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Reading: The Confluence of Vision and Language.

Annu Rev Vis Sci 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Graduate School of Education, Stanford University, Stanford, California 93405, USA; email:

The scientific study of reading has a rich history that spans disciplines from vision science to linguistics, psychology, cognitive neuroscience, neurology, and education. The study of reading can elucidate important general mechanisms in spatial vision, attentional control, object recognition, and perceptual learning, as well as the principles of plasticity and cortical topography. However, literacy also prompts the development of specific neural circuits to process a unique and artificial stimulus. Read More

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Association between daily rumination and posttraumatic growth during the COVID-19 pandemic: An experience sampling method.

Authors:
Yuki Shigemoto

Psychol Trauma 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Psychology.

Objective: The current intensive longitudinal study aimed at examining the association between daily rumination (i.e., intrusive rumination and deliberate rumination) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) associated with the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Read More

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The Liver Retransplantation Risk Score: A prognostic model for survival after adult liver retransplantation.

Transpl Int 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

University of Groningen and University Medical Center Groningen, Division of HPB Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Groningen, the Netherlands.

High-risk combinations of recipient and graft characteristics are poorly defined for liver retransplantation (reLT) in the current era. We aimed to develop a risk model for survival after reLT using data from the European Liver Transplantation Registry, followed by internal and external validation. From 2006-2016, 85,067 LTs were recorded, including 5,581 reLTs (6. Read More

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Prospective study of artificial intelligence-based decision support to improve head and neck radiotherapy plan quality.

Clin Transl Radiat Oncol 2021 Jul 20;29:65-70. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Radiation Oncology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States.

Background And Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning for head and neck cancer is a complex process. While the lowest achievable dose for each individual organ-at-risk (OAR) is unknown , artificial intelligence (AI) holds promise as a tool to accurately estimate the expected dose distribution for OARs. We prospectively investigated the benefits of incorporating an AI-based decision support tool (DST) into the clinical workflow to improve OAR sparing. Read More

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Feasibility of a virtual reality-based approach to improve behavioral weight management outcomes.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2021 Jun 22;7(1):129. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Center for Health Research, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA.

Background: Behavioral weight loss interventions promote clinically significant weight loss over 12 months, but weight regain remains problematic and a substantial proportion of participants do not achieve long-term weight loss maintenance. Novel methods are needed that instill habit strength for sustaining weight control behaviors long term. Virtual reality (VR) has the potential to provide opportunities within behavioral treatment for patients to practice desired weight control behaviors in the frequency and magnitude necessary to build durable habits. Read More

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[Local application of recombinant activated factor VII for massive surgical bleeding].

Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2021 ;85(3):78-83

Burdenko Center of Neurosurgery, Moscow, Russia.

The authors report resection of anaplastic convexital meningioma in a middle-aged woman complicated by expected massive blood loss. The most intense bleeding occurred at the final stage of resection and it was impossible to stop it with traditional approaches. The surgeon pressed a standard tachocomb plate moistened with a diluted solution of recombinant activated factor VII (coagil, Russia) to the most bleeding area for 5 minutes. Read More

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Is Food Addictive? A Review of the Science.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA; email:

As ultraprocessed foods (i.e., foods composed of mostly cheap industrial sources of dietary energy and nutrients plus additives) have become more abundant in our food supply, rates of obesity and diet-related disease have increased simultaneously. Read More

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Mechanisms of Selective Autophagy.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Molecular Cancer Research Group, Department of Medical Biology, University of Tromsø - The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø, Norway; email:

Selective autophagy is the lysosomal degradation of specific intracellular components sequestered into autophagosomes, late endosomes, or lysosomes through the activity of selective autophagy receptors (SARs). SARs interact with autophagy-related (ATG)8 family proteins via sequence motifs called LC3-interacting region (LIR) motifs in vertebrates and Atg8-interacting motifs (AIMs) in yeast and plants. SARs can be divided into two broad groups: soluble or membrane bound. Read More

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Promoters and Antagonists of Phagocytosis: A Plastic and Tunable Response.

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Program in Cell Biology, Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G0A4, Canada; email:

Recent observations indicate that, rather than being an all-or-none response, phagocytosis is finely tuned by a host of developmental and environmental factors. The expression of key phagocytic determinants is regulated via transcriptional and epigenetic means that confer memory on the process. Membrane traffic, the cytoskeleton, and inside-out signaling control the activation of phagocytic receptors and their ability to access their targets. Read More

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Exploratory Outlier Detection for Acceleromyographic Neuromuscular Monitoring: Machine Learning Approach.

J Med Internet Res 2021 May 31;23(6):e25913. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussel, Belgium.

Background: Perioperative quantitative monitoring of neuromuscular function in patients receiving neuromuscular blockers has become internationally recognized as an absolute and core necessity in modern anesthesia care. Because of their kinetic nature, artifactual recordings of acceleromyography-based neuromuscular monitoring devices are not unusual. These generate a great deal of cynicism among anesthesiologists, constituting an obstacle toward their widespread adoption. Read More

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Bayesian inference of the inbreeding load variance for fertility traits in Brown Swiss cattle.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment (DAFNAE), University of Padova, Viale dell' Università 16, 35020, Legnaro PD, Italy.

Our study investigated the inbreeding load for fertility traits in the Italian Brown Swiss dairy cattle breed. Fertility traits included continuous traits (i.e. Read More

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Confined Magnetic-Dielectric Balance Boosted Electromagnetic Wave Absorption.

Small 2021 Jun 18:e2100970. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Shanghai Key Lab of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200438, P. R. China.

Magnetic-dielectric property plays a critical significance for the functional expression toward advanced materials. Within nanoscale, the simultaneous regulation of the electrical and magnetic properties of electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption materials faces huge challenges. Herein, using the metal-organic frameworks (MOF) as templates, highly-dispersed ZnO and Co nanoparticles are uniformly confined inside graphited N-doped carbon skeleton, constructing the balanced EM property in the [email protected] absorbers. Read More

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The Influence of Timing in Critical Care Nutrition.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA; email:

Proper timing of critical care nutrition has long been a matter of controversy. Critical illness waxes and wanes in stages, creating a dynamic flux in energy needs that we have only begun to examine. Furthermore, response to nutrition support likely differs greatly at the level of the individual patient in regard to genetic status, disease stage, comorbidities, and more. Read More

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A new classification for the diagnosis of superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors using endocytoscopy: a prospective study.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Gastroenterology, NTT Medical Center Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Background And Aim: Although the frequency of endoscopic diagnosis of superficial non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors (SNADETs) has been increasing in recent years, no criteria for the endoscopic diagnosis of these tumors have been established yet. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of endocytoscopy for diagnosis SNADETs and to establish new criteria.

Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the NTT Medical Center Tokyo from May 2019 to July 2020, and a total of 100 consecutive SNADETs were enrolled. Read More

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Superconductor qubits hamiltonian approximations effect on quantum state evolution and control.

Authors:
Javad Sharifi

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 17;11(1):12791. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Qom University of Technology, Qom, 37181-46645, Iran.

Microwave IQ-mixer controllers are designed for the three approximated Hamiltonians of charge, phase and flux qubits and the controllers are exerted both on approximate and precise quantum system models. The controlled qubits are for the implementation of the two quantum-gates with these three fundamental types of qubits, Quantum NOT-gate and Hadamard-gate. In the charge-qubit, for implementation of both gates, in the approximated and precise model, we observed different controlled trajectories. Read More

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Dual Targeting Smart Drug Delivery System for Multimodal Synergistic Combination Cancer Therapy with Reduced Cardiotoxicity.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of radiation and Polymer Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

This study first reports the development of a smart drug delivery system (DDS) for multimodal synergistic cancer therapy combining chemo-photothermal-starvation approaches. A magnetic photothermal agent was synthesized by preparing iron oxide (IO) nanoparticles (NPs) with covalently attached indocyanine green (ICG) and glucose oxidase (GOx) ([email protected]). Synthesized [email protected] NPs were co-encapsulated with doxorubicin (Dox) and EGCG ((-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate) inside PLGA (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) NPs using multiple emulsion solvent evaporation method. Read More

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Effects of Evolution, Ecology, and Economy on Human Diet: Insights from Hunter-Gatherers and Other Small-Scale Societies.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.

We review the evolutionary origins of the human diet and the effects of ecology economy on the dietary proportion of plants and animals. Humans eat more meat than other apes, a consequence of hunting and gathering, which arose ∼2.5 Mya with the genus . Read More

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Integrated Prevention at Work: Protocol for a Concept Analysis.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Jun 17;10(6):e29869. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitation and Social Integration, Québec, QC, Canada.

Background: Integrated prevention at work promises to eliminate the boundaries between primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention actions taken by stakeholders in the world of work. It is receiving increasing attention from the scientific community because of its concerted and harmonized approach, which promotes employment access, return, and healthy long-term continuation. Although promising, integrated prevention is not yet well-defined, which makes it difficult to operationalize. Read More

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Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Kaufman Speech Praxis Test for Children (KSPT) protocol.

Codas 2021 11;33(3):e20200093. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Departamento de Fonoaudiologia, Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru - FOB, Universidade de São Paulo - USP - Bauru (SP), Brasil.

Purpose: To present the Kaufman Speech Praxis Test for Children - KSPT instrument, as well as its Brazilian cross-cultural adaptation.

Methods: After obtaining permission to use the KSPT by the copyright holder, and compliance with ethical aspects, the instrument was translated and adapted into Brazilian Portuguese, preserving semantic, idiomatic, experimental and conceptual equivalences, when relevant.

Results: After translation and cross-cultural adaptation procedures, there were no changes in Part 1 (Oral movement); in Part 2 (Simple Phonemic and Syllabic Level), 12 test words were excluded and 16 were included; and in Part 3 (Complex Phonemic and Syllabic Level), 13 test words were excluded as they failed to correspond to the characteristics of phonoarticulatory production (phonetic/phonological) in Brazilian Portuguese. Read More

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Targeted Restriction of Viral Gene Expression and Replication by the ZAP Antiviral System.

Annu Rev Virol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Immunology & Microbial Sciences, King's College London, London SE1 9RT, United Kingdom; email:

The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) restricts the replication of a broad range of RNA and DNA viruses. ZAP directly binds viral RNA, targeting it for degradation and inhibiting its translation. While the full scope of RNA determinants involved in mediating selective ZAP activity are unclear, ZAP binds CpG dinucleotides, dictating at least part of its target specificity. Read More

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The Ends Dictate the Means: Promoter Switching in Herpesvirus Gene Expression.

Annu Rev Virol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA; email:

Herpesvirus gene expression is dynamic and complex, with distinct complements of viral genes expressed at specific times in different infection contexts. These complex patterns of viral gene expression arise in part from the integration of multiple cellular and viral signals that affect the transcription of viral genes. The use of alternative promoters provides an increased level of control, allowing different promoters to direct the transcription of the same gene in response to distinct temporal and contextual cues. Read More

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Quantitative Temporal Viromics.

Annu Rev Virol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY, United Kingdom; email:

The abundance, localization, modifications, and protein-protein interactions of many host cell and virus proteins can change dynamically throughout the course of any viral infection. Studying these changes is critical for a comprehensive understanding of how viruses replicate and cause disease, as well as for the development of antiviral therapeutics and vaccines. Previously, we developed a mass spectrometry-based technique called quantitative temporal viromics (QTV), which employs isobaric tandem mass tags (TMTs) to allow precise comparative quantification of host and virus proteomes through a whole time course of infection. Read More

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The Lesser Tuberosity Osteotomy Exposure for Total Shoulder Arthroplasty.

JBJS Essent Surg Tech 2021 Jan-Mar;11(1). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY.

Background: The lesser tuberosity osteotomy (LTO) is a commonly employed technique for mobilizing the subscapularis tendon during anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty that is performed through a deltopectoral approach. During this procedure, the lesser tuberosity is osteotomized from the proximal aspect of the humerus while maintaining the strong tendon-to-bone attachment of the subscapularis tendon insertion. After the shoulder arthroplasty is performed, the lesser tuberosity osseous fragment is then resecured to the proximal aspect of the humerus with heavy nonabsorbable suture, which allows for direct bone-to-bone compression and healing of the fragment to the proximal aspect of the humerus. Read More

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February 2021

Production of monoclonal shark-derived immunoglobulin new antigen receptor antibodies using Chinese hamster ovary cell expression system.

J Biosci Bioeng 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 5650871, Japan; Manufacturing Technology Association of Biologics, 7-1-49 Minatojima-minami, Kobe, Hyogo 6500047, Japan; Industrial Biotechnology Initiative Division, Institute for Open and Transdisciplinary Research Initiatives, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 5650871, Japan. Electronic address:

Cartilaginous fishes such as sharks have adaptive immune systems based on immunoglobulins similar to those in mammals. During their evolution, cartilaginous fishes individually have acquired their adaptive immune system called immunoglobulin new antigen receptor (IgNARs). IgNARs maintain their functions in the harsh environment of shark serum, which contains a high concentration of urea to prevent water loss in seawater. Read More

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COVID diagnostics by molecular methods: A systematic review of nucleic acid based testing systems.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Clinical Hematology and Director, Tata Medical Center, Kolkata, 700160, India.

Background: The selection of appropriate kit and PCR equipment for the detection of SARS CoV-2 is critically important in view of many options available in the diagnostic market. Since last year many molecular products are available for COVID-19 diagnostics., some of these diagnostics have become commercially available for healthcare workers and clinical laboratories. Read More

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Recombination efficiency measurement by real-time PCR: a strategy to evaluate ParA-mediated minicircle production.

Anal Biochem 2021 Jun 9:114285. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

iBB- Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Department of Bioengineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address:

Minicircles (MCs) are DNA molecules that are produced in Escherichia coli by replicating a parental plasmid (PP) and inducing its site-specific intramolecular recombination into miniplasmid (MP; containing the prokaryotic backbone) and MC molecules (comprised by the eukaryotic cassette). The determination of the recombination efficiency and the monitoring of PP, MC and MP species during processing and in the final product are critical aspects of MC manufacturing. This work describes a real-time PCR method for the specific identification of PP, MP or MC that uses sets of primers specific for each species. Read More

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Simultaneous transcatheter treatment of ascending aortic aneurysm with aortic and mitral regurgitation: an in vitro study.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Endovascular Diagnosis and Treatment Center for Heart Valvular Diseases, and Endovascular Diagnosis and Treatment Center for Aortic Dissection, Navy Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: We sought to explore the efficacy of the endovascular repair of an ascending aortic aneurysm with aortic and mitral regurgitation by 2 novel valved stents.

Methods: We established models of ascending aortic aneurysms combined with aortic and mitral regurgitation in 10 pig hearts, then implanted self-expanding aortic fenestrated and mitral valved stents via the transapical approach. We applied a fluoroscopy-guided in vitro setting to test the approach, then analysed continuous circulating flushing at 37°C. Read More

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The Balance of Nature: A Global Marine Perspective.

Ann Rev Mar Sci 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Lorenz Center, Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; email:

The ancient idea of the balance of nature continues to influence modern perspectives on global environmental change. Assumptions of stable biogeochemical steady states and linear responses to perturbation are widely employed in the interpretation of geochemical records. Here, we review the dynamics of the marine carbon cycle and its interactions with climate and life over geologic time, focusing on what the record of past changes can teach us about stability and instability in the Earth system. Read More

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Vitamin A and Vitamin E: Will the Real Antioxidant Please Stand Up?

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA.

Vitamin A, acting through its metabolite, all--retinoic acid, is a potent transcriptional regulator affecting expression levels of hundreds of genes through retinoic acid response elements present within these genes. However, the literature is replete with claims that consider vitamin A to be an antioxidant vitamin, like vitamins C and E. This apparent contradiction in the understanding of how vitamin A acts mechanistically within the body is a major focus of this review. Read More

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Roles of Endocannabinoids and Endocannabinoid-like Molecules in Energy Homeostasis and Metabolic Regulation: A Nutritional Perspective.

Annu Rev Nutr 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biochemistry, Kagawa University School of Medicine, Miki, Kagawa 761-0793, Japan; email:

The endocannabinoid system is involved in signal transduction in mammals. It comprises principally G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous agonists, called endocannabinoids, as well as the enzymes and transporters responsible for the metabolism of endocannabinoids. Two arachidonic acid-containing lipid molecules, arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, function as endocannabinoids. Read More

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