J Biosci Bioeng 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.
Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 5650871, Japan; Manufacturing Technology Association of Biologics, 7-1-49 Minatojima-minami, Kobe, Hyogo 6500047, Japan; Industrial Biotechnology Initiative Division, Institute for Open and Transdisciplinary Research Initiatives, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 5650871, Japan. Electronic address:
Cartilaginous fishes such as sharks have adaptive immune systems based on immunoglobulins similar to those in mammals. During their evolution, cartilaginous fishes individually have acquired their adaptive immune system called immunoglobulin new antigen receptor (IgNARs). IgNARs maintain their functions in the harsh environment of shark serum, which contains a high concentration of urea to prevent water loss in seawater. Read More