35,258 results match your criteria examination class

Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Stabilization as an Emerging Therapy for CKD-Related Anemia: Report From a Scientific Workshop Sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The National Kidney Foundation convened an interdisciplinary international workshop in March 2019 to discuss the potential role of a new class of agents for the treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD): the hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (HIF-PHIs). International experts with expertise in physiology, biochemistry, structural chemistry, translational medicine and clinical management of anemia participated. Participants reviewed the unmet needs of current anemia treatment, the biology of hypoxia-inducible factor, the pharmacology of prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors, and the results of phase 2 clinical trials of HIF-PHIs among patients with both non-dialysis dependent and dialysis-dependent CKD. Read More

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Continuous flow left ventricular assist devices do not worsen endothelial function in subjects with chronic heart failure: a pilot study.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, Pediatric Section, University "A. Moro" of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Aims: To evaluate endothelial function in subjects with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), comparing them with subjects with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction on the list for heart transplant (HT) and with HT patients with a normal systolic cardiac function to identify any differences.

Methods: We enrolled 28 subjects with LVAD, 55 subjects with HT, and 42 subjects with heart failure on the transplant list. The subjects underwent a general physical examination, assessment of laboratory blood parameters, and assessment of endothelial function through flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of brachial artery. Read More

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Does a sudden shift of testing format from closed-book to open-book change the characteristics of test scores on summative final exams?

Curr Pharm Teach Learn 2021 Sep 21;13(9):1174-1179. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-142 H Katz Group Centre for Pharmacy and Health Research, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, most universities in North America transitioned to online instruction and assessment in March 2020. Undergraduate pharmacy students in years one to three of two four-year entry-to-practice programs at a university in Canada were administered open-book examinations to complete their didactic winter-term courses in pharmaceutical sciences; behavioural, social, and administrative sciences; and pharmacotherapeutics. The impacts of the switch to open-book examinations on final exam characteristics are examined. Read More

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September 2021

Application of Comprehensive Artificial intelligence Retinal Expert (CARE) system: a national real-world evidence study.

Lancet Digit Health 2021 Aug;3(8):e486-e495

Guangdong Medical Devices Quality Surveillance and Test Institute, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Background: Medical artificial intelligence (AI) has entered the clinical implementation phase, although real-world performance of deep-learning systems (DLSs) for screening fundus disease remains unsatisfactory. Our study aimed to train a clinically applicable DLS for fundus diseases using data derived from the real world, and externally test the model using fundus photographs collected prospectively from the settings in which the model would most likely be adopted.

Methods: In this national real-world evidence study, we trained a DLS, the Comprehensive AI Retinal Expert (CARE) system, to identify the 14 most common retinal abnormalities using 207 228 colour fundus photographs derived from 16 clinical settings with different disease distributions. Read More

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Hydrogen bond surrogate helices as minimal mimics of protein α-helices.

Methods Enzymol 2021 19;656:1-25. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Chemistry, New York University, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Examination of complexes of proteins with biomolecular ligands reveals that proteins tend to interact with partners via folded sub-domains, in which the backbone possesses secondary structure. α-Helices comprising the largest class of protein secondary structures, play fundamental roles in a multitude of highly specific protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions. We have demonstrated a unique strategy for stabilization of the α-helical conformation that involves replacement of one of the main chain i and i+4 hydrogen bonds in the target α-helix with a covalent bond. Read More

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Deep learning for vessel-specific coronary artery calcium scoring: validation on a multi-centre dataset.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Siemens Healthineers, 755 College Rd E, 08540 Princeton, NJ, USA.

Aims: To present and validate a fully automated, deep learning (DL)-based branch-wise coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring algorithm on a multi-centre dataset.

Methods And Results: We retrospectively included 1171 patients referred for a CAC computed tomography examination. Total CAC scores for each case were manually evaluated by a human reader. Read More

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Effects of Sabbagh Universal Spring 2 appliance on cephalometric indices in patients with Class II division 1 versus division 2 malocclusions: A preliminary before-after clinical trial.

Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2021 24;18:38. Epub 2021 May 24.

Private Practice, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Since there is no comparison between the effects of Sabbagh Universal Spring 2 (SUS2) appliance on Class II division 1 (div 1) versus Class II division 2 (div 2) patients, this preliminary study was conducted to comparatively assess, for the first time, the effects of SUS2 on 34 cephalometric indices in Class II/1 versus Class II/2 patients.

Materials And Methods: This before-after clinical trial was conducted on 75 observations of 25 patients with Class II malocclusion, of whom 12 (9 females and 3 males) had Class II div 1 and 13 (11 females and 2 males) had Class II div 2 malocclusion diagnosed by clinical examination and cephalometric assessment. The growth level of all patients had to be CS3 according to the cervical vertebral maturation index. Read More

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Effects of UCMSCs Delivered through Different Transplantation Approaches on Acute Radiation Enteritis in Rats.

Cell Transplant 2021 Jan-Dec;30:9636897211025230

Medical School of Kunming University, Kunming, China.

Radiation enteritis is the most common and serious complication of abdominal or pelvic radiation therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as well as cell protection agents, inhibit apoptosis and promote the proliferation of injured tissues. 3 human umbilical cords MSCs (UCMSCs) were injected into the tail vein or peritoneal cavity of a rat model of radiation enteritis. Read More

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Role of Premycofactocin Synthase in Growth, Microaerophilic Adaptation, and Metabolism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

mBio 2021 Jul 27:e0166521. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Immunology, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Berlin, Germany.

Mycofactocin is a new class of peptide-derived redox cofactors present in a selected group of bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycofactocin biosynthesis requires at least six genes, including , encoding putative lactate dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the penultimate biosynthetic step. Cellular functions remained unknown until recent reports on the significance of mycofactocin in primary alcohol metabolism. Read More

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Clinical significance of sFRP5, RBP-4 and NT-proBNP in patients with chronic heart failure.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(6):6305-6311. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Chengde Health Commission Chengde, Hebei Province, China.

Objective: This study was designed to investigate the levels and clinical significance of secretory frizzled-related protein 5 (sFRP5), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4) and N-terminal (NT)-pro hormone BNP (NT-proBNP) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).

Methods: Eighty-nine patients with CHF treated in our hospital were included as the observation group. Seventy-five healthy volunteers who underwent physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as the control group. Read More

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Case Report: Uncommon Association of and Gene Mutation in a Case of Epidermolysis Bullosa With Pyloric Atresia and Aplasia Cutis Congenita.

Front Genet 2021 8;12:641977. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Neonatology, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Epidermolysis bullosa is a rare form of genodermatosis produced by different gene mutations. The junctional form of the disease (JEB-PA) can associate pyloric atresia, renal abnormalities, and aplasia cutis congenita. A case of a male preterm newborn with suspicion of digestive tube malformation at fetal ultrasound and who was born by cesarian section. Read More

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Higher body mass index is associated with larger postoperative improvement in patient-reported outcomes following total knee arthroplasty.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Jul 24;22(1):635. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, Rorschacherstrasse 95, 9007, St. Gallen, Switzerland.

Background: Total knee arthroplasty is known to successfully alleviate pain and improve function in endstage knee osteoarthritis. However, there is some controversy with regard to the influence of obesity on clinical benefits after TKA. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on improvement in pain, function and general health status following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Read More

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Students' Collective Memory to Recall An Examination.

Am J Pharm Educ 2021 Jul 22:8638. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

To validate a faculty observation and determine the extent to which students can recreate a recently completed examination from memory. After two mid-term examinations, students were asked, as a class, to recreate recently completed examinations. Students were given 48 hours to recreate the examination, including details about the questions and answer choices. Read More

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Readiness, Reception, and Performance of Students in a Communications Course Delivered Amid the Pandemic.

Am J Pharm Educ 2021 Jul 22:8617. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

American University of Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Signal Hill, California.

To examine pharmacy student readiness, reception, and performance in a communications course amid the COVID-19 pandemic. First-year pharmacy students (2020 cohort) enrolled in a professional communications course completed a pre- and post-course questionnaire indicating their readiness and changes in reception toward online learning during the pandemic. Student learning performance (midterm and final examination grades) at the end of the course was compared with that of a class which took the same course face-to-face on campus the previous year (2019 cohort). Read More

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The feasibility, reliability, and incremental value of two-dimensional speckle-tracking for the detection of significant coronary stenosis after treadmill stress echocardiography.

Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2021 Jul 23;19(1):27. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Sherbrooke University Hospital Center (CHUS) , 3001, 12e Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke, QC, J1H 5N4, Canada.

Background: Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) may help detect coronary artery disease (CAD) when combined with dobutamine stress echocardiography. However, few studies have explored STE with exercise stress echocardiography (ESE). We aimed to evaluate the feasibility, reliability, and incremental value of STE combined with treadmill ESE compared to treadmill ESE alone to detect CAD. Read More

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Peripheral Arterial Stiffness in Acute Pulmonary Embolism and Pulmonary Hypertension at Short-Term Follow-Up.

J Clin Med 2021 Jul 6;10(14). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Clinical, Internal Medicine, Anesthesiology and Cardiovascular Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a severe and under-recognized complication of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). Forty consecutive patients with acute PE (Group 1), predominantly female (22, 55%) with a mean age of 69 ± 15 years, were matched for demographic data with 40 healthy subjects (Group 2), 40 systemic hypertension patients (Group 3) and 45 prevalent idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) patients (Group 4). The baseline evaluation included physical examination, NYHA/WHO functional class, right heart catheterization (RHC) limited to IPAH patients, echocardiographic assessment and systemic arterial stiffness measurement by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). Read More

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Determination of Diosmin in Pharmaceutical Products with Chemically Modified Voltammetric Sensors.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 7;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Chemistry, Physics and Environment, Faculty of Sciences and Environment, "Dunarea de Jos" University of Galati, 47 Domneasca Street, 800008 Galati, Romania.

In this paper, the electrochemical behavior of two types of sensors based on modified screen-printed electrodes (one screen-printed electrode based on carbon (SPCE) and another screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue (PB/SPCE)) was studied with the aim of sensitive detection of diosmin, an active pharmaceutical compound from the class of flavonoids. The scan electron microscopy technique was used for the morphological characterization of PB/SPCE. The preliminary analysis assessed the electrochemical behavior of SPCE and PB/SPCE in KCl solution and in a double solution of potassium ferrocyanide-potassium chloride. Read More

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Monitoring of land use/land cover changes using GIS and CA-Markov modeling techniques: a study in Northern Turkey.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jul 23;193(8):507. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Forest Management and Planning, Faculty of Forestry, Bartın University, 74100, Bartın, Turkey.

The purpose of this study, covering the northern Ulus district of Turkey, was to analyze the forest and land use/land cover (LULC) changes in the past period from 2000 to 2020, and to predict the possible changes in 2030 and 2040, using remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) together with the CA-Markov model. The maximum likelihood classified (MLC) technique was used to produce LULC maps, using 2000 and 2010 Landsat (ETM +) and 2020 Landsat (OLI) images based on existing stand-type maps as reference. Using the historical data from the generated LULC maps, the LULC changes for 2030-2040 were predicted via the CA-Markov hybrid model. Read More

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Salivary Heme Oxygenase-1: A Potential Biomarker for Central Neurodegeneration.

J Cent Nerv Syst Dis 2021 7;13:11795735211029114. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, affecting 2% of the population over 65 years of age. PD diagnosis is based on clinical examination and can only be confirmed during autopsy. In 2018, we reported that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible stress response protein important for heme catabolism and implicated in PD pathology, was higher in PD saliva relative to healthy controls, suggesting that salivary HO-1 may serve as a potential biomarker of PD. Read More

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Accuracy of Bolton's Analysis among Different Malocclusion Patients Plaster Models and Digital Models Obtained by Scanning with iTero Scanner in Chinese Han Population.

Niger J Clin Pract 2021 Jul;24(7):1086-1091

Department of Orthodontics Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Aim: This investigation aimed to compare the accuracy of Bolton's analysis on plaster models of various malocclusion groups by utilizing digital calipers and iTero scanner.

Materials And Methods: The data consisted maxillary and mandibular plaster study casts of 61 patients (Class I-20, Class II-20, Class III-21) there were 31 males and 30 females. iTero®element scanner was utilized to scan the models and Bolton's analysis was performed on digital models. Read More

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Clinical semiology of temporal lobe seizures in preschool children: contribution of invasive recording to anatomical classification.

Epileptic Disord 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Pediatric neurosurgery Department, Rothschild Fondation hospital, Paris, France.

Focal seizure semiology is often inadequately studied, specifically in preschool children. Among drug-resistant epilepsies amenable to surgery, temporal lobe seizure semiology has been widely described in this age group. Nevertheless, a systematic anatomo-electroclinical study has never been performed. Read More

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Craniofacial and occlusal features of individuals with Turner Syndrome: A cephalometric study.

J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2021 May-Jun;35(3 Suppl. 1):95-106

Unit of Special Needs Dentistry and Pediatric Dentistry, Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Craniofacial features of 18 individuals with Turner Syndrome (TS) were compared with age and gender matched healthy individuals. Dental history, panoramic radiograph, dental casts and cephalometric measurements were assessed. The dental casts analysis showed a significantly higher PH/PW ratio in individuals with TS under GH therapy compared to healthy individuals (p=0. Read More

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Segment Length in Cine Strain Analysis Predicts Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Outcome Beyond Current Guidelines.

Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Jul 20;14(7):e012350. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Cardiology, and Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences (ACS) (A.Z., C.V., P.S.B., A.C.v.R., C.P.A., R.N.), Amsterdam University Medical Center, location VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Patients with a class I recommendation for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) are likely to benefit, but the effect of CRT in class II patients is more heterogeneous and additional selection parameters are needed in this group. The recently validated segment length in cine strain analysis of the septum (SLICE-ESS) measurement on cardiac magnetic resonance cine imaging predicts left ventricular functional recovery after CRT but its prognostic value is unknown. This study sought to evaluate the prognostic value of SLICE-ESS for clinical outcome after CRT. Read More

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A project report on the switch from in-class to online tuition in the preparatory course for the knowledge examination for foreign physicians - guidelines for the organization of the online summer semester 2020 at the faculty of medicine of the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität of Münster.

GMS J Med Educ 2021 15;38(5):Doc88. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Institute of medical education, Münster, Germany.

In Germany, foreign physicians are a fixed component of the medical profession. According to the German Medical Licensure Act, physicians having completed their qualification in another country are required to pass a knowledge examination which falls within the competence of examination offices or the regional governments. The preparatory course consists of 10 modules. Read More

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Predictors of Pharmacy Student Performance on Written and Clinical Examinations in a Flipped Classroom Curriculum.

Am J Pharm Educ 2020 Dec 19;84(12):8038. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Monash University, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Parkville, VIC, Australia

To examine the effects of student demographics, prior academic performance, course engagement, and time management on pharmacy students' performance on course examinations and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs). Study participants were one cohort of pharmacy students enrolled in a five-year combined Bachelor and Master of Pharmacy degree program at one institution. Variables included student demographics, baseline factors (language assessment and situational judgement test scores), prior academic performance (high school admission rank), course engagement, and student time management of pre-class online activities. Read More

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December 2020

Sterile Compounding Knowledge, Skills, and Confidence Among Graduating Doctor of Pharmacy Students.

Am J Pharm Educ 2021 Mar 23;85(3):8345. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Southeast Louisiana Veterans Healthcare System, New Orleans, Louisiana.

To determine whether the exposure to sterile compounding in the pharmacy curriculum produces Doctor of Pharmacy graduates who are both competent and confident in the area of sterile compounding, and to identify additional variables that may predict student performance. Participants were recruited from the fourth-year pharmacy class of 2018 at one university. The students were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing the following domains: demographics, confidence in compounding performance, prior experience, and theoretical knowledge. Read More

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Team-based Learning to Promote the Development of Metacognitive Awareness and Monitoring in Pharmacy Students.

Am J Pharm Educ 2021 Feb 2;85(2):848112. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Wayne State University, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Detroit, Michigan.

To evaluate the metacognitive abilities of pharmacy students and determine whether introducing the concept along with team-based learning (TBL) enhances metacognition. Pharmacy students completed a Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) and a low-stakes pretest during the first class that evaluated students' knowledge about the therapeutic concepts that would be taught through TBL. The same questions were administered on the comprehensive final examination for the course. Read More

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February 2021

A 3D evaluation of the upper airways and sagittal craniofacial pattern: are these two parameters associated?

J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2021 Mar-Apr;35(2 Suppl. 1):131-138

Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Numerous studies have been published aiming to investigate the relationship between sagittal craniofacial pattern and the dimensions of upper airway, but with controversial results. The aim of the study is to verify if an association exists between a specific sagittal cranio-facial pattern and smaller dimensions of upper airway, leading so to a possible risk indicator for OSAS development. Ninety-nine cone-beam computed tomographies (CBCT) were selected from adult patients (48 males, 51 females, age range 18- 65 years). Read More

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Differences in Trajectories and Predictive Factors of Cognition over Time in a Sample of Cognitively Healthy Adults, in Zaragoza, Spain.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 2;18(13). Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Aragón (IIS Aragón), 50009 Zaragoza, Spain.

Great inter-individual variability has been reported in the maintenance of cognitive function in aging. We examined this heterogeneity by modeling cognitive trajectories in a population-based longitudinal study of adults aged 55+ years. We hypothesized that (1) distinct classes of cognitive trajectories would be found, and (2) between-class differences in associated factors would be observed. Read More

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Analysis of pretreatment factors associated with stability in early class III treatment.

Prog Orthod 2021 Jul 19;22(1):23. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Asahi University, Gifu, Japan.

Background: The purpose of this study was to identify pretreatment factors associated with the stability of early class III treatment, since most orthodontists start the treatment with their uncertain hypotheses and/or predictions. Subjects consisted of 75 patients with a class III skeletal relationship (ANB < 2° and overjet < 0 mm) who had been consecutively treated with rapid maxillary expansion and facemask and followed until their second phase treatment. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether they showed relapse in follow-up. Read More

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