37,123 results match your criteria executive functions


The effect of vascular health factors on white matter microstructure mediates age-related differences in executive function performance.

Cortex 2021 May 25;141:403-420. Epub 2021 May 25.

The University of Texas at Dallas, School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Center for Vital Longevity, Dallas, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Even within healthy aging, vascular risk factors can detrimentally influence cognition, with executive functions (EF) particularly vulnerable. Fronto-parietal white matter (WM) connectivity in part, supports EF and may be particularly sensitive to vascular risk. Here, we utilized structural equation modeling in 184 healthy adults (aged 20-94 years of age) to test the hypotheses that: 1) fronto-parietal WM microstructure mediates age effects on EF; 2) higher blood pressure (BP) and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden influences this association. Read More

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Nutritional Risk at intensive care unit admission and outcomes in survivors of critical illness.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 11;40(6):3868-3874. Epub 2021 May 11.

Critical Illness, Brain Dysfunction, and Survivorship (CIBS) Center, Nashville, TN, USA; Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus OH, USA; Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Risk factors for poor outcomes after critical illness are incompletely understood. While nutritional risk is associated with mortality in critically ill patients, its association with disability, cognitive, and health-related quality of life is unclear in survivors of critical illness. This study's objective was to determine whether greater nutritional risk at ICU admission is associated with greater disability, worse cognition, and worse HRQOL at 3 and 12-month follow-up. Read More

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The effect of the degree of dual-task interference on gait, dual-task cost, cognitive ability, balance, and fall efficacy in people with stroke: A cross-sectional study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26275

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, National Health Insurance Ilsan Hospital, Goyang.

Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the degree of dual-task (DT) interference on gait, dual-task cost (DTC), cognitive ability, balance, and fall efficacy in people with stroke.In this cross-sectional study, people with chronic stroke (N = 36) performed a DT gait assessment (gait and cognitive task). During the evaluation, DT interference in motor and cognition was evaluated simultaneously. Read More

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Integrative Medicine: Cannabis and Cannabis-Related Drugs.

FP Essent 2021 Jun;505:28-34

F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814.

is a genus of flowering herbs in the Cannabaceae family. Federal law defines dried plant material preparations of the subspecies as . The term refers to all products derived from plants. Read More

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Circadian characteristics of the rest-activity rhythm, executive function, and glucose fluctuations in young adults with type 1 diabetes.

Chronobiol Int 2021 Jun 15:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Circadian alignment is an important element in individual health, and one behavioral marker, rest-activity rhythm, could influence self-management in young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Little is known about the rest-activity rhythms, executive function, and glycemia among young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The purpose of this study was to evaluate parametric and nonparametric circadian characteristics of the rest-activity rhythm and the associations between these variables, sleep-wake behavior, executive function, and glycemia among young adults with T1D. Read More

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Is Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III Sensitive Enough to Detect Cognitive Dysfunctions in Patients with Focal Cerebellar Lesions?

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland.

Objective: The main aim of the study was to evaluate whether the available brief test of mental functions Addenbrooke's cognitive examination III (ACE III) detects cognitive impairment in patients with cerebellar damage. The second goal was to show the ACE III cognitive impairment profile of patients with focal cerebellar lesions.

Method: The study sample consisted of 31 patients with focal cerebellar lesions, 78 patients with supratentorial brain damage, and 31 subjects after spine surgery or with spine degeneration considered as control group, free of organic brain damage. Read More

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Switching Gears: A Self-Regulatory Approach and Measure of Nonwork Role Re-Engagement Following After-Hours Work Intrusions.

J Bus Psychol 2021 Jun 9:1-17. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

BetterUp, 1200 Folsom Street, San Francisco, CA 94103 USA.

As employees' personal lives are increasingly splintered by work demands, the boundary between work and nonwork domains is becoming ever more blurred. Grounded within a self-regulatory approach and the executive control function of inhibitory control, we operationalize and examine nonwork role re-engagement (NWRR)-the extent to which individuals can redirect attentional resources back to nonwork tasks following work-related intrusions. In phases 1 and 2, we develop and refine a psychometrically sound unidimensional measure for NWRR aligned with the self-regulatory processes of self-control and interference control underlying inhibitory control. Read More

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Improving Executive Function of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder through Cycling Skill Acquisition.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Jul;53(7):1417-1424

Department of Health and Physical Education, The Education University of Hong Kong, Ting Kok, HONG KONG.

Purpose: Executive dysfunction has been widely reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although studies have clearly documented the cognitive benefits of physical exercise on cognition in children, similar studies in children with ASD are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of cognitively engaging exercise and noncognitively engaging exercise on executive function in children with ASD. Read More

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Differential effects of risk factors on the cognitive trajectory of early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 Jun 14;13(1):113. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Although few studies have shown that risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with cognitive decline in AD, not much is known whether the impact of risk factors differs between early-onset AD (EOAD, symptom onset < 65 years of age) versus late-onset AD (LOAD). Therefore, we evaluated whether the impact of Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors on cognitive trajectories differ in EOAD and LOAD.

Methods: We followed-up 193 EOAD and 476 LOAD patients without known autosomal dominant AD mutation for 32. Read More

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Regional relationships between CSF VEGF levels and Alzheimer's disease brain biomarkers and cognition.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 May 21;105:241-251. Epub 2021 May 21.

Imaging Genetics Center, Mark and Mary Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Marina del Rey, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a complex signaling protein that supports vascular and neuronal function. Alzheimer's disease (AD) -neuropathological hallmarks interfere with VEGF signaling and modify previously detected positive associations between cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) VEGF and cognition and hippocampal volume. However, it remains unknown 1) whether regional relationships between VEGF and glucose metabolism and cortical thinning exist, and 2) whether AD-neuropathological hallmarks (CSF Aβ, t-tau, p-tau) also modify these relationships. Read More

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The Development of Learning, Performing, and Controlling Repeated Sequential Actions in Young Children.

Top Cogn Sci 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University.

Our daily lives are composed of several sequential actions that we perform routinely, such as making breakfast, taking a train, and changing clothes. Previous research has demonstrated that a routine system plays a role in performing and controlling repeated sequential actions in familiar situations, and a top-down control system involves the control of the routine system in novel situations. Specifically, most developmental studies have focused on the top-down control system (e. Read More

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Altered anterior default mode network dynamics in progressive multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler 2021 Jun 14:13524585211018116. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Bioengineering, Center for Neuroprosthetics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland / Department of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Modifications in brain function remain relatively unexplored in progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS), despite their potential to provide new insights into the pathophysiology of the disease at this stage.

Objectives: To characterize the dynamics of functional networks at rest in patients with PMS, and the relation with clinical disability.

Methods: Thirty-two patients with PMS underwent clinical and cognitive assessment. Read More

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Perceived Discrimination, Nativity, and Cognitive Performance in a Multi-ethnic Study of Older Adults: Findings from the Kaiser Healthy Aging and Diverse Life Experiences (KHANDLE) Study.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA.

Background: Despite growing research on the association between discrimination and disparities in cognitive aging, an evidence gap remains on how the association varies by racial/ethnic group. This study evaluates the associations of experiences of discrimination with cognitive function and whether these associations varied by race/ethnicity and nativity.

Methods: Using the Kaiser Healthy Aging and Diverse Life Experiences (KHANDLE) cohort (N=1,712) with approximately equal groups of Black, White, Latino, and Asian community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older, we evaluated the associations between self-reported experiences of everyday and major lifetime discrimination with overall cognitive performance and domain-specific cognition (verbal episodic memory, semantic memory and executive functioning) across race/ethnicity and nativity. Read More

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The Cognitive Scale of Basic and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Multidomain Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Patients: Validation of its Extended Version.

J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2021 Jun 14:1-14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Physiotherapy (Occupational Therapy), University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain.

Objective: To validate an informant-based tool - the extended version of the Cognitive Scale of Basic and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (BADL and IADL) or Ext. Cog-ADL Scale - in a larger sample and with a broader range of cognitive-functional items related to activities of daily living (ADL).

Method: The Ext. Read More

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Why Does Cognitive Training Yield Inconsistent Benefits? A Meta-Analysis of Individual Differences in Baseline Cognitive Abilities and Training Outcomes.

Front Psychol 2021 26;12:662139. Epub 2021 May 26.

Cognition in Context Lab, Department of Psychology and Center for Mind & Brain, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

Despite growing interest in improving cognitive abilities across the lifespan through training, the benefits of cognitive training are inconsistent. One powerful contributor may be that individuals arrive at interventions with different baseline levels of the cognitive skill being trained. Some evidence suggests poor performers benefit the most from cognitive training, showing compensation for their weak abilities, while other evidence suggests that high performers benefit most, experiencing a magnification of their abilities. Read More

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Positive Effect of Cognitive Reserve on Episodic Memory, Executive and Attentional Functions Taking Into Account Amyloid-Beta, Tau, and Apolipoprotein E Status.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 28;13:666181. Epub 2021 May 28.

GIGA Institute, Cyclotron Research Centre In Vivo Imaging, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.

Studies exploring the simultaneous influence of several physiological and environmental factors on domain-specific cognition in late middle-age remain scarce. Therefore, our objective was to determine the respective contribution of modifiable risk/protective factors (cognitive reserve and allostatic load) on specific cognitive domains (episodic memory, executive functions, and attention), taking into account non-modifiable factors [sex, age, and genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD)] and AD-related biomarker amount (amyloid-beta and tau/neuroinflammation) in a healthy late-middle-aged population. One hundred and one healthy participants (59. Read More

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Interpretation of familiar metaphors and proverbs by Polish people in middle and late adulthood.

Int J Lang Commun Disord 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Neuropsychology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, Lublin, Poland.

Background: The ability to understand figurative language, including metaphors and proverbs, decreases with age, although the phenomenon is not universal. Cognitive capacities and education play an important role in the competence connected with figurative language use and comprehension in people during the second half of life.

Aims: To identify possible similarities and differences in task performance by subjects representing middle adulthood (40-49 and 50-59 years old) and late adulthood (60-69 and 70-92 years old). Read More

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The effects of intensive care unit-initiated transitional care interventions on elements of post-intensive care syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Aust Crit Care 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Research Department of Emergency and Critical Care, HAN University of Applied Science, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Radboud University Medical Centre, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences IQ Healthcare, the Netherlands; Foundation Family and Patient Centered Intensive Care, Alkmaar, the Netherlands.

Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of intensive care unit (ICU)-initiated transitional care interventions for patients and families on elements of post-intensive care syndrome (PICS) and/or PICS-family (PICS--F).

Review Method Used: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis SOURCES: The authors searched in biomedical bibliographic databases including PubMed, Embase (OVID), CINAHL Plus (EBSCO), Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library and included studies written in English conducted up to October 8, 2020.

Review Methods: We included (non)randomised controlled trials focussing on ICU-initiated transitional care interventions for patients and families. Read More

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Post-Intensive Care Syndrome (PICS) in Older People.

Ann Geriatr Med Res 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Geriatrics and Palliative Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha (RIPAS) Hospital, Brunei Darussalam.

The increasing survival rate from the intensive care unit (ICU) has led to the recognition that survivors may develop long-term impairments in terms of cognitive, psychiatric and physical domains. This post-ICU syndrome (PICS) as well as the debilitating effects on family members (PICS-F) is usually under-recognised by clinicians. In this paper, two cases of PICS illustrate the different impairments that may occur in ICU survivors. Read More

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Longitudinal plasma phosphorylated tau 181 tracks disease progression in Alzheimer's disease.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Jun 12;11(1):356. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Neurology and Institute of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

To assess plasma phosphorylated tau181 (p-tau181) as a progression biomarker in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined longitudinal plasma p-tau181 of 1184 participants (403 cognitively normal (CN), 560 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 221 with AD dementia) from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). The plasma p-tau level was increased at baseline for MCI and AD dementia (mean: CN, 15.4 pg/mL; MCI, 18. Read More

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Linking inhibitory control to math achievement via comparison of conflicting decimal numbers.

Cognition 2021 Jun 11;214:104767. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, Newark, USA; Behavioral Neural Sciences Graduate Program, Rutgers University, Newark, USA. Electronic address:

The relationship between executive functions (EF) and academic achievement is well-established, but leveraging this insight to improve educational outcomes remains elusive. Here, we propose a framework for relating the role of specific EF on specific precursor skills that support later academic learning. Starting from the premise that executive functions contribute to general math skills both directly - supporting the execution of problem solving strategies - and indirectly - supporting the acquisition of precursor mathematical content, we hypothesize that the contribution of domain-general EF capacities to precursor skills that support later learning can help explain relations between EF and overall math skills. Read More

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Movement-based mind-body practices and cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults: Findings from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study.

Complement Ther Med 2021 Jun 9;60:102751. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Florida Policy Exchange Center on Aging, School of Aging Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

Objectives: Cognitive function is a key component of healthy aging. While conventional physical activities (walking, jogging, etc.) have been shown to support physical and cognitive health in late-life, it remains unclear whether traditional Eastern movement-based mind-body practices (MBP) have long-term cognitive benefits above and beyond conventional leisure physical activities. Read More

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EEG-neurofeedback and executive function enhancement in healthy adults: A systematic review.

Psychophysiology 2021 Jun 12:e13874. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Neuroscience and Padova Neuroscience Center, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Electroencephalographic (EEG)-neurofeedback training (NFT) is a promising technique that supports individuals in learning to modulate their brain activity to obtain cognitive and behavioral improvements. EEG-NFT is gaining increasing attention for its potential "peak performance" applications on healthy individuals. However, evidence for clear cognitive performance enhancements with healthy adults is still lacking. Read More

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Milk, yogurt and cheese intake is positively associated with cognitive executive functions in older adults of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Human Nutrition, McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore Dr, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, H9X 3L9, QC, Canada.

Background: Dairy products provide essential nutrients such as calcium, vitamins B12 and D, and include bioactive peptides and fermented products, which may be beneficial for cognition, especially in older adults. Yet, few studies of large contemporary cohorts have investigated this relationship using sensitive domain-specific cognitive tests.

Methods: In community-dwelling older adults of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (2011-2015), we examined cross-sectional associations between total and specific dairy product intake and performance in three cognitive domains (executive functions, memory, psychomotor speed). Read More

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The course of gait speed during a 400m walk test of mobility limitations in community-dwelling older adults.

Z Gerontol Geriatr 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Institute for Biomedicine of Aging (IBA), Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Nuremberg, Germany.

Background: The 400‑m walk test (400MWT) of usual gait speed is an assessment of mobility limitations in geriatric medicine and sarcopenic research.

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the course of gait speed during a 400MWT in community-dwelling older adults in terms of physical, psychological and general health-related outcomes. Possible plateau phases during the 400MWT could enable integrated measurements of short distance walk tests. Read More

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Halstead Category Test sensitivity to neurocognitive deficits in prenatal alcohol exposed and cognitively impaired children.

Child Neuropsychol 2021 Jun 11:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA.

: The Halstead Category Test (HCT) has been demonstrated to be sensitive to executive dysfunction in adults and children. Children with a history of significant prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) typically show deficits in executive functions in such areas as abstract reasoning, concept formation abilities, and cognitive flexibility. However, earlier research has not taken into account the demographic variables of age, sex, and ethnicity. Read More

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Early life adversity predicts brain-gut alterations associated with increased stress and mood.

Neurobiol Stress 2021 Nov 25;15:100348. Epub 2021 May 25.

G. Oppenheimer Center for Neurobiology of Stress and Resilience, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.

Alterations in the brain-gut system have been implicated in various disease states, but little is known about how early-life adversity (ELA) impacts development and adult health as mediated by brain-gut interactions. We hypothesize that ELA disrupts components of the brain-gut system, thereby increasing susceptibility to disordered mood. In a sample of 128 healthy adult participants, a history of ELA and current stress, depression, and anxiety were assessed using validated questionnaires. Read More

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November 2021

Patients with Hepatitis C Infection and Normal Liver Function: A Neuropsychological and Neurophysiological Assessment of Cognitive Functions.

Int J Hepatol 2021 19;2021:8823676. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Gastroenterology, Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, 20270-004, Brazil.

Several studies have proposed a link between chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the development of cognitive disorders. However, the inclusion of confounding factors in their samples significantly limits the interpretation of the results. Therefore, here, we aimed to compare the neurophysiological and cognitive performance between patients with HCV infection and a control group after excluding other factors that may cause cognitive impairment. Read More

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Emotional Assessment in Spanish Youths With Antisocial Behavior.

Front Psychol 2021 25;12:671851. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Psychology, Center for Health Research, University of Almería, Almería, Spain.

Impaired emotional capacity in antisocial populations is a well-known reality. Taking the dimensional approach to the study of emotion, emotions are perceived as a disposition to action; they emerge from arousal of the appetitive or aversive system, and result in subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses that are modulated by the dimensions of valence, arousal, and dominance. This study uses the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) to study the interaction between the type of picture presented (pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant) and group (adolescents under custody in juvenile justice centers, adolescents under non-custodial measures, and secondary school students) in the emotional assessment of these dimensions. Read More

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Executive Functions of Swedish Counterterror Intervention Unit Applicants and Police Officer Trainees Evaluated With Design Fluency Test.

Front Psychol 2021 11;12:580463. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Executive functions (EF) represent higher order top-down mechanisms regulating information processing. While suboptimal EF have been studied in various patient groups, their impact on successful behavior is still not well described. Previously, it has been suggested that design fluency (DF)-a test including several simultaneous EF components mainly related to fluency, cognitive flexibility, and creativity-predicts successful behavior in a quickly changing environment where fast and dynamic adaptions are required, such as ball sports. Read More

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