289,097 results match your criteria examined group


Refining diagnostic criteria for paediatric bronchiectasis using low-dose CT scan.

Respir Med 2021 Jul 24;187:106547. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Infection and Immunity, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: There is a current lack of consensus amongst paediatric radiologists and respiratory paediatricians as to the correct CT definition of bronchiectasis in children. Using contemporary low-dose CT, our objectives were to determine the upper limit of normal for broncho-arterial ratio (BAR) in children and to evaluate the effect of age and general anaesthesia.

Methods: Measurements of 330 broncho-arterial ratios from 51 children (0-19 years) undergoing low-dose CT chest for non-respiratory indications were performed by 3 blinded observers (two radiologists, one respiratory physician) using four different methods. Read More

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Diverse trauma profiles of youth in group care settings: A cluster analysis.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Jul 30;120:105221. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

McMaster University, Department of Pediatrics, 1280 Main Street West, Room 3A, Hamilton L8S 4K1, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Many adolescents in group care have experienced higher rates of traumatic event exposure, behavior problems, and severe trauma sequelae compared to those outside of group care. Yet, little research has examined from a person-centered perspective their diverse trauma profiles and corresponding service needs.

Objective: This exploratory study aimed to examine the heterogeneity of trauma-related profiles among youth in group care to highlight potential distinct service needs among subgroups. Read More

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Intact circadian rhythm despite cortisol hypersecretion in Alzheimer's disease: A meta-analysis.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Jul 26;132:105367. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 648 Cherry St. NW, Atlanta GA 30313, USA. Electronic address:

Hypersecretion of the glucocorticoid steroid hormone cortisol by individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been suspected for several decades, during which time dozens of examinations of this phenomenon have been conducted and published. The goals of this investigation were to summarize this sizeable body of literature, test whether participant and methodological characteristics modify the magnitude of the AD-associated basal cortisol hypersecretion, and examine whether cortisol circadian rhythmicity is maintained among individuals with AD. To this end, the present meta-analysis and systematic review examined over 300 comparisons of indices of basal HPA-axis functioning between individuals with AD and cognitively normal older adults. Read More

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The effectiveness of psychological interventions for loneliness: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Psychol Rev 2021 Jul 18;88:102066. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, 30 Guilford Street, London, UK.

Chronic loneliness is associated with a range of mental health difficulties. Previous theory and research indicate that psychological interventions show promise for reducing loneliness, however, there have been no systematic reviews or meta-analyses to ascertain the efficacy of these interventions across the lifespan. The aim of this study was to synthesise, meta-analyse and explore the heterogeneity in RCTs of psychological interventions for loneliness in order to establish their efficacy. Read More

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Immune checkpoint programmed death-1 mediates abdominal aortic aneurysm and pseudoaneurysm progression.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 30;142:111955. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, 450052 Henan, China; Key Vascular Physiology and Applied Research Laboratory of Zhengzhou City, 450002 Henan, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: The causes and pathogenetic mechanisms underlying abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and pseudoaneurysms are not fully understood. We hypothesized that inhibiting programmed death-1 (PD-1) can decrease AAA and pseudoaneurysm formation in mouse and rat models.

Methods: Human AAA samples were examined in conjunction with an adventitial calcium chloride (CaCl) application mouse model and an aortic patch angioplasty rat model. Read More

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A process mining approach in big data analysis and modeling decision making risks for measuring environmental health in institutions.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 30:111804. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Environmental and Food Hygiene Laboratories (LIAA) of Department of Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies "G.F. Ingrassia", Hygiene and Public Health, University of Catania, Italy.

This paper aimed to introduce a process-mining framework for measuring the status of environmental health in institutions. The methodology developed a new software-based index namely Institutional Environmental Health Index (IEHI) that was integrated from ontology-based Multi-Criteria Group Decision-Making models based on the principles of fuzzy modeling and consensus evaluation. Fuzzy Ordered Weighting Average (OWA) with the capability of modeling the uncertainties and decision-making risks along with Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) were employed as the computation engine. Read More

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Latent Patterns of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, Depression, and Posttraumatic Growth Among Adolescents During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Authors:
Rui Zhen Xiao Zhou

J Trauma Stress 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Researchhas shown that posttraumatic reactions can co-occur in trauma-exposed individuals. Many studies have assessed the co-occurring patterns of two types of reactions, but few have assessed the patterns of multiple reactions. To build on existing knowledge, the present study examined co-occurring patterns of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Surgical repair of subaortic stenosis resection: 10 years of single-center experience in 65 patients.

J Card Surg 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Pediatric Cardiac Center, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Subaortic stenosis (SAS) was a rare congenital heart disease of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), ranging from "isolated" lesions to "tunnel" or "diffuse" lesions. We conducted a retrospective study to describe the characteristics of patients with different lesions and analyze the risk factors for reoperation.

Methods: In this study, we examined a single-center retrospective cohort of SAS patients undergoing resection from 2010 to 2019. Read More

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A multilevel analysis of individual and contextual factors associated with the practice of safe disposal of children's faeces in sub-Saharan Africa.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(8):e0254774. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Neurocognition and Action-Biomechanics-Research Group, Faculty of Psychology and Sport Sciences, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.

Background: Over the years, sanitation programs over the world have focused more on household sanitation, with limited attention towards the disposal of children's stools. This lack of attention could be due to the misconception that children's stools are harmless. The current study examined the individual and contextual predictors of safe disposal of children's faeces among women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Read More

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Factor structure of the parental reflective functioning questionnaire and association with maternal postpartum depression and comorbid symptoms of psychopathology.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(8):e0254792. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Psychology, Center for Early Intervention and Family Studies, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Parental reflective functioning (PRF) refers to the parent's capacity to envision mental states in the infant and in themselves as a parent, and to link such underlying mental process with behavior, which is important for parenting sensitivity and child socio-emotional development. Current findings have linked maternal postpartum depression to impaired reflective skills, imposing a risk on the developing mother-infant relationship, but findings are mixed, and studies have generally used extensive methods for investigating PRF. The present study examined the factor structure and measurement invariance of the Danish version of the 18-item self-report Parental Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (PRFQ) in a sample of mothers with and without diagnosed postpartum depression. Read More

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Do liars really remember what they lied upon? The impact of fabrication on memory.

Memory 2021 Aug 2:1-15. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Leuven Institute of Criminology, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

The present experiment aimed to examine how fabrication can affect memory. In particular, we examined whether different types of fabrication can lead to different mnemonic effects. A sample of 159 participants watched a video of a robbery and subsequently answered some questions about it. Read More

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Categorical interoception: the role of disease context and individual differences in habitual symptom reporting.

Psychol Health 2021 Aug 2:1-19. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Research Group on Health Psychology, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Objective: Symptom reports correspond less to physiological dysfunction in persons with high levels of symptoms in daily life and in patients with functional somatic symptoms, suggesting poor symptom perception. In this study, we investigated whether interoception was impacted by the meaning of the context and by habitual symptom reporting.

Methods: Eight inspiratory resistances that were equidistant in intensity were administered to healthy women (N = 124) varying in habitual symptom reporting. Read More

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Trampoline Injuries in Children and Adolescents: A Jumping Threat.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Surgery, Tulane University, School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA.

Objective: As trampoline use grows more popular in the United States, the frequency of injuries continues to climb. We hypothesized that toddlers would be at the highest risk for trampoline injuries requiring hospitalization.

Methods: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database was examined for trampoline injuries from 2009 to 2018. Read More

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Hepatic Perisinusoidal Myofibroblast Proliferation and Systemic Inflammatory Response Precedes Sep/Tox Hepatitis in Broilers.

Avian Dis 2021 Mar;65(1):10-17

Veterinary Diagnostic Pathology LLC, Fort Valley, VA 22652.

Septicemia-toxemia (sep/tox) falls under U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) food safety Category 1 and is the most common and economically significant cause of broiler carcass condemnations. Read More

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Spinal and Cerebral Integration of Noxious Inputs in Left-handed Individuals.

Brain Topogr 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Anatomy, Université du Québec À Trois-Rivières, 3351 boul. des Forges, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières, QC, G9A 5H7, Canada.

Some pain-related information is processed preferentially in the right cerebral hemisphere. Considering that functional lateralization can be affected by handedness, spinal and cerebral pain-related responses may be different between right- and left-handed individuals. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the cortical and spinal mechanisms of nociceptive integration when nociceptive stimuli are applied to right -handed vs. Read More

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Decreased fasting serum glucogenic amino acids with a higher compared to normal protein diet during energy restriction in women: a randomized controlled trial.

Amino Acids 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Rutgers University and NJ-Institute of Food Health and Nutrition, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Dietary protein alters circulating amino acid (AAs) levels and higher protein intake (HP) is one means of losing weight. We examined 34 overweight and obese women (57 ± 4 years) during 6 months of energy restriction (7.3 ± 3. Read More

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Effectiveness of experimental and commercial pertussis vaccines in the elimination of Bordetella pertussis isolates with different genetic profiles in murine model.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Vaccines and Sera Evaluation, National Institute of Public Health, National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.

The aim of this study was to compare the elimination of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates, representing different genotypes in relation to alleles encoding virulence factors (MLST-multi-locus antigen sequence typing), MLVA type (multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis) and PFGE group (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) from the lungs of naive mice or mice were immunised with the commercial whole-cell pertussis vaccine, the acellular pertussis vaccine and the experimental whole-cell pertussis vaccine. Molecular data indicate that the resurgence of pertussis in populations with high vaccine coverage is associated with genomic adaptation of B. pertussis, to vaccine selection pressure. Read More

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Congruence of pain perceptions between Black cancer patients and their family caregivers.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Room 228, 1520 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

Purpose: This cross-sectional study evaluated congruence in pain assessment among Black cancer patients taking opioids for pain and their family caregivers and the effects of patient-reported depressive symptoms and cognitive complaints on the congruence.

Methods: Patient-reported pain scores (current, average, and worst pain severity and pain interference) and caregiver proxy scores were independently assessed (Brief Pain Inventory). Patient-reported depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-8) and cognitive complaints (Cognitive Difficulties Scale) were also assessed. Read More

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Evaluating the effects of carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in ovariectomized female rats.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Vascular Biology Laboratory, School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA Deemed University, Thanjavur, India.

Purpose: Cardioprotective effect of carbon monoxide, a gasotransmitter against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R), is well established in preclinical studies with male rats. However, its ischemic tolerance in post-menopausal animals has not been examined due to functional perturbations at the cellular level.

Methods: The protective role of carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) on myocardial I/R was studied in female Wistar rats using the Langendorff apparatus. Read More

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Self-reported and actigraphic short sleep duration in older adults.

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Yale School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, New Haven, CT.

Study Objectives: Persons > 65 years with short sleep duration (≤ 6 hours) are at risk for adverse outcomes, but the accuracy of self-reported sleep duration may be affected by reduced symptom awareness. We evaluated the performance characteristics of self-reported versus objectively-measured sleep duration in this age group.

Methods: In 2,980 men from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Sleep Study (MrOS) and 2,855 women from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF), we examined the agreement and accuracy of self-reported versus actigraphy-measured short and normal (> 6 but < 9 hours) sleep duration. Read More

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Online racism, psychological distress, and alcohol use among racial minority women and men: A multi-group mediation analysis.

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2021 ;91(4):524-530

Department of Epidemiology, Florida International University.

We examined whether alcohol use may be linked to stress associated with online racism as a risky coping behavior among racial minority adults, and potential gender differences across women and men. We tested parallel stress pathways in which we hypothesized that exposure to online racism would be indirectly related to alcohol use severity via general psychological distress and social media-related stress. With data from 395 racial/ethnic minority adults (M age = 34. Read More

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January 2021

The Effects of the Medical Pause on Physiological Stress Markers among Health Care Providers: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

West J Nurs Res 2021 Jul 31:1939459211027657. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, VA, USA.

Contemplative practices promote well-being, work engagement and resilience among health care providers. We examined the impact of The Pause, a brief contemplative intervention, on health care providers' physiological stress response. Participants were randomly assigned to either The Pause or the control group. Read More

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Mental health literacy among Arab university students in Israel: A qualitative study.

Int J Soc Psychiatry 2021 Aug 2:207640211036167. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Conflict Management and Resolution Program, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Be'er Sheva, Israel.

Background: There has been a noticeable increase in the number of studies concerned with mental health literacy (MHL), specifically among students. Still, very few studies have examined MHL among students of non-Western minority groups.

Aims: This study examined MHL among Arab students in Israel based on Jorm's conceptual framework. Read More

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Health-Related and Motor Performance-Related Fitness and Physical Activity Among Youth With Cystic Fibrosis.

Percept Mot Skills 2021 Aug 1:315125211036415. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Pediatric Pulmonology and Sleep Medicine, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Children's Hospital, 27170University of Duisburg-Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Little is known about motor competence and the longitudinal development of motor performance among youth with cystic fibrosis (CF). In this study, we assessed aspects of motor performance in different age groups of young patients with CF and compared them with a healthy reference group of same aged children. We also examined the development of motor performance among different age groups of these children with CF, using The Deutscher Motorik Test (DMT) to assess attributes of health-related and motor performance-related fitness. Read More

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Comparing total medical expenditure between patients receiving direct oral anticoagulants vs warfarin for the treatment of atrial fibrillation: evidence from VA-Medicare dual enrollees.

J Manag Care Spec Pharm 2021 Aug;27(8):1056-1066

Center for Healthcare Organization and Implementation Research (CHOIR), VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, and Department of Surgery, Boston University, Boston, MA.

Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are an alternative to warfarin for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Evidence demonstrating the efficacy and safety of DOACs has primarily been from clinical trial settings. The real-world effectiveness of DOACs in specific nontrial populations that differ in age, comorbidity burden, and socioeconomic status is unclear. Read More

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Factors associated with medication nonadherence among Medicare low-income subsidy beneficiaries with diabetes, hypertension, and/or heart failure.

J Manag Care Spec Pharm 2021 Aug;27(8):971-981

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Translational Science, University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Pharmacy, Memphis.

Previous studies have documented factors influencing medication nonadherence among the Medicare population, but few studies have examined medication nonadherence among the Medicare low-income subsidy (LIS) population. Furthermore, little is known about the factors associated with nonadherence among this population, especially those with prevalent chronic conditions such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, or heart failure. To examine factors associated with the likelihood of medication nonadherence among Medicare LIS recipients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, or heart failure. Read More

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Dose and time dependence of functional impairments in rat jejunum following ionizing radiation exposure.

Physiol Rep 2021 Aug;9(15):e14960

Department of General Physiology, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Ionizing radiation causes dramatic change in the transport and barrier functions of the intestine. The degree of radiation damage rate depends primarily on the absorbed dose and post-irradiation time. Variety of experimental protocols providing different time points and doses exist, with the lack of a common approach. Read More

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Recent Progress on the Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy Study of Semiconductor Heterojunctions.

Small 2021 Aug 1:e2100655. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310027, China.

The band alignment, interface states, interface coupling, and carrier transport of semiconductor heterojunctions (SHs) need to be well understood for the design and fabrication of various important semiconductor structures and devices. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with high spatial resolution and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) with high energy resolution are significantly contributing to the understanding on the important properties of SHs. In this work, the recent progress on the use of STM and STS to study lateral, vertical and bulk SHs is reviewed. Read More

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The evaluation of the trachea as a new parameter in determining the prognosis of COVID-19: first pilot study.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Jul;25(14):4835-4840

Department of Radiology, Malatya Training and Research Hospital, Malatya, Turkey.

Objective: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) follows a biphasic disease model consisting of an early viral response phase and an inflammation phase. SARS-CoV-2 has a high affinity for the upper respiratory tract and conjunctiva; hence, it can infect the upper respiratory tract and facilitate airway inflammation. COVID-19 also affects the tracheal epithelial cells. Read More

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Identification of beryllium fluoride complexes in mechanically distorted gels using quadrupolar split Be NMR spectra resolved with solution-state selective cross-polarization.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney, Building G08, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

The uniformly anisotropic media afforded by hydrogels are being increasingly exploited in analytical (structure elucidation) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and in studies of mechanosensitive biophysical and biochemical properties of living cells. The 9Be NMR parameters of beryllium fluoride complexes formed in aqueous solutions are sensitive markers of the anisotropic molecular environments produced by gelatin gels. The electric quadrupole moment of the 9Be nucleus (spin I = 3/2) interacts with the electric field gradient tensor in a stretched (or compressed) gel, giving rise to the splitting of peaks in 9Be NMR spectra. Read More

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