understood. One of the key questions is whether perceptual or cognitive processes underlie the phenomenon, as both sensory and higher-order brain regions have been associated with AP. To integrate the perceptual and cognitive views on AP, here, we investigated joint contributions of sensory and higher-order brain regions to AP resting-state networks. Read More

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November 2020

Hippocampal Representation of Threat Features and Behavior in a Human Approach-Avoidance Conflict Anxiety Task.

J Neurosci 2020 08 21;40(35):6748-6758. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Computational Psychiatry Research, Department of Psychiatry Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Psychiatric Hospital, University of Zurich, Zurich, 8032, Switzerland.

Decisions under threat are crucial to survival and require integration of distinct situational features, such as threat probability and magnitude. Recent evidence from human lesion and neuroimaging studies implicated anterior hippocampus (aHC) and amygdala in approach-avoidance decisions under threat, and linked their integrity to cautious behavior. Here we sought to elucidate how threat dimensions and behavior are represented in these structures. Read More

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Associations between resting-state functional connectivity and treatment response in a randomized clinical trial for posttraumatic stress disorder.

Depress Anxiety 2020 10 15;37(10):1037-1046. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Background: Alterations in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) have been reported in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we examined pre- and post-treatment rsFC during a randomized clinical trial to characterize alterations and examine predictors of treatment response.

Methods: Sixty-four combat veterans with PTSD were randomly assigned to prolonged exposure (PE) plus placebo, sertraline plus enhanced medication management, or PE plus sertraline. Read More

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October 2020

Cortical and subcortical response to the anticipation of reward in high and average/low risk-taking adolescents.

Dev Cogn Neurosci 2020 08 21;44:100798. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, United States; Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, United States.

Since the first neurodevelopmental models that sought to explain the influx of risky behaviors during adolescence were proposed, there have been a number of revisions, variations and criticisms. Despite providing a strong multi-disciplinary heuristic to explain the development of risk behavior, extant models have not yet reliably isolated neural systems that underlie risk behaviors in adolescence. To address this gap, we screened 2017 adolescents from an ongoing longitudinal study that assessed 15-health risk behaviors, targeting 104 adolescents (Age Range: 17-to-21. Read More

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Evolution of brain-wide activity in the awake behaving mouse after acute fear by longitudinal manganese-enhanced MRI.

Neuroimage 2020 11 28;222:116975. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Pathology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA; California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Life threatening fear after a single exposure evolves in a subset of vulnerable individuals to anxiety, which may persist for their lifetime. Yet neither the whole brain's response to innate acute fear nor how brain activity evolves over time is known. Sustained neuronal activity may be a factor in the development of a persistent fear response. Read More

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November 2020

The effect of concurrent reward on aversive information processing in the brain.

Neuroimage 2020 08 30;217:116890. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Texas A&M University, Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, Texas A&M Institute for Neuroscience, 4235 TAMU College Station, TX, 77843-4235, USA. Electronic address:

Neural networks for the processing of appetitive and aversive information, in isolation, have been well characterized. However, how the brain integrates competing signals associated with simultaneous appetitive and aversive information is less clear. In particular, it is unknown how the presence of concurrent reward modulates the processing of an aversive event throughout the brain. Read More

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A meta-analysis of tract-based spatial statistics studies examining white matter integrity in cocaine use disorder.

Addict Biol 2021 03 8;26(2):e12902. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Faillace Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have consistently shown diminished white matter (WM) integrity for individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD). The present study used seed-based d mapping (SDM) to determine the extent to which a systematic difference in the WM integrity of cocaine users may exist (as compared with that of healthy controls). Articles from 2006 (when TBSS was first developed) to present were reviewed, with eight selected for inclusion. Read More

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Open-Source Automatic Segmentation of Ocular Structures and Biomarkers of Microbial Keratitis on Slit-Lamp Photography Images Using Deep Learning.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Jan 5;25(1):88-99. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

We propose a fully-automatic deep learning-based algorithm for segmentation of ocular structures and microbial keratitis (MK) biomarkers on slit-lamp photography (SLP) images. The dataset consisted of SLP images from 133 eyes with manual annotations by a physician, P1. A modified region-based convolutional neural network, SLIT-Net, was developed and trained using P1's annotations to identify and segment four pathological regions of interest (ROIs) on diffuse white light images (stromal infiltrate (SI), hypopyon, white blood cell (WBC) border, corneal edema border), one pathological ROI on diffuse blue light images (epithelial defect (ED)), and two non-pathological ROIs on all images (corneal limbus, light reflexes). Read More

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January 2021

Cortical thickness in visuo-motor areas is related to motor outcomes after STN DBS for Parkinson's disease.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2020 02 17;71:17-22. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Center for Neurological Restoration, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a widely accepted therapy for Parkinson's disease. While outcome predictors such as levodopa-response are well established, there remains a need for objective and unbiased predictors in clinical practice. We performed an exploratory study to examine whether cortical thickness, derived from preoperative MRI, correlates with postoperative outcome. Read More

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February 2020

Human menstrual cycle variation in subcortical functional brain connectivity: a multimodal analysis approach.

Brain Struct Funct 2020 Mar 1;225(2):591-605. Epub 2020 Jan 1.

Department of Psychology and Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, 5020, Salzburg, Austria.

Increasing evidence suggests that endogenous sex steroid changes affect human brain functional connectivity, which could be obtained by resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI). Nevertheless, RS studies on the menstrual cycle (MC) are underrepresented and yield inconsistent results. We attribute these inconsistencies to the use of various methods in exploratory approaches and small sample sizes. Read More

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Association of Subjective Memory Complaints with the Left Parahippocampal Amyloid Burden in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

J Alzheimers Dis 2019 ;72(4):1261-1268

Department of Neurology, Chosun University and Chosun University Hospital, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Background: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

Objective: We aimed to explore the association between SMC and regional amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

Methods: Sixty-eight individuals with MCI were recruited. Read More

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December 2020

Differential Influence of Acupuncture Somatosensory and Cognitive/Affective Components on Functional Brain Connectivity and Pain Reduction During Low Back Pain State.

Front Neurosci 2019 4;13:1062. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, South Korea.

The underlying mechanism of pain reduction by acupuncture is still unclear, because acupuncture treatment involves multidimensional factors. In this study, we investigated the differential influence of acupuncture components on brain functional connectivity and on pain reduction. We used a specific form of sham acupuncture (phantom acupuncture; PHNT), which only has a needling-credibility (a belief that they were treated with real acupuncture needles), while real acupuncture (REAL) has a somatosensory needling stimulation, as well as a needling-credibility. Read More

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October 2019

Exercise and microstructural changes in the motor cortex of older adults.

Eur J Neurosci 2020 04 23;51(7):1711-1722. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Institute of General Practice, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Exercise has been shown to counteract age-related volume decreases in the human brain, and in this imaging study, we ask whether the same holds true for the microstructure of the cortex. Healthy older adults (n = 47, 65-90 years old) either exercised three times a week on a stationary bike or maintained their usual physical routine over a 12-week period. Quantitative longitudinal relaxation rate (R ) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) maps were made at baseline and after the 12-week intervention. Read More

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Safety and Efficacy of Nivolumab Monotherapy in Recurrent or Metastatic Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Carcinoma: Results From the Phase I/II CheckMate 358 Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2019 11 5;37(31):2825-2834. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Stephenson Cancer Center at the University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK, and Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN.

Purpose: Nivolumab was assessed in patients with virus-associated tumors in the phase I/II CheckMate 358 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02488759). We report on patients with recurrent/metastatic cervical, vaginal, or vulvar cancers. Read More

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November 2019

An Exploratory Study of the Texture Research Investigational Platform (TRIP) to Evaluate Bone Texture Score of Distal Femur DXA Scans - A TBS-Based Approach.

J Clin Densitom 2021 Jan-Mar;24(1):112-117. Epub 2019 Jun 29.

University of Wisconsin, Osteoporosis Clinical Research Program, Madison, WI, USA.

Poor bone status is associated with increased complications following orthopedic surgery. Therefore, assessing site-specific skeletal status prior to or after orthopedic surgery to optimize outcomes is appealing. The trabecular bone score (TBS) approach, a surrogate for microarchitecture, was adapted to the Texture Research Investigational Platform (TRIP), which allows assessment of many skeletal sites imaged by various modalities. Read More

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Serial T2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images Acquired on a 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Linear Accelerator Reveal Radiomic Feature Variation in Organs at Risk: An Exploratory Analysis of Novel Metrics of Tissue Response in Prostate Cancer.

Cureus 2019 Apr 20;11(4):e4510. Epub 2019 Apr 20.

Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, USA.

"Delta-radiomics" investigates variations in quantitative image metrics over time and can yield important clinical information. We hypothesized that in patients undergoing active radiation therapy (RT) for prostate cancer (PCa), there would exist observable variation in the quantitative metrics that describe the T-weighted (T) intensity histogram in the prostate and surrounding organs at risk (OAR) over time. We investigated the feasibility of acquisition and subsequent analysis of the delta-radiomic profiles of these regions of interest (ROI) in serial T magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained on a 1. Read More

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