37,909 results match your criteria excess risks


Association of Cardiovascular Outcomes and Mortality With Sustained Long-Acting Insulin Only vs Long-Acting Plus Short-Acting Insulin Treatment.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2126605. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

HealthPartners Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Importance: Cardiovascular events and mortality are the principal causes of excess mortality and health care costs for people with type 2 diabetes. No large studies have specifically compared long-acting insulin alone with long-acting plus short-acting insulin with regard to cardiovascular outcomes.

Objective: To compare cardiovascular events and mortality in adults with type 2 diabetes receiving long-acting insulin who do or do not add short-acting insulin. Read More

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September 2021

Adipocytokines and Associations with Abnormal Body Composition in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: We determined associations between adipokines and abnormal body composition in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods: Combining data from three RA cohorts, whole-body dual-energy absorptiometry measures of appendicular lean mass and fat mass indices were converted to age, sex, and race-specific Z-Scores. Lean mass relative to fat mass was determined based on prior methods. Read More

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September 2021

Maternal prenatal selenium levels and child risk of neurodevelopmental disorders: A prospective birth cohort study.

Autism Res 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element involved in various biological processes, including neurodevelopment. Available literature indicates that both Se deficiency and excess may be detrimental to health. It is also known that Se can cross the placenta from maternal to fetal circulation. Read More

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September 2021

Selective Glucocorticoid Replacement Following Unilateral Adrenalectomy for Hypercortisolism and Primary Aldosteronism.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Background: An institutional study previously demonstrated that cosyntropin stimulation testing on postoperative day 1 (POD1-CST) identified patients at risk for adrenal insufficiency (AI) following unilateral adrenalectomy (UA) for adrenal-dependent hypercortisolism (HC) and primary aldosteronism (PA), allowing for selective glucocorticoid replacement (GR). This study reevaluates the need for GR following UA for patients with HC and PA in a larger cohort.

Methods: A prospective database identified 108 patients who underwent UA for mild autonomous cortisol excess (MACE) (n=47), overt hypercortisolism (OH) (n=27), PA (n=22), and concurrent PA/HC (n=12) from 9/2014-10/2020; all underwent preoperative evaluation for HC. Read More

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September 2021

Excess Mortality in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients Hospitalized with COVID-19: A Large-Scale Comparison of SOT Recipients Hospitalized With or Without COVID-19.

Clin Transplant 2021 Sep 24:e14492. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients with COVID-19 have higher risk of adverse outcomes compared to the general population. Whether hospitalized SOT recipients with COVID-19 are at higher risk of mortality than SOT recipients hospitalized for other causes, including non-COVID-19 pneumonia, remains unclear.

Methods: We used logistic regression to compare outcomes of SOT recipients hospitalized with COVID-19 to non-COVID-19 related admissions and with non-COVID-19 pneumonia. Read More

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September 2021

Night and shift work and incidence of cerebrovascular disease - a prospective cohort study of healthcare employees in Stockholm.

Scand J Work Environ Health 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solnavägen 4 10th floor, SE-113 65 Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of various aspects of night and shift work regarding incident cerebrovascular disease (CeVD). Methods The cohort included 26 667 women and 3793 men (nurses and nursing assistants) who were employed for at least one year 2008-2016 in Region Stockholm, Sweden. Information about the cohort and working hours were obtained from a computerized employee-register and diagnoses were retrieved from national and regional registers. Read More

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September 2021

Excess mortality for men and women above age 70 according to level of care during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden: A population-based study.

Lancet Reg Health Eur 2021 May 17;4:100072. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Unit of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Both age and comorbidity are established risk factors for death among those infected with COVID-19. Because they often co-exist, it is difficult to assess if age is a risk factor on its own.

Methods: We used administrative register data of the total Swedish population from 01/2015 until 07/2020. Read More

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Socioeconomic deprivation and cancer survival in a metropolitan area: An analysis of cancer registry data from Hamburg, Germany.

Lancet Reg Health Eur 2021 May 26;4:100063. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 581, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Few studies have investigated socioeconomic inequalities within cities. Yet, such analyses are particularly important given the increasing international trend to urbanization. Here we investigated area-based socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival in Hamburg, a port city in the North of Germany (population: 1. Read More

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A novel murine model of multi-day moderate ethanol exposure reveals increased intestinal dysfunction and liver inflammation with age.

Immun Ageing 2021 Sep 23;18(1):37. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Surgery, Division of GI, Trauma and Endocrine Surgery, and Alcohol Research Program, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, 12700 East 19th Ave, RC2, Mail Stop #8620, CO, 80045, Aurora, USA.

Background: There are currently > 600 million people over the age of 65 globally and this number is expected to double by the year 2050. Alcohol use among this population is on the rise, which is concerning as aging is associated with increased risk for a number of chronic illnesses. As most studies investigating the effects of alcohol have focused on young/middle-aged populations, there is a dearth of information regarding the consequences of alcohol use in older consumers. Read More

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September 2021

Implant-based immediate reconstruction in prophylactic mastectomy: is the caudal dermis flap a reliable alternative to synthetic mesh or acellular dermal matrix?

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Plastic Surgery, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Introduction: The demand for prophylactic mastectomy has increased significantly over the last 10 years. This can be explained by a substantial gain of knowledge about the clinical risk and outcome of patients with high risk mutations such as BRCA1 and 2, the improved diagnostic possibilities for detecting the genetic predisposition for the development of breast cancer and the awareness for those mutations by health care professionals as well as patients. In addition to expander-to-implant reconstruction and microsurgical flap surgery, definitive immediate reconstruction with subpectoral insertion of breast implants is often preferred. Read More

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September 2021

Mortality risk in a population of patients treated for gambling disorders: results of a follow-up study.

Ann Ist Super Sanita 2021 Jul-Sep;57(3):205-211

Centro per lo Studio ed il Trattamento delle Patologie Alcol-Correlate, Dipartimento di Medicina Translazionale e per la Romagna, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Aims: To examine mortality risk and causes of death in a cohort of a population of patients treated for gambling disorders in northern Italy from 1992 to 2019.

Methods: Cohort study.

Results: Half of the patients were diagnosed with psychiatric disorders, substance use disorder or alcohol dependence. Read More

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September 2021

Obesity: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Therapeutics.

Authors:
Xihua Lin Hong Li

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 6;12:706978. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Endocrinology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Obesity is a complex multifactorial disease that accumulated excess body fat leads to negative effects on health. Obesity continues to accelerate resulting in an unprecedented epidemic that shows no significant signs of slowing down any time soon. Raised body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and musculoskeletal disorders, resulting in dramatic decrease of life quality and expectancy. Read More

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September 2021

Umami-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome is mediated by nucleotide degradation and uric acid generation.

Nat Metab 2021 Sep 22;3(9):1189-1201. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

Umami refers to the savoury taste that is mediated by monosodium glutamate (MSG) and enhanced by inosine monophosphate and other nucleotides. Umami foods have been suggested to increase the risk for obesity and metabolic syndrome but the mechanism is not understood. Here we show that MSG induces obesity, hypothalamic inflammation and central leptin resistance in male mice through the induction of AMP deaminase 2 and purine degradation. Read More

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September 2021

Diet-induced alteration of intestinal stem cell function underlies obesity and prediabetes in mice.

Nat Metab 2021 Sep 22;3(9):1202-1216. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute of Diabetes and Regeneration Research, Helmholtz Diabetes Center, Helmholtz Center Munich, Neuherberg, Germany.

Excess nutrient uptake and altered hormone secretion in the gut contribute to a systemic energy imbalance, which causes obesity and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and colorectal cancer. This functional maladaptation is thought to emerge at the level of the intestinal stem cells (ISCs). However, it is not clear how an obesogenic diet affects ISC identity and fate. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of era of diagnosis on cause-specific late mortality among 77 423 five-year European survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: the PanCareSurFup consortium.

Int J Cancer 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR), Division of Childhood Cancer Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany.

Late mortality of European five-year survivors of childhood or adolescent cancer has dropped over the last 60 years, but excess mortality persists. There is little information concerning secular trends in cause-specific mortality among older European survivors. PanCareSurFup pooled data from 12 cancer registries and clinics in 11 European countries from 77 423 five-year survivors of cancer diagnosed before age 21 between 1940 to 2008 followed for an average age of 21 years and a total of 1. Read More

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September 2021

Non-adherence to established dietary guidelines associated with increased mortality: the Copenhagen General Population Study.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Sep;28(11):1259-1268

Department of Internal Medicine, Zealand University Hospital, Denmark.

Aims: The relevance of adherence to established dietary guidelines is repeatedly challenged. We hypothesised that non-adherence to established dietary guidelines is associated with an excess risk of cardiovascular, non-cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.

Methods: We studied 100,191 white adult Danes aged 20-100 years recruited in 2003-2015 and followed up until December 2018. Read More

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September 2021

Detection of sulfate-reducing bacteria as an indicator for successful mitigation of sulfide production.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Sep 22:AEM0174821. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Integrative Oceanography Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego.

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are one of the main sources of biogenic HS generation in oil reservoirs. Excess HS production in these systems leads to oil biosouring, which causes operational risks, health hazards and can increase the cost of refining crude oil. Nitrate salts are often added to the system to suppress sulfidogenesis. Read More

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September 2021

Smoldering Myeloma Treatment: Who, What, and When.

Cancer J 2021 May-Jun 01;27(3):185-189

From the Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY.

Abstract: Smoldering multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal plasma cell disorder characterized by excess marrow involvement and immunoglobulin production. It is the precursor of MM, differing by the lack of end-organ damage. Smoldering MM encompasses a heterogeneous group of patients, with a median risk of progression to active disease of 50% in the first 5 years. Read More

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September 2021

[Mortality and cancer risk in agricultural nursery workers: a cohort study in Tuscany Region (Central Italy)].

Epidemiol Prev 2021 Jul-Aug;45(4):254-262

SS epidemiologia dell'ambiente e del lavoro, SC epidemiologia dei fattori di rischio e degli stili di vita, Istituto per lo studio, la prevenzione e la rete oncologica (ISPRO), Firenze;

Objectives: to follow-up mortality of agricultural nursery workers of the province of Pistoia (Tuscany Region, Central Italy).

Design: the cohort of nursery workers of the Pistoia province was assembled from two sources: subjects who obtained a pesticide license (PAT) and subjects who had been working in agricultural nursery, based on the 2003 regional census (LIF). Vital status and causes of deaths were ascertained through the official records of the municipalities and the Tuscany Mortality Register. Read More

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September 2021

Ancestry-based intracategorical injustices in carcinogenic air pollution exposures in the United States.

Soc Nat Resour 2020 17;33(8):987-1005. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Texas- El Paso, 500 West University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968, USA.

Previous studies of US environmental inequalities have focused on racial/ethnic differences in air pollutant exposure. Few have applied an intracategorical framework, which enables the identification of within-group differences through the examination of subgroups. We applied this framework to examine exposure disparities between 26 ancestry/ethnic origin groups within five US racial/ethnic categories. Read More

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January 2020

Three Healthy Eating Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Markers in 9 to 18 Year Olds With Body Mass Index >95%: A Randomized Trial.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2021 Sep 21:99228211044841. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Approximately 20% of American 9 to 18 year olds are obese, and most carry their excess adiposity, with its associated increased risk for cardiovascular disease, into adulthood. We studied cardiovascular disease risk markers changes associated with 3 healthy eating patterns (HEPs) in 96 9 to 18 year olds with a body mass index >95% in a Midwestern health system 1-year randomized trial. All HEPs were associated with similar statistically significant ( < . Read More

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September 2021

COVID-19 and the excess of mortality in Italy from January to April 2020: what are the risks for oldest old?

J Public Health Res 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Education, Psychology and Philosophy, University of Cagliari.

In February 2020, Italy has been the first country in Europe fighting against COVID-19. In March 2020, Italian government declared national lockdown. Until May 4th, people stayed in home confinement and only the so-called "essential works and activities" were continued. Read More

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September 2021

Cross-Talk Between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Disease: Implications for Future Trial Design.

Diabetes Metab 2021 Sep 17:101281. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Dept. of Internal medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA 23298.

The natural history of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is still not fully elucidated. Patients with NAFLD have a low risk of liver complications, unless substantial liver fibrosis has developed. On the other hand, NAFLD has been linked with excess metabolic and cardiovascular complications. Read More

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September 2021

Measuring the COVID-19 Mortality Burden in the United States : A Microsimulation Study.

Ann Intern Med 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, and National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts (D.L.).

Background: Fully assessing the mortality burden of the COVID-19 pandemic requires measuring years of life lost (YLLs) and accounting for quality-of-life differences.

Objective: To measure YLLs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost from the COVID-19 pandemic, by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and comorbidity.

Design: State-transition microsimulation model. Read More

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September 2021

Iron and liver cancer: an inseparable connection.

FEBS J 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Hepatology and Pancreatology, Kawasaki Medical School.

Iron is an essential element for all organisms. Iron-containing proteins play critical roles in cellular functions. The biological importance of iron is largely attributable to its chemical properties as a transitional metal. Read More

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September 2021

The blood metabolome of incident kidney cancer: A case-control study nested within the MetKid consortium.

PLoS Med 2021 Sep 20;18(9):e1003786. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Nutrition and Metabolism Branch, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO), Lyon, France.

Background: Excess bodyweight and related metabolic perturbations have been implicated in kidney cancer aetiology, but the specific molecular mechanisms underlying these relationships are poorly understood. In this study, we sought to identify circulating metabolites that predispose kidney cancer and to evaluate the extent to which they are influenced by body mass index (BMI).

Methods And Findings: We assessed the association between circulating levels of 1,416 metabolites and incident kidney cancer using pre-diagnostic blood samples from up to 1,305 kidney cancer case-control pairs from 5 prospective cohort studies. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of Excess Body Weight on Postsurgical Complications.

Visc Med 2021 Aug 2;37(4):287-297. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of General, Visceral, Transplantation, Vascular, and Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital, Wuerzburg, Germany.

Background: Obesity is considered a risk factor for postoperative complications as it can limit exposure to the operation field, thereby significantly prolonging surgery time. Obesity-associated comorbidities, such as low-grade systemic inflammation, impaired functional status, and type 2 diabetes, are independent risk factors for impaired anastomotic wound healing and nonsurgical site infections. If obesity itself is an independent risk factor for surgical complications remains controversial, but the reason for this is largely unexplored. Read More

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Excess Body Weight and Pancreatic Disease.

Visc Med 2021 Aug 9;37(4):281-286. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Medicine A, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

Background: Excess body weight (EBW) is a risk factor for various acute and chronic conditions. Conversely, the "obesity paradox" suggests a protective effect of higher body weight on some disease outcomes. This article discusses the role of EBW along the disease continuum of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) in terms of incidence and outcome. Read More

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Excess Body Weight and Gastrointestinal Cancer Risk.

Authors:
Hans Scherübl

Visc Med 2021 Aug 13;37(4):261-266. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Klinik für Innere Medizin II, Gastroenterologie, GI Onkologie, Diabetologie und Infektiologie, Vivantes Klinikum Am Urban, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Excess body weight (EBW), defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m, has become the second most important as well as a potentially modifiable risk factor for cancer in many industrialized countries. The more excess weight people have, the higher the risk of certain cancers. Over the past several decades, EBW has been increasing globally not only among adults, but also among children and adolescents. Read More

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Excess Body Weight and Gallstone Disease.

Visc Med 2021 Aug 15;37(4):254-260. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Medicine II, Saarland University Medical Center, University of Saarland, Homburg, Germany.

Background: Approximately one fifth of adults are diagnosed with gallstones worldwide. Of these, around 25% develop gallstone disease (indicated by the presence of symptoms) and undergo cholecystectomy.

Summary: The risk of gallstones is influenced by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as excess body weight. Read More

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