69,408 results match your criteria executive

Neural correlates of irritability in a community sample of children.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jun 5;292:223-226. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; School of Psychology, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Irritability has been associated with aberrant patterns of neural activation, yet little is known about structural brain correlates of irritability. As such, we aimed to investigate associations between irritability and gray matter volume (GMV) in a community sample of children enriched for irritability. The sample comprised children (n=162) aged 9-11 years with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), participating in a cohort study with magnetic resonance imaging data available. Read More

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Sperm ultrastructure of Ruditapes variegata and Tapes literatus (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae, Tapetinae) from Pescadores, Taiwan.

Tissue Cell 2021 Jun 10;71:101575. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Life Science, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

In the present study, we have investigated the ultrastructures of the mature gonadal spermatozoa of R. variegata and T. literatus and presented comparisons with the Manila clam, R. Read More

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The effect of vascular health factors on white matter microstructure mediates age-related differences in executive function performance.

Cortex 2021 May 25;141:403-420. Epub 2021 May 25.

The University of Texas at Dallas, School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Center for Vital Longevity, Dallas, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Even within healthy aging, vascular risk factors can detrimentally influence cognition, with executive functions (EF) particularly vulnerable. Fronto-parietal white matter (WM) connectivity in part, supports EF and may be particularly sensitive to vascular risk. Here, we utilized structural equation modeling in 184 healthy adults (aged 20-94 years of age) to test the hypotheses that: 1) fronto-parietal WM microstructure mediates age effects on EF; 2) higher blood pressure (BP) and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden influences this association. Read More

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Nutritional Risk at intensive care unit admission and outcomes in survivors of critical illness.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 11;40(6):3868-3874. Epub 2021 May 11.

Critical Illness, Brain Dysfunction, and Survivorship (CIBS) Center, Nashville, TN, USA; Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus OH, USA; Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Risk factors for poor outcomes after critical illness are incompletely understood. While nutritional risk is associated with mortality in critically ill patients, its association with disability, cognitive, and health-related quality of life is unclear in survivors of critical illness. This study's objective was to determine whether greater nutritional risk at ICU admission is associated with greater disability, worse cognition, and worse HRQOL at 3 and 12-month follow-up. Read More

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Putting the Patient First: A Scoping Review of Patient Desires in Canada.

Healthc Policy 2021 May;16(4):46-69

Director, North American Observatory on Health Systems and Policies; Professor, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

Patient-centred care is a key priority for governments, providers and stakeholders, yet little is known about the care preferences of patient groups. We completed a scoping review that yielded 193 articles for analysis. Five health states were used to account for the diversity of possible preferences based on health needs. Read More

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Describing the Mental Health State of Nurses in British Columbia: A Province-Wide Survey Study.

Healthc Policy 2021 May;16(4):31-45

Case and Contact Management, Pandemic Response, Island Health; Former Consultant, Former Executive Councillor of Occupational Health and Safety, British Columbia Nurses' Union, Burnaby, BC.

A cross-sectional province-wide survey study of 3,978 British Columbia (BC) nurses was conducted to explore the mental health state of the nursing workforce in BC. About one third of nurses reported depression and anxiety; about half reported symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and at least one third reported high levels of one or more dimensions of burnout. Mental health problems were about 1. Read More

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The effect of the degree of dual-task interference on gait, dual-task cost, cognitive ability, balance, and fall efficacy in people with stroke: A cross-sectional study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26275

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, National Health Insurance Ilsan Hospital, Goyang.

Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the degree of dual-task (DT) interference on gait, dual-task cost (DTC), cognitive ability, balance, and fall efficacy in people with stroke.In this cross-sectional study, people with chronic stroke (N = 36) performed a DT gait assessment (gait and cognitive task). During the evaluation, DT interference in motor and cognition was evaluated simultaneously. Read More

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Integrative Medicine: Cannabis and Cannabis-Related Drugs.

FP Essent 2021 Jun;505:28-34

F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814.

is a genus of flowering herbs in the Cannabaceae family. Federal law defines dried plant material preparations of the subspecies as . The term refers to all products derived from plants. Read More

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Circadian characteristics of the rest-activity rhythm, executive function, and glucose fluctuations in young adults with type 1 diabetes.

Chronobiol Int 2021 Jun 15:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Circadian alignment is an important element in individual health, and one behavioral marker, rest-activity rhythm, could influence self-management in young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Little is known about the rest-activity rhythms, executive function, and glycemia among young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). The purpose of this study was to evaluate parametric and nonparametric circadian characteristics of the rest-activity rhythm and the associations between these variables, sleep-wake behavior, executive function, and glycemia among young adults with T1D. Read More

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Is Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III Sensitive Enough to Detect Cognitive Dysfunctions in Patients with Focal Cerebellar Lesions?

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland.

Objective: The main aim of the study was to evaluate whether the available brief test of mental functions Addenbrooke's cognitive examination III (ACE III) detects cognitive impairment in patients with cerebellar damage. The second goal was to show the ACE III cognitive impairment profile of patients with focal cerebellar lesions.

Method: The study sample consisted of 31 patients with focal cerebellar lesions, 78 patients with supratentorial brain damage, and 31 subjects after spine surgery or with spine degeneration considered as control group, free of organic brain damage. Read More

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Switching Gears: A Self-Regulatory Approach and Measure of Nonwork Role Re-Engagement Following After-Hours Work Intrusions.

J Bus Psychol 2021 Jun 9:1-17. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

BetterUp, 1200 Folsom Street, San Francisco, CA 94103 USA.

As employees' personal lives are increasingly splintered by work demands, the boundary between work and nonwork domains is becoming ever more blurred. Grounded within a self-regulatory approach and the executive control function of inhibitory control, we operationalize and examine nonwork role re-engagement (NWRR)-the extent to which individuals can redirect attentional resources back to nonwork tasks following work-related intrusions. In phases 1 and 2, we develop and refine a psychometrically sound unidimensional measure for NWRR aligned with the self-regulatory processes of self-control and interference control underlying inhibitory control. Read More

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Improving Executive Function of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder through Cycling Skill Acquisition.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Jul;53(7):1417-1424

Department of Health and Physical Education, The Education University of Hong Kong, Ting Kok, HONG KONG.

Purpose: Executive dysfunction has been widely reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although studies have clearly documented the cognitive benefits of physical exercise on cognition in children, similar studies in children with ASD are scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of cognitively engaging exercise and noncognitively engaging exercise on executive function in children with ASD. Read More

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Expert Consensus Statement on the Perioperative Management of Adult Patients Undergoing Head and Neck Surgery and Free Tissue Reconstruction From the Society for Head and Neck Anesthesia.

Anesth Analg 2021 Jul;133(1):274-283

Departments of General Anesthesiology and Outcomes Research, Anesthesiology Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

The perioperative care of adult patients undergoing free tissue transfer during head and neck surgical (microvascular) reconstruction is inconsistent across practitioners and institutions. The executive board of the Society for Head and Neck Anesthesia (SHANA) nominated specialized anesthesiologists and head and neck surgeons to an expert group, to develop expert consensus statements. The group conducted an extensive review of the literature to identify evidence and gaps and to prioritize quality improvement opportunities. Read More

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Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis: Role of primary care providers in caring for infants with positive screening results.

Can Fam Physician 2021 Jun;67(6):e144-e152

Clinician scientist in the Division of Pediatric Medicine at the Hospital for Sick Children, Chief Science Officer and Senior Scientist at ICES, and Professor of Pediatrics with a cross appointment at the Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation and the Epidemiology Division of the Dalla Lana School of Public Health at the University of Toronto.

Objective: To explore primary care providers' (PCPs') preferred roles and confidence in caring for infants receiving a positive cystic fibrosis (CF) newborn screening (NBS) result, as well as management of CF family planning issues, given that expanded NBS has resulted in an increase in positive results.

Design: Mailed questionnaire.

Setting: Ontario. Read More

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Primary care providers' role in newborn screening result notification for cystic fibrosis.

Can Fam Physician 2021 Jun;67(6):439-448

Family physician and clinician scientist, Professor, and Sydney G. Frankfort Chair in Family Medicine in the Department of Family and Community Medicine with the Sinai Health System and the University of Toronto.

Objective: To explore primary care providers' (PCPs') role in result notification for newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF), given that expanded NBS has increased the number of positive screening test results, drawing attention to the role of PCPs in supporting families.

Design: Cross-sectional survey and qualitative interviews.

Setting: Ontario. Read More

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Reply to: Letter to Roh CK et al. 'Incidence and treatment outcomes of leakage after gastrectomy for gastric cancer: Experience of 14,075 patients from a large volume centre'.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Gastric Cancer Center, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

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Differential effects of risk factors on the cognitive trajectory of early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 Jun 14;13(1):113. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Although few studies have shown that risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with cognitive decline in AD, not much is known whether the impact of risk factors differs between early-onset AD (EOAD, symptom onset < 65 years of age) versus late-onset AD (LOAD). Therefore, we evaluated whether the impact of Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors on cognitive trajectories differ in EOAD and LOAD.

Methods: We followed-up 193 EOAD and 476 LOAD patients without known autosomal dominant AD mutation for 32. Read More

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Applying the Lean Startup Method to Structure Project-Based, Student-Driven Curricular Enhancements.

Teach Learn Med 2021 Jun 14:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Medical Education, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Problem: Formal medical student engagement in curricular evaluation provides significant value through identification of opportunities for curricular change. Students provide diverse perspectives and have a unique vantage point, which allows them to see aspects of the curriculum that educators and administrators might not recognize. Current descriptions of student engagement are focused largely on collection, analysis, and presentation of summative feedback in the pre-clerkship curriculum. Read More

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A well-directional three-dimensional DNA walking nanomachine that runs in an orderly manner.

Chem Sci 2020 Jan 10;11(8):2193-2199. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Chongqing Engineering Laboratory of Nanomaterials & Sensor Technologies, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University Chongqing 400715 China +86-23-68253172 +86-23-68252277.

Herein, we report a three-dimensional (3D) DNA walking nanomachine innovatively constructed from a functionalized 3D DNA track, which runs in an orderly manner with favorable directionality to allow for programming certain pathways of information transduction for some target tasks. The nanomachine was constructed using a departure station of walker (U + W) and a functionalized 3D track, which was made up of a rolling circle amplification (RCA)-generated backbone chain and numerous triangular rung units with stators (U + S) assembled into a repeating array along the backbone. A specific domain (SD) was designed at the 5'-end of the backbone to capture the U + W, and stators with specific RNA substrates were immobilized at the three U corners for the DNA walker to travel on. Read More

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January 2020

Regional relationships between CSF VEGF levels and Alzheimer's disease brain biomarkers and cognition.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 May 21;105:241-251. Epub 2021 May 21.

Imaging Genetics Center, Mark and Mary Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Marina del Rey, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a complex signaling protein that supports vascular and neuronal function. Alzheimer's disease (AD) -neuropathological hallmarks interfere with VEGF signaling and modify previously detected positive associations between cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) VEGF and cognition and hippocampal volume. However, it remains unknown 1) whether regional relationships between VEGF and glucose metabolism and cortical thinning exist, and 2) whether AD-neuropathological hallmarks (CSF Aβ, t-tau, p-tau) also modify these relationships. Read More

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The Development of Learning, Performing, and Controlling Repeated Sequential Actions in Young Children.

Top Cogn Sci 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University.

Our daily lives are composed of several sequential actions that we perform routinely, such as making breakfast, taking a train, and changing clothes. Previous research has demonstrated that a routine system plays a role in performing and controlling repeated sequential actions in familiar situations, and a top-down control system involves the control of the routine system in novel situations. Specifically, most developmental studies have focused on the top-down control system (e. Read More

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Altered anterior default mode network dynamics in progressive multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler 2021 Jun 14:13524585211018116. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Bioengineering, Center for Neuroprosthetics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland / Department of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Modifications in brain function remain relatively unexplored in progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS), despite their potential to provide new insights into the pathophysiology of the disease at this stage.

Objectives: To characterize the dynamics of functional networks at rest in patients with PMS, and the relation with clinical disability.

Methods: Thirty-two patients with PMS underwent clinical and cognitive assessment. Read More

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Clinical significance of self-descriptive apathy assessment in patients with neurological form of Wilson's disease.

Neurol Sci 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Sobieskiego 9, 02-957, Warsaw, Poland.

Background And Aim: Apathy is one of the neuropsychiatric symptoms of Wilson's disease (WD) which typically affects the brain's fronto-basal circuits. Lack of agreed diagnostic criteria and common use of self-description assessment tools lead to underestimation of this clinical phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate whether subjective and informant-based clinical features of apathy in patients with WD enable clinicians to make a valid diagnosis. Read More

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Perceived Discrimination, Nativity, and Cognitive Performance in a Multi-ethnic Study of Older Adults: Findings from the Kaiser Healthy Aging and Diverse Life Experiences (KHANDLE) Study.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA.

Background: Despite growing research on the association between discrimination and disparities in cognitive aging, an evidence gap remains on how the association varies by racial/ethnic group. This study evaluates the associations of experiences of discrimination with cognitive function and whether these associations varied by race/ethnicity and nativity.

Methods: Using the Kaiser Healthy Aging and Diverse Life Experiences (KHANDLE) cohort (N=1,712) with approximately equal groups of Black, White, Latino, and Asian community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older, we evaluated the associations between self-reported experiences of everyday and major lifetime discrimination with overall cognitive performance and domain-specific cognition (verbal episodic memory, semantic memory and executive functioning) across race/ethnicity and nativity. Read More

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The Cognitive Scale of Basic and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Multidomain Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Patients: Validation of its Extended Version.

J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2021 Jun 14:1-14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Physiotherapy (Occupational Therapy), University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain.

Objective: To validate an informant-based tool - the extended version of the Cognitive Scale of Basic and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (BADL and IADL) or Ext. Cog-ADL Scale - in a larger sample and with a broader range of cognitive-functional items related to activities of daily living (ADL).

Method: The Ext. Read More

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Continuous research monitoring improves the quality of research conduct and compliance among research trainees: internal evaluation of a monitoring programme.

AAS Open Res 2020 25;3:57. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute and London School Hygiene Tropical Medicine Uganda Research Unit, Entebbe, Uganda.

Research site monitoring (RSM) is an effective way to ensure compliance with Good Clinical Practice (GCP). However, RSM is not offered to trainees (investigators) at African Institutions routinely. The Makerere University/Uganda Virus Research Institute Centre of Excellence in Infection and Immunity Research and Training (MUII-Plus) introduced internal monitoring to promote the quality of trainees' research projects. Read More

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November 2020

A collection of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) detection assays, issues, and challenges.

Heliyon 2021 Jun 6;7(6):e07247. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Center for Nanotechnology and Sustainability, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117581, Singapore.

The global pandemic of COVID-19 has rapidly increased the number of infected cases as well as asymptomatic individuals in many, if not all the societies around the world. This issue increases the demand for accurate and rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2. While accurate and rapid detection is critical for diagnosing SARS-CoV-2, the appropriate course of treatment must be chosen to help patients and prevent its further spread. Read More

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Distinct Fibroblast Lineages Give Rise to NG2+ Pericyte Populations in Mouse Skin Development and Repair.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 28;9:675080. Epub 2021 May 28.

Centre for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, King's College London, Guy's Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

We have examined the developmental origins of Ng2+ perivascular cell populations that adhere to the basement membrane of blood vessels, and their contribution to wound healing. Neural/glial antigen 2 (Ng2) labeled most perivascular cells (70-80%) in developing and adult mouse back skin, a higher proportion than expressed by other pericyte markers Tbx18, Nestin and Pdgfrβ. In adult mouse back skin Ng2+ perivascular cells could be categorized into 4 populations based on whether they expressed Pdgfrα and Pdgfrβ individually or in combination or were Pdgfr-negative. Read More

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