3,314 results match your criteria exchange sce

PARP1 modulates telomere sister chromatid exchange and telomere length homeostasis by regulating telomere localization of SLX4 in U2OS cells.

Life Sci 2021 Jul 1;277:119556. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Biochemistry & Biophysics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, India. Electronic address:

Objective: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase1 (PARP1) interacts and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ates telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2), which acts as a platform to recruit a large number of proteins at the telomere. Since the discovery of TRF2-SLX4 interaction, SLX4 is becoming the key player in telomere length (TL) maintenance and repair by telomere sister chromatid exchange (T-SCE). Defective TL maintenance pathway results in a spectrum of diseases called telomeropathies like dyskeratosis congenita, aplastic anemia, fanconi anemia, cancer. Read More

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Georgian Med News 2020 Dec(309):120-124

1Tbilisi State University, Department of Genetics; 2Tbilisi State University, Institute of Genetics; Georgia.

Following the completion of the Human Genome Project, the strategic direction of modern genetics has moved toward functional genomics, to explore the functions of non-coding regions of DNA. These non-coding regions are localized in heterochromatin. The functions of heterochromatin largely remain unclear. Read More

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December 2020

Genotoxicity induced in vitro by water-soluble indoor PM fractions in relation to heavy metal concentrations.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jan 23;193(2):82. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Democritus University of Thrace, 68100, Alexandroupolis, Greece.

The aim of the present study was to examine the genotoxicity induced by water-soluble fractions of particulate matter (PM) and its potential relation with heavy metals. For this purpose, the genotoxicity induced on human peripheral lymphocytes by water-soluble PM (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) collected from the indoor air of various workplaces in Greece (n = 20), was examined by the Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) induction assay and assessed in relation to the concentrations of the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, Co, Zn, Cr, and Cd. Read More

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January 2021

Dcaf11 activates Zscan4-mediated alternative telomere lengthening in early embryos and embryonic stem cells.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 04 23;28(4):732-747.e9. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Clinical and Translational Research Center of Shanghai First Maternity & Infant Hospital, Frontier Science Center for Stem Cells, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China; Tsingtao Advanced Research Institute, Tongji University, Qingdao 266071, China. Electronic address:

Telomeres play vital roles in ensuring chromosome stability and are thus closely linked with the onset of aging and human disease. Telomeres undergo extensive lengthening during early embryogenesis. However, the detailed molecular mechanism of telomere resetting in early embryos remains unknown. Read More

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and evaluation of clastogenicity of second-line antitubercular drug loaded PLGA nanoparticles.

Hum Exp Toxicol 2021 Jul 20;40(7):1064-1073. Epub 2020 Dec 20.

Department of Pharmacology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Sustained release nanoformulations of second line antitubercular drugs levofloxacin and ethionamide had shown promise in pharmacokinetics and acute and sub-acute toxicity studies. The present study evaluated the clastogenicity potential of the nanoformulations of these antitubercular agents. Clastogenicity was evaluated by (a) in vitro micronucleus assay (b) in vivo micronucleus assay in Swiss albino mice and (c) sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in CHO cell lines. Read More

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Cytogenetic effects of antidiabetic drug metformin.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2020 Nov 8:1-8. Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Department of Biology, Science Faculty, Gazi University, Ankara, 06500, Turkey.

Metformin (MET) is the first-choice antidiabetic drug for type 2 treatment. In this study, the genotoxic potential of MET was evaluated by using chromosome aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronucleus (MN) assays in human peripheral lymphocytes as well as comet assay in isolated lymphocytes. Human lymphocytes were treated with different concentrations of MET (12. Read More

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November 2020

Antigenotoxic and Antimutagenic Effects of , a Traditional Medicinal Herb against Genotoxicity of Cyclophosphamide: An Study on Human Peripheral Lymphocytes.

Prev Nutr Food Sci 2020 Sep;25(3):246-253

Department of Zoology, Government Arts College, Periyar University, Salem, Tamil Nadu 636007, India.

(family: Acanthaceae) is a medicinal herb-used in Indian system of medicine (Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani), traditional and folk systems to treat various illnesses. This study examined the phytochemical constituents of ethanol extract from and its protective effect against genotoxicity caused by cyclophosphamide (CPA). Phytochemical screening and estimation of total phenolic content were analyzed using standard methods. Read More

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September 2020

A toxicological evaluation of a fulvic and humic acids preparation.

Toxicol Rep 2020 14;7:1242-1254. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Toxi-Coop Zrt., Berlini utca 47-49, H-1045 Budapest, Hungary.

Humic substances are ubiquitous in soils and waters. These complex superstructures are derived from the decomposition of dead plant and animal matter and are vital to soil health. Their heterogenous composition is specific to their site of origin and is comprised of weakly bound aggregates of small organic compounds that can sequester minerals and make them available to plants. Read More

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September 2020

The Sister-Chromatid Exchange Assay in Human Cells.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2153:383-393

Centro Andaluz de Biología Molecular y Medicina Regenerativa, CABIMER, Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC-UPO, Seville, Spain.

The semiconservative nature of DNA replication allows the differential labeling of sister chromatids that is the fundamental requirement to perform the sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) assay. SCE assay is a powerful technique to visually detect the physical exchange of DNA between sister chromatids. SCEs could result as a consequence of DNA damage repair by homologous recombination (HR) during DNA replication. Read More

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Occupational benzene exposure and the risk of genetic damage: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Public Health 2020 Jul 15;20(1):1113. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Benzene, an important component of organic solvents, is commonly used in industry. Meanwhile, benzene is a human carcinogen leading to leukemia. Although the links between benzene and various types of genetic damage indicators have been evaluated in several studies, but their results remain inconsistent. Read More

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Cytotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Narrowband UVB to Mammalian Cells.

Genes (Basel) 2020 06 11;11(6). Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Environmental & Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, 1618 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

Phototherapy using narrowband ultraviolet-B (NB-UVB) has been shown to be more effective than conventional broadband UVB (BB-UVB) in treating a variety of skin diseases. To assess the difference in carcinogenic potential between NB-UVB and BB-UVB, we investigated the cytotoxicity via colony formation assay, genotoxicity via sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay, mutagenicity via hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) mutation assay, as well as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) formation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and their NER mutant cells. The radiation dose required to reduce survival to 10% (D value) demonstrated BB-UVB was 10 times more cytotoxic than NB-UVB, and revealed that NB-UVB also induces DNA damage repaired by nucleotide excision repair. Read More

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Boosting the capacitive property of nickel cobalt aluminum layered double hydroxide in neutral electrolyte.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2020 Oct 30;578:96-105. Epub 2020 May 30.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xianyang Normal University, Xianyang 712000, PR China.

Layered double hydroxide (LDH) has shown great potential for energy storage due to their high theoretical specific capacitance, relatively low cost and eco-friendliness. LDH, however, always works in alkali aqueous electrolyte for supercapacitors, which brings serious environmental pollution. In this work, a reduced graphite oxide/Fe(CN)- nickel cobalt aluminum LDH (RGO/Fe(CN)-LDH) composite has been prepared via ion-exchange reaction using RGO/LDH as precursor. Read More

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October 2020

Histidyl-Proline Diketopiperazine Isomers as Multipotent Anti-Alzheimer Drug Candidates.

Biomolecules 2020 05 9;10(5). Epub 2020 May 9.

Science for Life Laboratory, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, SE-17121 Stockholm, Sweden.

Cyclic dipeptides administered by both parenteral and oral routes are suggested as promising candidates for the treatment of neurodegeneration-related pathologies. In this study, we tested Cyclo (His-Pro) isomers (cHP1-4) for their anti-Alzheimer potential using a differentiated human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) as an Alzheimer's disease (AD) experimental model. The SH-SY5Y cell line was differentiated by the application of retinoic acid (RA) to obtain mature neuron-like cells. Read More

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Anticlastogenic, antimutagenic, and cytoprotective properties of ethanolic leaves extract.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2020 Apr 22:1-10. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

EMAN Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

() is widely consumed for its medidcinal value including anti-inflammatory, anti-infective, and diuretic properties. The present study evaluates the cytoprotective, anti-mutagenic, and anticlastogenic efficacies of standardized extract of . Normal liver cell line (WRL68) exposed to hydrogen peroxide and serum-deprived media as insults to evaluate cytoprotective and glutathione activation activities of (Et. Read More

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Influence of the Natural Zeolite Particle Size Toward the Ammonia Adsorption Activity in Ceramic Hollow Fiber Membrane.

Membranes (Basel) 2020 Apr 4;10(4). Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), School of Chemical and Energy Engineering (SCEE), Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM, Skudai, Johor 81310, Malaysia.

Natural zeolite is widely used in removing ammonia via adsorption process because of its superior ion-exchange properties. Ceramic particle size affects the adsorptivity of particles toward ammonia. In this study, hollow fiber ceramic membrane (HFCM) was fabricated from natural zeolite via phase inversion. Read More

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Environmental Monitoring of PAHs Exposure, Biomarkers and Vital Status in Coke Oven Workers.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 03 25;17(7). Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, Occupational Medicine "B. Ramazzini", University of Bari Medical School, 11 G. Cesare Square, 70124 Bari, Italy.

A follow-up study of a cohort of workers from a coke plant compared with a control group from the same industrial area was conducted in 2019. The recruitment and environmental and biomarker measurements were performed during 1993/1994. The environmental concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), B(a)P, pyrene and nitro-PAH were measured. Read More

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Genotoxicity of cisplatin and carboplatin in cultured human lymphocytes: a comparative study.

Interdiscip Toxicol 2019 Oct 20;12(2):93-97. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences , Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

Cisplatin and carboplatin are integral parts of many antineoplastic management regimens. Both platinum analogues are potent DNA alkylating agents that robustly induce genomic instability and promote apoptosis in tumor cells. Although the mechanism of action of both drugs is similar, cisplatin appears to be more cytotoxic. Read More

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October 2019

The Gene Cluster Instability (GCI) Assay for Recombination.

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2102:459-482

AstraZeneca IMED Biotech Unit, Cambridge, UK.

A newly developed method for quantitatively detecting genomic restructuring in cultured human cell lines as the result of recombination is presented: the "gene cluster instability" (GCI) assay. The assay is physiological in that it detects spontaneous restructuring without the need for exogenous recombination-initiating treatments such as DNA damage. As an assay for genotoxicity, the GCI assay is complementary to well-established sister chromatid exchange (SCE) methods. Read More

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October 2020

The Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) Assay.

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2102:441-457

Translational Medicine, Oncology R&D, AstraZeneca, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

A fully optimized staining method for detecting sister chromatid exchanges in cultured cells is presented. The method gives reproducibly robust quantitative results. Sister chromatid exchange is a classic toxicology assay for genotoxicity and for detecting alterations to the biochemistry underlying cellular homologous recombination. Read More

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October 2020

Visualizing locus-specific sister chromatid exchange reveals differential patterns of replication stress-induced fragile site breakage.

Oncogene 2020 02 21;39(6):1260-1272. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

Chromosomal fragile sites are genomic loci sensitive to replication stress which accumulate high levels of DNA damage, and are frequently mutated in cancers. Fragile site damage is thought to arise from the aberrant repair of spontaneous replication stress, however successful fragile site repair cannot be calculated using existing techniques. Here, we report a new assay measuring recombination-mediated repair at endogenous genomic loci by combining a sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay with fluorescent in situ hybridization (SCE-FISH). Read More

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February 2020

Occupational exposure to formaldehyde and early biomarkers of cancer risk, immunotoxicity and susceptibility.

Environ Res 2019 12 14;179(Pt A):108740. Epub 2019 Sep 14.

National Institute of Health, Environmental Health Department, Rua Alexandre Herculano, 321, 4000-055, Porto, Portugal; EPIUnit - Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Taipas, nº 135, 4050-600, Porto, Portugal.

Formaldehyde (FA) is a high-volume production chemical manufactured worldwide to which many people are exposed to both environmentally and occupationally. FA was recently reclassified as a human carcinogen. Several epidemiological studies have revealed an increased risk of cancer development among workers exposed to FA. Read More

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December 2019

In vitro cytogenetic assessment and comparison of vildagliptin and sitagliptin.

Cytotechnology 2019 Dec 25;71(6):1063-1077. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Faculty of Art &Science, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Ordu University, 52200, Ordu, Turkey.

Vildagliptin and sitagliptin are commonly used antidiabetic drugs. Chromosomal aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assays were employed to assess and compare cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of these drugs. Peripheral lymphocytes were exposed to 125 μg/ml, 250 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml of vildagliptin and 250 μg/ml, 500 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml of sitagliptin for 24 h and 48 h with and without exogenous metabolic activation. Read More

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December 2019

Genotoxic properties of Betonica officinalis, Gratiola officinalis, Vincetoxicum luteum and Vincetoxicum hirundinaria extracts.

Food Chem Toxicol 2019 Dec 11;134:110815. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania. Electronic address:

Genotoxicity of B. officinalis, G. officinalis, V. Read More

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December 2019

Increased Non-Homologous End Joining Makes DNA-PK a Promising Target for Therapeutic Intervention in Uveal Melanoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Aug 30;11(9). Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Department of Oncology and Metabolism, The Medical School, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield, S10 2RX, UK.

Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular tumour in adults, with a mean survival of six months following metastasis. The survival rates have not improved in over 30 years. This study has shown that sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is low in UM which is likely due to a reduced expression of . Read More

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Antigenotoxic effects of morin against lead induced genomic damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

J Food Biochem 2019 07 30;43(7):e12883. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Department of Biotechnology, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, India.

Lead (Pb) is a well-known carcinogenic heavy metal. Exposure to Pb induces DNA damage by enhancing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). One of the possible ways to shield DNA from this damage is to supply antioxidants that can remove free radicals generated by genotoxicants. Read More

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Determination of genotoxic effects in hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease and the role of diabetes mellitus and other biochemical parameters.

Mutat Res 2019 08 30;844:46-53. Epub 2019 May 30.

Department of Nephrology, Medical Faculty, Yuksek Ihtisas University, Ankara, Turkey.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common health problem. The primary etiology of CKD is diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of our study is to determine the possible role of DM and also effects of other factors such as hypertension, duration of hemodialysis (HD), age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and levels of hemoglobin (HB), intact parathormone (iPTH), and ferritin on genetic alterations in maintenance HD patients using chromosomal aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronucleus (MN) tests. Read More

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Sister Chromatid Exchange as a Genotoxic Stress Marker.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1984:61-68

Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is the phenomenon of partial DNA exchange during DNA replication. SCE detection has been developed through eliciting DNA's semiconservative replicative nature. Thymidine analogues such as 5'-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and ethynyldeoxyuridine (EdU) are incorporated into the newly synthesized DNA for two cell cycles. Read More

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January 2020

Assessment of genome stability in various breeds of cattle.

PLoS One 2019 4;14(6):e0217799. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Institute of Bioengineering and Animal Breeding, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Siedlce, Poland.

Chromosomal instability is a type of genome instability involving changes in genetic information at the chromosomal level. The basic tests used to identify this form of instability are sister chromatid exchange (SCE) tests and identification of fragile sites (FS). SCE is the process by which sister chromatids become fragmented as a result of DNA strand breakage and reassembly, followed by exchange of these fragments. Read More

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February 2020

Oxidative stress and endoreduplication induced by blue light exposure to CHO cells.

Mutat Res 2019 05 4;841:31-35. Epub 2019 May 4.

Department of Environmental & Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, Colorado 80523, USA. Electronic address:

Blue light is commonly used for the treatment of Neonatal Jaundice and as a photodynamic therapy for cancer. In comparison to ultraviolet light, blue light has a lower toxicity due to the differences in photon energies. However, blue light can still be mutagenic to cells. Read More

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Extract Reduces Respiratory Exchange Ratio in Obese Mice Fed High Fat and Low Fat Diets.

Malays J Med Sci 2018 Nov 28;25(6):46-58. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.

Background: () leaves were traditionally consumed for its body weight lowering effect. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of leaves extract (SCE).

Methods: Mice ( = 48) were fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 25 weeks to induce obesity, after which half were maintained on HFD and half switched to low-fat diet (LFD)while they were given normal water (HO) or 0. Read More

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November 2018