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Birth of Australopithecus.

Evol Anthropol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Center for the Advanced Study of Human Paleobiology, George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.

The announcement of a fossilized child's skull discovered in a quarry in 1924 sub-Saharan Africa might not have seemed destined to be a classic paper. This contribution focuses on anatomist Raymond Dart's 1925 paper in which he designated the Taungs skull the type specimen of Australopithecus africanus. We combine an account of Dart's training and experience, with a telling of the fossil's discovery, analysis, the initial response of a mostly skeptical community, and a review of subsequent discoveries that consolidated the case Dart made for a hitherto unknown human close relative. Read More

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Current status of haemophilia inhibitor management in mainland China: a haemophilia treatment centres survey on treatment preferences and real-world clinical practices.

Br J Haematol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Blood Diseases, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin Laboratory of Blood Disease Gene Therapy, CAMS Key Laboratory of Gene Therapy for Blood Diseases, CAMS Center for Stem Cell Medicine, PUMC Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Tianjin, China.

To investigate the current experience and expertise for haemophilia inhibitor patient management in haemophilia treatment centres (HTCs) in mainland China. Questionnaires were distributed to 'tertiary tier A' hospital HTCs across China to collect information on treatment preferences for bleeding control, prophylaxis and inhibitor eradication, as well as their regimens in real-world clinical practice. Of 40 questionnaires distributed, 39 were returned. Read More

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Intravenous immunoglobulin for corticosteroid-resistant intestinal Henoch-Schönlein purpura: worth a controlled trial against corticosteroids?

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Aug;60(8):3868-3871

Pediatrics and Pediatric Emergency Unit, The Children Hospital, Azienda Ospedaliera SS Antonio e Biagio e Cesare Arrigo, Alessandria, Italy.

Objectives: Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HScP) may present in children with severe, occasionally refractory, gastrointestinal (GI) involvement. The use of corticosteroids (CSs) is commonplace in the management of the disease, but to date no standardized protocol is available and, although rare, resistance to CS therapy may be challenging to clinicians. IVIG has been proposed as an effective alternative to CSs, but to date no controlled trial has been conducted to ascertain their real efficacy. Read More

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Mammographic and sonographic findings in the breast and axillary tail following a COVID-19 vaccine.

Clin Imaging 2021 Jul 26;80:202-204. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Mayo Clinic, Department of Breast Imaging and Intervention, Rochester, MN, United States of America. Electronic address:

Axillary lymphadenopathy on breast imaging after recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has been reported in the literature as immunization has become more widespread. While muscle edema at the injection site has been observed on MRI secondary to an immune response, ipsilateral breast imaging observations of edema have not been reported to be seen with the COVID-19 vaccinations to date. Mammographic findings such as trabecular and skin thickening, along with increased echogenicity on ultrasound, can be seen with edema secondary to capillary leak or poor lymphatic drainage, and should be considered as a possible etiology for the observed breast edema following a recent COVID-19 vaccine. Read More

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Transfer learning artificial intelligence for automated detection of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing evaluation for suspected obstructive sleep apnoea: a feasibility study.

Sleep Med 2021 Jul 17;85:166-171. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

School of Medicine, The University of Notre Dame Australia, 21 Henry St., Fremantle, WA, 6160, Australia; Bendat Respiratory Research and Development Fund, SJOG Subiaco, WA, 6008, Australia.

Background: Individuals with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) experience a higher burden of atrial fibrillation (AF) than the general population, and many cases of AF remain undetected. We tested the feasibility of an artificial intelligence (AI) approach to opportunistic detection of AF from single-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) which are routinely recorded during in-laboratory polysomnographic sleep studies.

Methods: Using transfer learning, an existing ECG AI model was applied to 1839 single-lead ECG traces recorded during in-laboratory sleep studies without any training of the algorithm. Read More

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Parents' experiences of their child's assessment on an epilepsy surgery pathway: A qualitative study.

Seizure 2021 Jul 17;91:456-461. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Institute of Population Health, Department of Public Health, Policy and Systems, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3G, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Purpose: Children's epilepsy surgery services (CESS) in the UK aim to improve outcomes for young children by increasing access to surgery. Consideration for surgery is complex and time consuming, yet there is lack of research exploring how this process might impact on families. This study aimed to explore parents' experiences of their child consideration for epilepsy surgery to inform future service development and delivery. Read More

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How to convince an editor to accept your paper quickly.

Ronald A Hites

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 22;798:149243. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

O'Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, United States. Electronic address:

Let's imagine that you have just finished writing a scientific paper. The paper is well-structured and clearly written, and you are proud of it. Now is the time to submit it to a peer-reviewed journal and see what your colleagues think of it. Read More

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Low-sound-level auditory processing in noise-exposed adults.

Hear Res 2021 Jul 9;409:108309. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Manchester Centre for Audiology and Deafness, School of Health Sciences, University of Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.; Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, M13 9WL, UK. Electronic address:

Early signs of noise-induced hearing damage are difficult to identify, as they are often confounded by factors such as age, audiometric thresholds, or even music experience. Much previous research has focused on deficits observed at high intensity levels. In contrast, the present study was designed to test the hypothesis that noise exposure causes a degradation in low-sound-level auditory processing in humans, as a consequence of dysfunction of the inner hair cell pathway. Read More

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Attitude towards female circumcision among women in Ethiopia.

Sex Reprod Healthc 2021 Jul 27;29:100647. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Prevention and Community Health, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, United States.

Female genital mutilation or cutting (FGM/C) is a global phenomenon mostly practiced in Africa, Asia, and the middle east. It involves the removal of the external female genitalia for non-medical reasons. The practice cuts across different ethnic and religious groups in Africa and is associated with several health complications. Read More

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Repetitive patterns in the locations of touch errors for two-thumb text entry on a smartphone.

Appl Ergon 2021 Jul 30;97:103541. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

This study investigated repetitive patterns in the locations of touch errors as a function of the shapes and positions of soft buttons on a smartphone for two-thumb text entry. Forty-three right-handed college students with smartphone-use experience were recruited for testing. An experimental application was developed, and the locations and frequencies of touch errors were measured for the button combinations of seven shapes and eight positions. Read More

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Enhancement of balance, and mobility in individuals with multiple sclerosis using visual cue guided multidirectional step training - A pilot study.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jul 24;55:103167. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago.

Background: Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) often experience limitations in mobility due to impairment of gait and balance. Rehabilitation approaches to improve balance and mobility in individuals with MS are limited. We have developed a novel visual cue guided multi-direction step (MDS) training method to improve balance and mobility in individuals with MS. Read More

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Teaching of the Repair of Defective Composite Restorations in Middle Eastern and North African Dental Schools.

J Dent 2021 Jul 30:103753. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Faculty of Dentistry, Oral & Craniofacial Sciences, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Objectives: To evaluate the status of teaching of repair of defective resin-based composite restorations in dental schools in the Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries.

Methods: A validated 14-item questionnaire was mailed to the directors of the operative/restorative dentistry department in 40 MENA dental schools. Data were collected on teaching, including whether the repair of resin-based composite restorations was part of the dental school curriculum; the rationale behind the teaching; how techniques were taught, indications for repair, operative techniques, materials used, patient acceptability and expected longevity of the repair procedure. Read More

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Social disparities in neighborhood heat in the Northeast United States.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 30:111805. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Geography, University of Utah, USA; Center for Natural and Technological Hazards, University of Utah, USA.

Upward trends in ground-level warming are expected to intensify, affecting the health of human populations. Specific to the United States, the Northeast (NE) region is one of the most vulnerable to these warming trends. Previous research has found social disparities in the distribution of heat, while recent studies have examined associations between metropolitan racial/ethnic segregation and heat exposures. Read More

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Implementing a Maternal Rest Bundle to Prevent Newborn Falls.

J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Objective: The specific aims of this quality improvement project were to (a) examine the demographics of newborns who fell and their mothers, (b) implement a maternal rest bundle, and (c) decrease the total number of newborn falls to zero events within 3 months.

Design: We used a quality improvement project with a pre-/postintervention design.

Setting/local Problem: Nine newborn falls occurred over 3. Read More

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Cilostazol and Tocopherol in the Management of Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: New Insights From a Case Report.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon, University of Sao Paulo Medical School Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Several treatment protocols for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) have been published. Despite the efficacy of surgical therapy of approximately 90% as primary therapy, the role of other agents, such as drug administration, should not be underestimated. Based on previous experience with osteoradionecrosis, the association of pentoxifylline and tocopherol has shown encouraging results in MRONJ patients. Read More

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Can Alloplastic Total Temporomandibular Joint Reconstruction be Used in the Growing Patient? A Preliminary Report.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Reichmann Professor and Chair, Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, The University of Oklahoma.

Introduction: Although primarily reserved for adult patients, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) total joint reconstructive (TJR) surgery is rarely used in the pediatric population due to its many challenges; it is only performed after all other non-invasive or invasive procedures have been exhausted. Although autogenous grafting has been discussed in the literature, there is very little regarding synthetic or alloplastic materials. In this study, we performed alloplastic TMJ reconstruction on 5 patients with severe ankylosis due to various craniofacial deformities and prior traumatic injuries. Read More

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Breastfeeding within the circle of motherhood, restriction, and patriarchy: A qualitative study.

Health Care Women Int 2021 Aug 2:1-16. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Nursing, Kırşehir Ahi Evran University Faculty of Health Sciences, Kırşehir, Turkey.

Our purpose in the present study is to analyze the opinions of women regarding the factors that support and hinder their breastfeeding. This is a phenomenological and qualitative study. The present study included 32 breastfeeding women who live in different provinces in the X Region of X. Read More

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Feasibility of long-term home noninvasive ventilation program in a general pediatric unit: 21 years' experience in Hong Kong.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Paediatrics, Kwong Wah Hospital, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR.

Background: Long-term home noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is increasingly employed in children with sleep-disordered breathing and chronic respiratory failure. While studies suggest its successful implementation in tertiary care centers, little is known about the situation in a general care setting. Hence, we aim to evaluate the clinical profiles of these children in a general pediatric unit over the past two decades. Read More

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The experiences of the caring dyad: (Un)articulated realities of living with cardiometabolic risk, metabolic syndrome and related diseases in severe mental illness.

Health Expect 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, UK.

Background: Informal carers play an important role in the care of patients with mental illness. Little is known of the relationship experience of the patient and their informal carer (caring dyad) as the context for the intersection between physical and mental health.

Aim: This study aimed to explore the impact of comorbid cardiometabolic risk (CMR), metabolic syndrome (MetS) and related diseases and severe mental illness (SMI) on the caring dyad. Read More

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'That house was a home': Qualitative evidence from New Zealand on the connections between rental housing eviction and poor health outcomes.

Health Promot J Austr 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

He Kāinga Oranga - Housing and Health Research Programme, Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand.

Issue Addressed: Eviction, or a forced move from rental housing, is a common experience for New Zealand renters, yet we know very little about its effects. This research investigated how eviction affects people's lives and health.

Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 27 people who had experienced eviction. Read More

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Surgical repair of subaortic stenosis resection: 10 years of single-center experience in 65 patients.

J Card Surg 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Pediatric Cardiac Center, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Subaortic stenosis (SAS) was a rare congenital heart disease of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), ranging from "isolated" lesions to "tunnel" or "diffuse" lesions. We conducted a retrospective study to describe the characteristics of patients with different lesions and analyze the risk factors for reoperation.

Methods: In this study, we examined a single-center retrospective cohort of SAS patients undergoing resection from 2010 to 2019. Read More

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Peer mentors' role in school-based health promotion: qualitative findings from the Young & Active study.

Health Promot Int 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Health and social context, National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Studiestræde 6, 1455 Copenhagen K, Denmark.

Peer-led interventions are highlighted as promising strategies to promote health among adolescents, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this approach. To better understand the role of peer mentors (PMs) as implementers in school-based health promotion, we combined participant observations, focus group interviews and video recordings to explore high school students' reception of a peer-led intervention component (Young & Active). Young & Active aimed to increase well-being among first-year high school students (∼16 years of age) through the promotion of movement and sense of community and was implemented during the school year 2016-2017 in a larger school-based intervention study, the Healthy High School study in Denmark. Read More

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Synaptic and Genetic Bases of Impaired Motor Learning Associated with Modified Experience-Dependent Cortical Plasticity in Heterozygous Reeler Mutants.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Anatomy, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga 520-2192, Japan.

Patients with neurodevelopmental disorders show impaired motor skill learning. It is unclear how the effect of genetic variation on synaptic function and transcriptome profile may underlie experience-dependent cortical plasticity, which supports the development of fine motor skills. RELN (reelin) is one of the genes implicated in neurodevelopmental psychiatric vulnerability. Read More

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Fully automated whole-liver volume quantification on CT-image data: Comparison with manual volumetry using enhanced and unenhanced images as well as two different radiation dose levels and two reconstruction kernels.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(8):e0255374. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University, Tübingen, Germany.

Objectives: To evaluate the accuracy of fully automated liver volume quantification vs. manual quantification using unenhanced as well as enhanced CT-image data as well as two different radiation dose levels and also two image reconstruction kernels.

Material And Methods: The local ethics board gave its approval for retrospective data analysis. Read More

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Normalisation process theory and the implementation of a new glaucoma clinical pathway in hospital eye services: Perspectives of doctors, nurses and optometrists.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(8):e0255564. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

School of Healthcare Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales.

Background: Normalisation process theory reports the importance of contextual integration in successfully embedding novel interventions, with recent propositions detailing the role that 'plasticity' of intervention components and 'elasticity' of an intended setting contribute. We report on the introduction of a clinical pathway assessing patient non-responsiveness to treatment for glaucoma and ocular hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of implementing the Cardiff Model of Glaucoma Care into hospital eye services, identifying any issues of acceptability for staff through the filter of normalisation process theory. Read More

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Developing an interplay among the psychological barriers for the adoption of industry 4.0 phenomenon.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(8):e0255115. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Management Sciences, Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology, Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan.

This research aims to identify, rank, and create an interplay among the psychological barriers to adopting Industry 4.0 technologies in the manufacturing sector. A comprehensive literature review tracked by a discussion with industry and academic experts recognized 20 barriers. Read More

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Factors affecting the choice of delivery place in a rural area in Laos: A qualitative analysis.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(8):e0255193. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Background: Home delivery (HD) without skilled birth attendants (SBAs) are considered crucial risk factors increasing maternal and child mortality rates in Loa PDR. While a few studies in the literature discuss the choice of delivery in remote areas of minority ethnic groups; our work aims to identify factors that indicated their delivery place, at home or in the health facilities.

Methods: A community-based qualitative study was conducted between February and March 2020. Read More

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Do adolescents always take more risks than adults? A within-subjects developmental study of context effects on decision making and processing.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(8):e0255102. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Adolescents take more risks than adults in the real world, but laboratory experiments do not consistently demonstrate this pattern. In the current study, we examine the possibility that age differences in decision making vary as a function of the nature of the task (e.g. Read More

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Cardiac risk stratification in cancer patients: A longitudinal patient-patient network analysis.

PLoS Med 2021 Aug 2;18(8):e1003736. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Genomic Medicine Institute, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.

Background: Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in general population and the second leading cause of mortality and morbidity in cancer survivors after recurrent malignancy in the United States. The growing awareness of cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD) has led to an emerging field of cardio-oncology; yet, there is limited knowledge on how to predict which patients will experience adverse cardiac outcomes. We aimed to perform unbiased cardiac risk stratification for cancer patients using our large-scale, institutional electronic medical records. Read More

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Risk Factors and Protective Immunity Against Rabies in Unvaccinated Butchers Working at Dog Slaughterhouses in Northern Vietnam.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, Japan.

Vietnam is a rabies-endemic country where eating dog meat is customary. However, the risks of rabies transmission to dog slaughtering and processing workers have not been identified. This study aimed to determine the rabies neutralizing antibody (NTA) and risk factors in dog slaughterers to propose appropriate intervention methods for this occupational group. Read More

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