9,467 results match your criteria experts field


Determining the vocational competencies required to deliver community-based rehabilitation and inclusive development services in India.

Disabil Rehabil 2021 May 4:1-15. Epub 2021 May 4.

Nossal Institute of Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Purpose: To identify the competencies required by Community-Based Rehabilitation (CBR) practitioners in India and determine typical pathways of competency development, including minimum practice standards.

Methods: Following a literature review of existing frameworks and guidelines for CBR delivery, Delphi methods were used with Indian CBR experts to identify the main competency requirements of CBR personnel. Rubric writing workshops with CBR experts then expressed the performance of these competencies developmentally as learning progressions. Read More

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Does the Initiation of Fluoxetine Postacute Stroke Result in Improved Functional Recovery?: A Critically Appraised Topic.

Neurologist 2021 May 5;26(3):112-115. Epub 2021 May 5.

Departments of Neurology.

Background: Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are often prescribed following stroke due to high rates of depression. Interest in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use for poststroke motor and functional recovery was generated after the publication of the Fluoxetine for motor recovery after acute ischemic stroke (FLAME) trial in 2011, which showed improved motor recovery in ischemic stroke patients with moderate to severe motor deficits. Read More

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Perceived Realism of High-Resolution Generative Adversarial Network-derived Synthetic Mammograms.

Radiol Artif Intell 2021 Mar 23;3(2):e190181. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Kheiron Medical Technologies Ltd, 116 Old Street, London EC1V 9BG, England (D.K., H.H., A.H., E.K., G.W., T.R., P.K.); and Department of Computing, Imperial College London, London, England (B.G.).

Purpose: To explore whether generative adversarial networks (GANs) can enable synthesis of realistic medical images that are indiscernible from real images, even by domain experts.

Materials And Methods: In this retrospective study, progressive growing GANs were used to synthesize mammograms at a resolution of 1280 × 1024 pixels by using images from 90 000 patients (average age, 56 years ± 9) collected between 2009 and 2019. To evaluate the results, a method to assess distributional alignment for ultra-high-dimensional pixel distributions was used, which was based on moment plots. Read More

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Error rates in SARS-CoV-2 testing examined with Bayes' theorem.

Authors:
P M Bentley

Heliyon 2021 Apr 28;7(4):e06905. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

European Spallation Source ESS ERIC, Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has created a demand for large scale testing, as part of the effort to understand and control transmission. It is important to quantify the error rates of test equipment under field conditions, which might differ significantly from those obtained in the laboratory. A literature review on SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is used to construct a test confusion matrix. Read More

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Farmers' livelihood strategies and perceived constraints from poor and non-poor households: A dataset from a field survey in Nghe An, Vietnam.

Data Brief 2021 Jun 31;36:106991. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Faculty of Economics and Business, Phenikaa University, Hanoi 12116, Vietnam.

The first Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of The United Nations aims to "end poverty in all its forms everywhere". Its seven associated targets aim, among others, to eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere. In Vietnam, poverty eradication in ethnic minorities and mountainous areas are among the top priorities. Read More

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Expert recommendations based on link prediction during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Authors:
Hui Wang ZiChun Le

Scientometrics 2021 Apr 26:1-20. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

College of Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310023 PR China.

Since the emergence of COVID-19, the number of infections has significantly increased. As of April 7, 8:00 am, the total number of global infections has already reached 1,338,415, with the number of deaths being 74,556. Medical experts from various countries have conducted relevant researches in their own fields and countries, and the development of an effective vaccine has been expected soon. Read More

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Promoting Successful Cognitive Aging: A Ten-Year Update.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Center for Brain/Mind Medicine, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Hale Building for Transformative Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

A decade has passed since we published a comprehensive review in this journal addressing the topic of promoting successful cognitive aging, making this a good time to take stock of the field. Because there have been limited large-scale, randomized controlled trials, especially following individuals from middle age to late life, some experts have questioned whether recommendations can be legitimately offered about reducing the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Despite uncertainties, clinicians often need to at least make provisional recommendations to patients based on the highest quality data available. Read More

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McDonald versus Shirodkar cerclage technique in women requiring a prophylactic cerclage: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

Syst Rev 2021 May 1;10(1):130. Epub 2021 May 1.

School of Medicine and Public Health, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of death in children under five years. Spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) is the major cause of preterm delivery. The key risk factors for SPTB are women who have a short cervix and women who have had previous preterm birth. Read More

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Preliminary development of a bystander intervention scale for depression and the examination of socio-demographic correlates amongst Singapore university students.

BMC Psychol 2021 Apr 30;9(1):67. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Buangkok Green Medical Park, 10 Buangkok View, Singapore, 539747, Singapore.

Background: Despite peer involvement having a positive impact on help-seeking behavior, there is a lack of a scale quantifying the possibility of an individual intervening upon noticing peers who show signs of depression. The aims of this study were to (1) develop a bystander intervention scale for depression that assesses the likelihood of university students intervening when a peer shows signs of depression based on the theory of bystander intervention, (2) identify the underlying factors contributing to the behavior, and (3) explore the socio-demographic correlates of the scale.

Methods: The proposed scale, the Bystander Intervention Scale for Depression (BISD), is a 17-item self-reported questionnaire that was developed based on existing bystander intervention theory and inputs from mental health experts. Read More

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[Problems of updating the procedures for the provision of medical care used in diseases of the ear and mastoid, throat and nose].

Authors:
D O Roshchin

Vestn Otorinolaringol 2021 ;86(2):99-103

National Research Institute of Public Health named after N.A. Semashko of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia, Moscow, Russia.

The procedures for the provision of medical care in otorhinolaryngology and audiology-otorhinolaryngology contain a large number of requirements. The actualization of the orders has not been carried out for a long time, which is due to the lack of methodological formalized approaches for the formation of hypotheses regarding expedient changes. The article proposes an analysis of the results of state control, which will allow the formation of specific proposals for assessment by experts in the framework of the process of updating the procedures for the provision of medical care. Read More

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An examination of the characteristics of mothers neglecting their children.

Turk J Pediatr 2021 ;63(2):237-250

Department of Social Work, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: This study is aimed to recognize families who have neglected their children in the early period, to raise awareness among experts especially pediatricians-working in this field about the reasons contributing to the neglect.

Methods: For this purpose, data were collected by quantitative and qualitative methods. The mothers of 32 neglected children and 30 children who were not neglected were included in to the study. Read More

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January 2021

Status of Hip Arthroscopy in India: A Short Questionnaire Based Survey and Review of Literature.

Indian J Orthop 2021 Apr 19;55(2):325-332. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Dr L H Hiranandani Hospital, Mumbai, India.

Background: Hip arthroscopy is a minimally invasive technology for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in various hip disorders. Over the past decade or so, the technology and understanding related to this surgery have improved by leaps and bounds; however, in India the overall pace has been limited. The present review highlights the status of hip arthroscopy in the Indian context. Read More

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New Trends in Injection-Based Therapy for Thumb-Base Osteoarthritis: Where Are We and where Are We Going?

Front Pharmacol 2021 13;12:637904. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, Rheumatology Unit, Clinic for the Diagnosis and Management of Hand Osteoarthritis, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Siena, Italy.

Thumb-base osteoarthritis (TBOA) is a common condition, mostly affecting post-menopausal women, often inducing a significant impact on quality of life and hand functionality. Despite its high prevalence and disability, the therapeutic options in TBOA are still limited and few have been investigated. Among the pharmacological strategies for TBOA management, it would be worthwhile to mention the injection-based therapy. Read More

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Time to get serious about the detection and monitoring of early lung disease in cystic fibrosis.

Thorax 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia

Structural and functional defects within the lungs of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) are detectable soon after birth and progress throughout preschool years often without overt clinical signs or symptoms. By school age, most children have structural changes such as bronchiectasis or gas trapping/hypoperfusion and lung function abnormalities that persist into later life. Despite improved survival, gains in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV) achieved across successive birth cohorts during childhood have plateaued, and rates of FEV decline in adolescence and adulthood have not slowed. Read More

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Which psychosocial interventions improve sex worker well-being? A systematic review of evidence from resource-rich countries.

BMJ Sex Reprod Health 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Health and Social Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK.

Objective: To establish the state of the evidence base around psychosocial interventions that support well-being in sex workers in order to inform policy and practice within a resource-rich geographical context.

Methods: Published and unpublished studies were identified through electronic databases (PsychINFO, CINHAL Plus, MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and Open Grey), hand searching and contacting relevant organisations and experts in the field. Studies were included if they were conducted in high-income settings with sex workers or people engaging in exchange or transactional sex, and evaluated the effect of a psychosocial intervention with validated psychological or well-being measures or through qualitative evaluation. Read More

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Characteristics of knowledge translation theories, models and frameworks for health technology reassessment: expert perspectives through a qualitative exploration.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Apr 29;21(1):401. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3D10 TRW Building, 3280 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4Z6, Canada.

Background: Health Technology Reassessment (HTR) is a process that systematically assesses technologies that are currently used in the health care system. The process results in four outputs: increase use or decrease use, no change, or de-adoption of a technology. Implementation of these outputs remains a challenge. Read More

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Inclusive Communication Model Supporting the Employment Cycle of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 28;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdańsk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland.

Difficulties with interpersonal communication experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) significantly contribute to their underrepresentation in the workforce as well as problems experienced while in employment. Consistently, it is vital to understand how communication within the employment cycle of this group can be improved. This study aims to identify and analyze the possibilities of modifying the communication processes around recruitment, selection, onboarding, and job retention to address the specific characteristics and needs of the representatives of this group. Read More

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Pharmacology, Physiology and Genetics of the Neuropeptide S System.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Apr 23;14(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Neuroscience and Rehabilitation and Laboratory for Technologies of Advanced Therapies (LTTA), University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy.

The Neuropeptide S (NPS) system is a rather 'young' transmitter system that was discovered and functionally described less than 20 years ago. This review highlights the progress that has been made in elucidating its pharmacology, anatomical distribution, and functional involvement in a variety of physiological effects, including behavior and immune functions. Early on, genetic variations of the human NPS receptor (NPSR1) have attracted attention and we summarize current hypotheses of genetic linkage with disease and human behaviors. Read More

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Implementation of a Six-Layer Smart Factory Architecture with Special Focus on Transdisciplinary Engineering Education.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;21(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Chair of Metal Forming, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz Josef Str. 18, 8700 Leoben, Austria.

Smart factories are an integral element of the manufacturing infrastructure in the context of the fourth industrial revolution. Nevertheless, there is frequently a deficiency of adequate training facilities for future engineering experts in the academic environment. For this reason, this paper describes the development and implementation of two different layer architectures for the metal processing environment. Read More

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Knowledge Graphs for COVID-19: An Exploratory Review of the Current Landscape.

J Pers Med 2021 Apr 14;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

The D-Lab, Department of Precision Medicine, GROW-School for Oncology, Maastricht University, 6229 ER Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Searching through the COVID-19 research literature to gain actionable clinical insight is a formidable task, even for experts. The usefulness of this corpus in terms of improving patient care is tied to the ability to see the big picture that emerges when the studies are seen in conjunction rather than in isolation. When the answer to a search query requires linking together multiple pieces of information across documents, simple keyword searches are insufficient. Read More

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Dimensions Used in Instruments for QALY Calculation: A Systematic Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 21;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Centre de Recherche de l'IUSMM, CIUSSS de l'Est de L'île de Montréal, Montréal, QC H1N 3V2, Canada.

Economic assessment is of utmost importance in the healthcare decision-making process. The quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) concept provides a rare opportunity to combine two crucial aspects of health, i.e. Read More

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Alternatives to Antibiotics: A Symposium on the Challenges and Solutions for Animal Health and Production.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Apr 21;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Office of National Programs, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA.

Antibiotics have improved the length and quality of life of people worldwide and have had an immeasurable influence on agricultural animal health and the efficiency of animal production over the last 60 years. The increased affordability of animal protein for a greater proportion of the global population, in which antibiotic use has played a crucial part, has resulted in a substantial improvement in human quality of life. However, these benefits have come with major unintended consequences, including antibiotic resistance. Read More

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Modulated Electro-Hyperthermia Induces a Prominent Local Stress Response and Growth Inhibition in Mouse Breast Cancer Isografts.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 6;13(7). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Institute of Translational Medicine, Semmelweis University, 1094 Budapest, Hungary.

Modulated electro-hyperthermia (mEHT) is a selective cancer treatment used in human oncology complementing other therapies. During mEHT, a focused electromagnetic field (EMF) is generated within the tumor inducing cell death by thermal and nonthermal effects. Here we investigated molecular changes elicited by mEHT using multiplex methods in an aggressive, therapy-resistant triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) model. Read More

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A Review of Recent Deep Learning Approaches in Human-Centered Machine Learning.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 3;21(7). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Augmented Human Lab, Auckland Bioengineering Institue, The University of Auckland, 70 Symonds Street, Grafton, Auckland 1010, New Zealand.

After Deep Learning (DL) regained popularity recently, the Artificial Intelligence (AI) or Machine Learning (ML) field is undergoing rapid growth concerning research and real-world application development. Deep Learning has generated complexities in algorithms, and researchers and users have raised concerns regarding the usability and adoptability of Deep Learning systems. These concerns, coupled with the increasing human-AI interactions, have created the emerging field that is Human-Centered Machine Learning (HCML). Read More

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Treating Diabetic Foot Osteomyelitis: A Practical State-of-the-Art Update.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Apr 1;57(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Balgrist University Hospital, University of Zurich, 8008 Zurich, Switzerland.

Diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) can be difficult to treat and securing optimal clinical outcomes requires a multidisciplinary approach involving a wide variety of medical, surgical and other health care professionals, as well as the patient. Results of studies conducted in the past few years have allowed experts to formulate guidelines that can improve clinical outcomes. We conducted a narrative review of the literature on treat- ment of DFO, with an emphasis on studies published in the last two years, especially regarding antimicrobial therapies and surgical approached to treatment of DFO, supplemented by our own extensive clinical and research experience in this field. Read More

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[Expert consensus on prevention and treatment of amblyopia in children].

Authors:

Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2021 May;57(5):336-340

Amblyopia is caused by vision deprivation and/or abnormal binocular interaction during visual immaturity. According to different etiologies, it is divided into strabismic, ametropic, anisometropic and visual deprivation amblyopia. The key to the treatment of amblyopia is early screening and timely intervention. Read More

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Preconception lifestyle advice for people with infertility.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Apr 29;4:CD008189. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Infertility is a prevalent problem that has significant consequences for individuals, families, and the community. Modifiable lifestyle factors may affect the chance of people with infertility having a baby. However, no guideline is available about what preconception advice should be offered. Read More

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The European Paediatric Rare Tumours Network - European Registry (PARTNER) project for very rare tumors in children.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Apr 29:e29072. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Hematology-Oncology Division, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Padova University Hospital, Padua, Italy.

The PARTNER project (Paediatric Rare Tumours Network - European Registry) was launched in 2016. PARTNER aims to create a European Registry dedicated to children and adolescents with very rare tumors (VRT). It links existing national registries and provides a registry for those countries in which a VRT registry has not yet been created. Read More

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Two Decades of the International Association for Cannabinoid Medicines: 20 Years of Supporting Research and Activities Toward the Medicinal Use of Cannabis and Cannabinoids.

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2021 Apr 15;6(2):82-87. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

International Association for Cannabinoid Medicines (IACM), Steinheim, Germany.

Emerged from the German Association for Cannabis as Medicine (ACM), a handful of enthusiastic medical doctors from Germany, Switzerland, and Austria supported by experts from other countries established the International Association for Cannabinoid Medicines (IACM) in March 2000. During the past 20 years until today, it evolved toward the most important scientific society for clinical research in the field of cannabis-based medicines. The overarching aim of the IACM is to advance the knowledge on cannabis, cannabinoids, the endocannabinoid system, and related topics especially with regard to their therapeutic potential, which would allow more patients to profit from a treatment with cannabis-based medicines and ease legislators to adopt their policies. Read More

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Intelligent Health Care: Applications of Deep Learning in Computational Medicine.

Front Genet 2021 12;12:607471. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Computer Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

With the progress of medical technology, biomedical field ushered in the era of big data, based on which and driven by artificial intelligence technology, computational medicine has emerged. People need to extract the effective information contained in these big biomedical data to promote the development of precision medicine. Traditionally, the machine learning methods are used to dig out biomedical data to find the features from data, which generally rely on feature engineering and domain knowledge of experts, requiring tremendous time and human resources. Read More

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