7,701 results match your criteria exercise neural


Reduction in post-spinal cord injury spasticity by combination of peripheral nerve grafting and acidic fibroblast growth factor infusion in monkeys.

J Int Med Res 2021 Jun;49(6):3000605211022294

Center for Neural Interface Design, School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.

Objective: Spasticity is a frequent complication after spinal cord injury (SCI), but the existing therapies provide only limited relief and are associated with adverse reactions. Therefore, we aimed to develop a novel strategy to ameliorate the spasticity induced by SCI.

Methods: This nonrandomized controlled study used a repeated measurement design. Read More

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Hippocampal Functional Connectivity and Memory Performance After Exercise Intervention in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.

Background: Exercise training (ET) has neuroprotective effects in the hippocampus, a key brain region for memory that is vulnerable to age-related dysfunction.

Objective: We investigated the effects of ET on functional connectivity (FC) of the hippocampus in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and a cognitively normal (CN) control group. We also assessed whether the ET-induced changes in hippocampal FC (Δhippocampal-FC) are associated with changes in memory task performance (Δmemory performance). Read More

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Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Vitamin D Decrease Plasma T-Tau, GFAP, and UCH-L1 in Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

Front Nutr 2021 4;8:685220. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Blast-Induced Neurotrauma Branch, Center for Military Psychiatry and Neuroscience Research, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Silver Spring, MD, United States.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in neuronal, axonal and glial damage. Interventions targeting neuroinflammation to enhance recovery from TBI are needed. Exercise is known to improve cognitive function in TBI patients. Read More

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Deep convolutional neural networks based ECG beats classification to diagnose cardiovascular conditions.

Biomed Eng Lett 2021 May 16;11(2):147-162. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Healthy Ageing Theme, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010 Australia.

Medical practitioners need to understand the critical features of ECG beats to diagnose and identify cardiovascular conditions accurately. This would be greatly facilitated by identifying the significant features of frequency components in temporal ECG wave-forms using computational methods. In this study, we have proposed a novel ECG beat classifier based on a customized VGG16-based Convolution Neural Network (CNN) that uses the time-frequency representation of temporal ECG, and a method to identify the contribution of interpretable ECG frequencies when classifying based on the SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) values. Read More

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Neural Efficiency and Ability to Produce Accurate Efforts in Different Perceived Intensity Zones.

Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

EA4660, C3S Culture Sport Health Society, University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Besançon, France.

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between neural efficiency and the ability of an athlete to produce accurate efforts in different perceived intensity zones during a racing scenario. The α/β ratio was used to quantify the neural efficiency during cycling, as it traduced the degree of participants information processing activity with lower cortical activity possible. Twelve trained competitive male cyclists delimited their perceived intensity zones 2 to 6 on a scale to assess the rating of exercise intensity. Read More

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Timed daily exercise remodels circadian rhythms in mice.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 18;4(1):761. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Regular exercise is important for physical and mental health. An underexplored and intriguing property of exercise is its actions on the body's 24 h or circadian rhythms. Molecular clock cells in the brain's suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) use electrical and chemical signals to orchestrate their activity and convey time of day information to the rest of the brain and body. Read More

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Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS): State of the science and clinical care from a 2019 National Institutes of Health Expert Consensus Meeting - Part 1.

Auton Neurosci 2021 Jun 5:102828. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Cardiac Sciences, Libin Cardiovascular Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Autonomic Dysfunction Center, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. Electronic address:

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a chronic and often disabling disorder characterized by orthostatic intolerance with excessive heart rate increase without hypotension during upright posture. Patients often experience a constellation of other typical symptoms including fatigue, exercise intolerance and gastrointestinal distress. A typical patient with POTS is a female of child-bearing age, who often first displays symptoms in adolescence. Read More

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Resting-state aperiodic neural dynamics predict individual differences in visuomotor performance and learning.

Hum Mov Sci 2021 Jun 15;78:102829. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience Research Hub, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.

An emerging body of work has demonstrated that resting-state non-oscillatory, or aperiodic, 1/f neural activity is a functional and behaviorally relevant marker of cognitive function capacity. In the motor domain, previous work has only applied 1/f analyses to investigations of motor coordination and performance measures. The value of aperiodic resting-state neural dynamics as a marker of individual visuomotor performance capacity remains unknown. Read More

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Heart rate variability modifications in response to different types of exercise training in athletes.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Cardiology and Sports Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is a long-standing technique to indirectly assess neural cardiac regulation. This article specifically addressed how spectral analysis of HRV could help to understand neural cardiovascular adaptations to long-term exercise training and inform us on training status in athletes.

Methods: We reviewed literature searching for articles investigating resting cardiovascular adaptations to long-tem exercise training through spectral analysis of HRV in athletes, from amateur to world class categories, practicing different sport disciplines, focusing, in particular, on a series of work performed over time in our laboratory, which may highlight how different types of exercise training differently affect neural cardiac regulation. Read More

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Different Modulatory Effects of Cognitive Training and Aerobic Exercise on Resting State Functional Connectivity of Entorhinal Cortex in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 31;13:655245. Epub 2021 May 31.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The entorhinal cortex (EC) plays an essential role in age-related cognitive decline. However, the effect of functional connectivity (FC) changes between EC and other cerebral cortices on cognitive function remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the modulation of two interventions (cognitive training and aerobic exercise) on EC-FC in community-dwelling older adults. Read More

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Repeated Exposure to Illusory Sense of Body Ownership and Agency Over a Moving Virtual Body Improves Executive Functioning and Increases Prefrontal Cortex Activity in the Elderly.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 31;15:674326. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Advanced Brain Science, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

We previously showed that the illusory sense of ownership and agency over a moving body in immersive virtual reality (displayed in a first-person perspective) can trigger subjective and physiological reactions on the real subject's body and, therefore, an acute improvement of cognitive functions after a single session of high-intensity intermittent exercise performed exclusively by one's own virtual body, similar to what happens when we actually do physical activity. As well as confirming previous results, here, we aimed at finding in the elderly an increased improvement after a longer virtual training with similar characteristics. Forty-two healthy older subjects (28 females, average age = 71. Read More

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The impact of 6 months of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on sympathetic neural recruitment during apneic stress.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 06 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

The current study evaluated the hypothesis that six months of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) would improve sympathetic neural recruitment in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). Microneurography was used to evaluate action potential (AP) discharge patterns within bursts of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), in eleven patients with IHD (1 female; 61±9 years) pre- (Pre-CR) and post- six months of aerobic and resistance training-based CR (Post-CR). Measures were made at baseline and during maximal voluntary end-inspiratory (EI-APN) and end-expiratory apneas (EE-APN). Read More

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Neural correlates of the production effect: An fMRI study.

Brain Cogn 2021 Jun 11;152:105757. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Memorial University of Newfoundland, Department of Psychology, St. John's, NL A1B 3X9, Canada. Electronic address:

Recognition memory is improved for items produced at study (e.g., by reading them aloud) relative to a non-produced control condition (e. Read More

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Activity-based Anorexia for Modeling Vulnerability and Resilience in Mice.

Bio Protoc 2021 May 5;11(9):e4009. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychology, Hunter College, CUNY, New York, NY, USA.

Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a widely used rodent model of anorexia nervosa. It involves combining limited access to food with unlimited access to a running wheel, leading to a paradoxical decrease in food intake, hyperactivity, and life-threatening weight loss. Although initially characterized in rats, ABA has been tested in mice with results that vary based on strain, sex, age, the amount of time food is available, and the number of days of food restriction. Read More

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Boxing vs Sensory Exercise for Parkinson's Disease: A Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial.

Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2021 Jun 13:15459683211023197. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Movement Disorders Research and Rehabilitation Centre, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, Canada.

. Exercise is increasingly becoming recognized as an important adjunct to medications in the clinical management of Parkinson's disease (PD). Boxing and sensory exercise have shown immediate benefits, but whether they continue beyond program completion is unknown. Read More

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Pathological findings in horses with lumbosacral region pain.

Equine Vet J 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Centre for Equine Studies, Animal Health Trust, Lanwades Park, Newmarket, Suffolk, CB8 7UU, UK.

Background: There is a lack of understanding of the pathological and/or physiological nature of lumbosacral region pain.

Objectives: To describe the gross variations of the osseous and soft tissues of the lumbosacral region and report the histological findings of sections of nerve tissue in affected and control horses.

Study Design: Descriptive post-mortem case series. Read More

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Classification of visuomotor tasks based on electroencephalographic data depends on age-related differences in brain activity patterns.

Neural Netw 2021 May 13;142:363-374. Epub 2021 May 13.

Institute of Sports Medicine, Paderborn University, Paderborn, Germany; Division of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Classification of physiological data provides a data driven approach to study central aspects of motor control, which changes with age. To implement such results in real-life applications for elderly it is important to identify age-specific characteristics of movement classification. We compared task-classification based on EEG derived activity patterns related to brain network characteristics between older and younger adults performing force tracking with two task characteristics (sinusoidal; constant) with the right or left hand. Read More

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Effects of Acute Dance and Aerobic Exercise on Drug Craving and Food Reward in Women with Methamphetamine Dependence.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Psychology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, People's Republic of China School of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom People's Liberation Army Second Military Medical University Naval Medical University, Department of Orthopedics, Changhai Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Drug dependence causes an overestimation of drug-related stimuli and an underestimation of non-drug-related stimuli, such as food. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute moderate-intensity dance and aerobic exercise on drug craving, appetite, prefrontal neural activation to food cues and food reward in women with MA dependence.

Methods: Thirty-nine women who met the DSM-V MA dependence criteria participated in the experiment and were randomly assigned to either a dance (n = 20) or exercise (n = 19) group. Read More

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The effect of acute aerobic exercise on the consolidation of motor memories.

Exp Brain Res 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Acute aerobic exercise performed prior to training may assist with motor skill acquisition through enhancement of motor cortical plasticity. In addition, high-intensity exercise performed after training improves retention, although the mechanisms of this are unclear. We hypothesized that acute continuous moderate-intensity exercise performed post-motor training would also assist with motor skill retention and that this behavioral change would be positively correlated with neural markers of training-related cortical adaptation. Read More

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Epilepsy and the smell of fear.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Jun 7;121(Pt A):108078. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Neurology, University of Colorado, 1635 Aurora Court, Aurora, CO 80045, United States.

Objective: In our canine scent detection research involving a specific volatile organic compound (VOC) associated with human epileptic seizure, we began to suspect involvement of the primitive neural networks associated with production of a previously undescribed human alarm pheromone as the origin of our seizure scent. We hypothesized that if we presented fear-scented sweat to our canine seizure scent detection team, and they identified the fear scent as their seizure scent, then that would suggest that they are identical compounds.

Methods: Following consent and approval, sweat samples taken from volunteers associated with the Brooke Gordon Comprehensive Epilepsy Center at Denver Health were processed by the Canine Assistants (CA) service dog team that had been imprinted to recognize the unique seizure scent from our previous study. Read More

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Associations of regional and network functional connectivity with exercise-induced low back pain.

J Pain 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610; Center for Pain Research and Behavioral Health, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610. Electronic address:

Musculoskeletal pain is an aversive experience that exists within a variety of conditions and can result in significant impairment for individuals. Gaining greater understanding of the factors related to pain vulnerability and resilience to musculoskeletal pain may help target at-risk individuals for early intervention. This analysis builds on our previous work identifying regions where greater gray matter density (GMD) was associated with lower pain following standardized, exercise induced musculoskeletal injury. Read More

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Personalized machine learning of depressed mood using wearables.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Jun 9;11(1):338. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

Depression is a multifaceted illness with large interindividual variability in clinical response to treatment. In the era of digital medicine and precision therapeutics, new personalized treatment approaches are warranted for depression. Here, we use a combination of longitudinal ecological momentary assessments of depression, neurocognitive sampling synchronized with electroencephalography, and lifestyle data from wearables to generate individualized predictions of depressed mood over a 1-month time period. Read More

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Aerobic exercise, cardiorespiratory fitness, and the human hippocampus.

Hippocampus 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

The hippocampus is particularly susceptible to neurodegeneration. Physical activity, specifically increasing cardiorespiratory fitness via aerobic exercise, shows promise as a potential method for mitigating hippocampal decline in humans. Numerous studies have now investigated associations between the structure and function of the hippocampus and engagement in physical activity. Read More

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Neuromuscular, biomechanical, and energetic adjustments following repeated bouts of downhill running.

J Sport Health Sci 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Human Performance Laboratory, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, T2N 1N4, Canada; Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Milan,20133, Italy; Institut Universitaire de France (IUF), France. Electronic address:

Purpose: This study utilized downhill running as a model to investigate the repeated bout effect (RBE) on neuromuscular performance, running biomechanics, and metabolic cost of running.

Methods: Ten healthy recreational male runners performed two 30-min bouts of downhill running (DR1 and DR2) at -20% slope and 2.8 m/s 3 weeks apart. Read More

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Heterogeneity of the strength response to progressive resistance exercise training in older adults: Contributions of muscle contractility.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Jun 4;152:111437. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Ohio Musculoskeletal and Neurological Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Older adults display wide individual variability (heterogeneity) in the effects of resistance exercise training on muscle strength. The mechanisms driving this heterogeneity are poorly understood. Understanding of these mechanisms could permit development of more targeted interventions and/or improved identification of individuals likely to respond to resistance training interventions. Read More

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Voluntary running exercise after focal cerebral ischemia ameliorates dendritic spine loss and promotes functional recovery.

Brain Res 2021 May 30;1767:147542. Epub 2021 May 30.

Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, Japan. Electronic address:

Cerebral infarction causes motor, sensory, and cognitive impairments. Although rehabilitation enhances recovery of activities of daily living after cerebral infarction, its mechanism remains elusive due to the lack of reproducibility and low survival rate of brain ischemic model animals. Here, to investigate the relationship between rehabilitative intervention, motor function, and pathophysiological remodeling of the tissue in the ipsilateral hemisphere after cerebral infarction, we took advantage of a highly reproducible model of cerebral infarction using C. Read More

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Revisiting the evaluation of central versus peripheral thermoregulatory control in humans.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 06 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Human thermoregulatory control is often evaluated through the relationship between thermoeffector output and core or mean body temperature. In addition to providing a general indication of whether a variable of interest alters thermoregulatory control, this relationship is often used to determine how this alteration may occur. This latter interpretation relies upon two parameters of the thermoeffector output-body temperature relationship; the onset threshold and thermosensitivity. Read More

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Utilization of Micro-Doppler Radar to Classify Gait Patterns of Young and Elderly Adults: An Approach Using a Long Short-Term Memory Network.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 24;21(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Shiga 525-8577, Japan.

To develop a daily monitoring system for early detection of fall risk of elderly people during walking, this study presents a highly accurate micro-Doppler radar (MDR)-based gait classification method for the young and elderly adults. Our method utilizes a time-series of velocity corresponding to leg motion during walking extracted from the MDR spectrogram (time-velocity distribution) in an experimental study involving 300 participants. The extracted time-series was inputted to a long short-term memory recurrent neural network to classify the gaits of young and elderly participant groups. Read More

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Real-Time Pedestrian Tracking Terminal Based on Adaptive Zero Velocity Update.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 31;21(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

School of Information and Communication Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China.

In the field of pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR), the zero velocity update (ZUPT) method with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) is a mature technology to calibrate dead reckoning. However, due to the complex walking modes of different individuals, it is essential and challenging to determine the ZUPT conditions, which has a direct and significant influence on the tracking accuracy. In this research, we adopted an adaptive zero velocity update (AZUPT) method based on convolution neural networks to classify the ZUPT conditions. Read More

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Does Compression Sensory Axonopathy in the Proximal Tibia Contribute to Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in a Causative Way?-A New Theory for the Injury Mechanism.

Life (Basel) 2021 May 14;11(5). Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Health Sciences and Sport Medicine, University of Physical Education, 1123 Budapest, Hungary.

Anterior cruciate ligament injury occurs when the ligament fibers are stretched, partially torn, or completely torn. The authors propose a new injury mechanism for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury of the knee. Accordingly, non-contact anterior cruciate ligament injury could not happen without the acute compression microinjury of the entrapped peripheral proprioceptive sensory axons of the proximal tibia. Read More

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