7,144 results match your criteria exercise bout


Reactive oxygen species play a modulatory role in the hyperventilatory response to poikilocapnic hyperoxia in humans.

J Physiol 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Laboratory of Exercise Sciences, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Brazil.

Key Points: The proposed mechanism for the increased ventilation in response to hyperoxia includes a reduced brain CO -[H ] washout-induced central chemoreceptor stimulation that results from a decrease in cerebral perfusion and the weakening of the CO affinity for haemoglobin. Nonetheless, hyperoxia also results in excessive brain reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation/accumulation, which hypothetically increases central respiratory drive and causes hyperventilation. We then quantified ventilation, cerebral perfusion/metabolism, arterial/internal jugular vein blood gases and oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers in response to hyperoxia during intravenous infusion of saline or ascorbic acid to determine whether excessive ROS production/accumulation contributes to the hyperoxia-induced hyperventilation in humans. Read More

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The influence of age on the recovery from worksite resistance exercise in career firefighters.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Sep 6;152:111467. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Neuromuscular Assessment Laboratory, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Human Movement Science Curriculum, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Resistance exercise is an important strategy to reduce injuries and improve performance in the fire service. However, given the large age range of firefighters, it is important to determine if age influences their recovery following an acute bout of resistance exercise.

Purpose: To examine the changes in indirect markers of muscle damage in young and older firefighters following a feasible worksite resistance exercise routine. Read More

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September 2021

Are all MVPA minutes equal? Associations between MVPA characteristics, independent of duration, and childhood adiposity.

BMC Public Health 2021 07 6;21(1):1321. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition & Activity (ARENA), Allied Health and Human Performance, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.

Background: The inverse relationship between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) duration and childhood adiposity is well established. Less is known about how characteristics of MVPA accumulation may be associated with adiposity, independent of MVPA duration. This study aimed to investigate how the MVPA characteristics of children, other than duration (bout length, time of day, day-to-day consistency, intensity), were associated with adiposity. Read More

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Five-Minute Power-Based Test to Predict Maximal Oxygen Consumption in Road Cycling.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Jul 5:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Purpose: To examine the ability of a multivariate model to predict maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) using performance data from a 5-minute maximal test (5MT).

Methods: Forty-six road cyclists (age 38 [9] y, height 177 [9] cm, weight 71.4 [8. Read More

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Post-exercise cognitive testing to assess persisting alterations in athletes with a history of concussion.

Brain Inj 2021 Jul 5;35(8):978-985. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

School of Kinesiology and Exercise Science, Université De Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

: To determine whether a physical exercise protocol could reveal persistent cognitive alterations in university athletes with a history of concussion (HOC). Thirty-four HOC and 34 controls participated in this study.: Cross-sectional. Read More

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The acute effects of continuous and intermittent cycling on executive function in children.

Acta Psychol (Amst) 2021 Jul 1;218:103363. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Centre for Sport, Exercise and Life Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom.

This study assessed the effect of acute continuous and intermittent physical activity (PA) on children's executive function (EF). Twenty-four participants (14 boys M = 10.32 ± 0. Read More

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Treadmill Running Changes Endothelial Lipase Expression: Insights from Gene and Protein Analysis in Various Striated Muscle Tissues and Serum.

Biomolecules 2021 Jun 17;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Basic Sciences, Lomza State University of Applied Sciences, 18-400 Lomza, Poland.

Endothelial lipase (EL) is an enzyme capable of HDL phospholipids hydrolysis. Its action leads to a reduction in the serum high-density lipoprotein concentration, and thus, it exerts a pro-atherogenic effect. This study examines the impact of a single bout exercise on the gene and protein expression of the EL in skeletal muscles composed of different fiber types (the soleus-mainly type I, the red gastrocnemius-mostly IIA, and the white gastrocnemius-predominantly IIX fibers), as well as the diaphragm, and the heart. Read More

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Muscle Recovery after a Single Bout of Functional Fitness Training.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 20;18(12). Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Department of Physical Activity and Sports Science, Alfonso X El Sabio University, 28691 Madrid, Spain.

Background: Functional fitness training (FFT) is a new exercise modality that targets functional multi-joint actions via both muscle-strengthening exercises and aerobic training intervals. The aim of the study was to examine muscle recovery over a 20 min period after an FFT workout in trained adults.

Materials And Methods: Participants were 28 healthy trained subjects. Read More

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Casein and Whey Protein in the Breast Milk Ratio: Could It Promote Protein Metabolism Enhancement in Physically Active Adults?

Nutrients 2021 Jun 23;13(7). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Food and Nutrition, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Araraquara, State University of Sao Paulo-FCFAR/UNESP, Araraquara 14800-903, Brazil.

Due to the utilization of milk proteins such as whey protein (WP) and casein as sports nutrition ergogenic aids, the present study investigated the effects of the association of WP and casein in a ratio of 80:20, a similar ratio of human breast milk, on blood branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) profiles, markers of protein metabolism and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), after a single bout of resistance exercise. A double-blind, crossover and acute study was carried out with ten men (age 29 ± 8 years; BMI: 25.4 ± 2. Read More

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Potential Improvement in Rehabilitation Quality of 2019 Novel Coronavirus by Isometric Training System; Is There "Muscle-Lung Cross-Talk"?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 10;18(12). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Saitama 359-1192, Japan.

The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis is now present in more than 200 countries. It started in December 2019 and has, so far, led to more than 149, 470,968 cases, 3,152,121 deaths, and 127,133,013 survivors recovered by 28 April 2021. COVID-19 has a high morbidity, and mortality of 2%, on average, whereas most people are treated after a period of time. Read More

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Repeated bouts of resistance exercise in rats alter mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 activity and ribosomal capacity but not muscle protein synthesis.

Exp Physiol 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Graduate School or Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Is muscle protein synthesis (MPS) additionally activated following exercise when ribosomal capacity is increased after repeated bouts of resistance exercise (RE)? What is the main finding and its importance? Skeletal muscles with increased ribosome content through repeated RE bouts showed sufficient activation of MPS with lower mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signalling. Thus, repeated bouts of RE possibly change the translational capacity and efficiency to optimize translation activation following RE.

Abstract: Resistance exercise (RE) activates ribosome biogenesis and increases ribosome content in skeletal muscles. Read More

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Effect of 2-Weeks Ischemic Preconditioning on Exercise Performance: A Pilot Study.

Front Sports Act Living 2021 14;3:646369. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Japan.

An acute bout of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been reported to increase exercise performance. Nevertheless, the ineffectiveness of acute IPC on exercise performance has also been reported. Similarly, the effect of a shot-term intervention of IPC on exercise performance remains controversial in previous studies. Read More

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Acute changes in muscle thickness, edema, and blood flow are not different between low-load blood flow restriction and non-blood flow restriction.

Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2021 Sep 14;41(5):452-460. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Human Performance Laboratory, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA.

The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute changes in muscle swelling (as assessed by muscle thickness and echo intensity) and muscle blood flow associated with an acute bout of low-load blood flow restriction (LLBFR) and low-load non-blood flow restriction (LL) exercise. Twenty women (mean ± SD; 22 ± 2years) volunteered to perform an acute exercise bout that consisted of 75 (1 × 30, 3 × 15) isokinetic, reciprocal, concentric-only, submaximal (30% of peak torque), forearm flexion and extension muscle actions. Pretest, immediately after (posttest), and 5-min after (recovery) completing the 75 repetitions, muscle thickness and echo intensity were assessed from the biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles and muscle blood flow was assessed from the brachial artery. Read More

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September 2021

Flattened cola improves high-intensity interval performance in competitive cyclists.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

School of Nutrition and Dietetics, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS, Canada.

Purpose: Some cyclists consume flattened cola during competitive events, but limited research has investigated if cola beverages elicit ergogenic effects, particularly on high-intensity exercise performance. Whether the potentially beneficial effects of cola are due to the caffeine and/or the carbohydrate content is also unclear. This study assessed the ergogenic effects of different cola beverages on performance during a constant power bout (CPB) and subsequent high-intensity interval efforts in competitive cyclists. Read More

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Dietary supplementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product attenuates exercise-induced stress markers in young horses.

J Anim Sci 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University and Texas A&M AgriLife Research, College Station, TX, 77843, US.

Mitigation of exercise-induced stress is of key interest in determining ways to optimize performance horse health. To test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product would decrease markers of exercise-induced stress and inflammation in young horses, Quarter Horse yearlings (mean ± SD; 9 ± 1 mo) were randomly assigned to receive either no supplementation (CON; n = 8) or 21 g/d Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (10.5 g/feeding twice daily; SCFP; n = 10) top dressed on a basal diet of custom-formulated grain, as well as ad libitum Coastal bermudagrass hay. Read More

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Reduced stem cell aging in exercised human skeletal muscle is enhanced by ginsenoside Rg1.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 06 28;13(12):16567-16576. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry, University of Taipei, Taipei City 11153, Taiwan, ROC.

Background: Stem cell aging, characterized by elevated p16 expression, decreases cell repopulating and self-renewal abilities, which results in elevated inflammation and slow recovery against stress.

Methods: Biopsied muscles were analyzed at baseline and 24 h after squat exercise in 12 trained men (22 ± 2 y). Placebo (PLA) and immunostimulant Rg1 (5 mg) were supplemented 1 h before a squat exercise, using a double-blind counterbalanced crossover design. Read More

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The effects of exercise intensity on the cortisol response to a subsequent acute psychosocial stressor.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Jun 18;131:105336. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

School of Kinesiology, University of British Columbia, 210-6081 University Blvd, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T1Z1. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this experimental study was to determine the extent to which the intensity of a single 30 min bout of exercise alters the salivary cortisol (sCort) response to a subsequently induced acute psychosocial stressor. The study further aimed to elucidate a physiological mechanism through which exercise intensity exerts stress-mitigating effects.

Methods: Eighty-three healthy men (M = 21. Read More

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One night of sleep fragmentation does not affect exercise-induced leukocyte trafficking or mitogen-stimulated leukocyte oxidative burst in healthy men.

Physiol Behav 2021 Jun 23;239:113506. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

University of Bath, Department for Health, Claverton Down, Bath, UK. Electronic address:

Purpose: This study examined whether one night of sleep fragmentation alters circulating leukocyte counts and mitogen-stimulated oxidative burst by leukocytes at rest and in response to an acute bout of vigorous exercise.

Methods: In a randomised crossover design, nine healthy men (mean ± SD: age 22 ± 2 years; BMI 24.9 ± 1. Read More

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High-Intensity Interval and Resistance Training Improve Health Outcomes in Older Adults With Coronary Disease.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Physiotherapy, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; Physiotherapy in Motion. Multispeciality Research Group (PTinMOTION), Department of Physiotherapy, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Objective: Both high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and resistance exercises (R) are used in cardiac rehabilitation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the combined effect of an HIIT + R exercise program in older adults with CAD is not well investigated. The study's purpose was to assess the changes in anthropometric parameters, physical activity, functional capacity, physiological parameters, and quality of life (QoL) in this population following a combined HIIT + R program. Read More

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The Experimental Effect of Parent Versus Peer Influence on Children's Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior.

Pediatr Exerc Sci 2021 Jun 24:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Kent State University.

Purpose: To assess children's physical activity, sedentary behavior, liking, and motivation during 3 separate simulated recess conditions: playing alone, with their parent participating, and with their peer participating.

Methods: Children participated in the 3 separate conditions. During each condition, the children had access to an outdoor playground and sedentary activity options for 30 minutes. Read More

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Acute Cardiometabolic and Perceptual Responses to Individual and Group-Based Body-Weight Resistance Exercise in Girls.

Pediatr Exerc Sci 2021 Jun 24:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Michigan State University.

Girls' acute responses to group-based high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) are not well characterized.

Purpose: To compare acute responses to treadmill-based HIIE (TM) and body-weight resistance exercise circuit (CIRC) and to CIRC performed in a small-group setting (group CIRC).

Method: Nineteen girls (9. Read More

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Effects of Acute Exercise on Anxiety Ratings in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease and Elevated Anxiety.

J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2021 Jul;41(4):277-281

Departments of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (Mss Malian and Ammerman and Drs Smith, Hoffman, Jiang, Sherwood, and Blumenthal) and Medicine (Dr Kraus), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; and Department of Medicine (Dr Hinderliter), University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Purpose: To explore individual differences in state anxiety following a single, acute bout of aerobic exercise among anxious patients with diagnosed coronary heart disease (CHD).

Methods: One hundred eighteen CHD patients with elevated symptoms of anxiety enrolled in the UNderstanding the Benefits of Exercise and Escitalopram in Anxious Patients WIth coroNary Heart Disease (UNWIND) clinical trial rated their level of anxiety using a 100-mm visual analog scale before and after a symptom-limited exercise treadmill test. A number of exercise (eg, peak oxygen uptake, exercise duration, maximum heart rate, anaerobic threshold) and psychological variables were examined as potential predictors of exercise response. Read More

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Physiological extremes of the human blood metabolome: A metabolomics analysis of highly glycolytic, oxidative, and anabolic athletes.

Physiol Rep 2021 Jun;9(12):e14885

Exercise Biology, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Human metabolism is highly variable. At one end of the spectrum, defects of enzymes, transporters, and metabolic regulation result in metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus or inborn errors of metabolism. At the other end of the spectrum, favorable genetics and years of training combine to result in physiologically extreme forms of metabolism in athletes. Read More

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Aerobic exercise reduces anxiety and fear ratings to threat and increases circulating endocannabinoids in women with and without PTSD.

Ment Health Phys Act 2021 Mar 2;20. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Kinesiology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI - USA.

Reductions in state anxiety have been reported following an acute bout of aerobic exercise. However, less is known regarding anxiety and fear ratings to specific threatening stimuli following an acute bout of aerobic exercise in women with PTSD. Moreover, the mechanisms responsible for the anxiolytic effects of exercise are not fully understood, although recent studies suggest a role for the endocannabinoid (eCB) system. Read More

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Hemorheological responses to an acute bout of maximal exercise in Veterans with Gulf War Illness.

Life Sci 2021 Sep 16;280:119714. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers Biomedical and Health Sciences, Newark, NJ, USA; Surgical Services, Veterans Affairs New Jersey Health Care System, East Orange, NJ, USA.

Background: Altered red blood cell (RBC) deformability has been reported in Veterans with Gulf War Illness (GWI) who endorse exercise-induced symptom exacerbation and fatigue. However, it is unknown whether altered RBC deformability is worsened secondary to exercise.

Objective: To evaluate RBC deformability in response to maximal exercise in individuals with and without GWI. Read More

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September 2021

A methodology for an acute exercise clinical trial called dementia risk and dynamic response to exercise.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 17;11(1):12776. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.

Exercise likely has numerous benefits for brain and cognition. However, those benefits and their causes remain imprecisely defined. If the brain does benefit from exercise it does so primarily through cumulative brief, "acute" exposures over a lifetime. Read More

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Circulating small extracellular vesicles increase after an acute bout of moderate-intensity exercise in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 16;11(1):12615. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

The physiological and molecular mechanisms linking prenatal physical activity and improvements in maternal-fetal health are unknown. It is hypothesized that small extracellular vesicles (EVs, ~ 10-120 nm) are involved in tissue cross-talk during exercise. We aimed to characterize the circulating small EV profile of pregnant versus non-pregnant women after an acute bout of moderate-intensity exercise. Read More

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The influence of a simulated game on muscular strength in female high-school and collegiate softball pitchers.

Sports Biomech 2021 Jun 16:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Neuromuscular Research Laboratory, Department of Sports Medicine and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Softball pitchers often pitch several games within a day and over consecutive days during a competitive season. High volumes of pitches thrown can decrease muscular strength, resulting in less proximal force generation and upper extremity compensation to maintain performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess upper and lower extremity muscular strength after pitching in a simulated game. Read More

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Effects of omega-3 supplementation on muscle damage after resistance exercise in young women: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Nutr Health 2021 Jun 16:2601060211022266. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Graduate Program on Rehabilitation Sciences, 117303Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Background: Omega-3 is a nutritional strategie that have been used to recover muscles from exercise-induced muscle damage in a preventive perspective.

Aim: To verify whether omega-3 (ω-3) supplementation after a session of resistance exercise facilitates muscle recovery in women undergoing a balanced diet.

Methods: This clinical trial was registered under the number NCT02839525. Read More

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Substrate-Specific Respiration of Isolated Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria after 1 h of Moderate Cycling in Sedentary Adults.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Jul;53(7):1375-1384

School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, College of Public Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Introduction: Skeletal muscle mitochondria have dynamic shifts in oxidative metabolism to meet energy demands of aerobic exercise. Specific complexes oxidize lipid and nonlipid substrates. It is unclear if aerobic exercise stimulates intrinsic oxidative metabolism of mitochondria or varies between substrates. Read More

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