15,576 results match your criteria evolution sexual


The significant sex-biased expression pattern of Sp-Wnt4 provides novel insights into the ovarian development of mud crab (Scylla Paramamosain).

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 3;183:490-501. Epub 2021 May 3.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, China; STU-UMT Joint Shellfish Research Laboratory, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, China. Electronic address:

The wingless-type MMTV integration site family member-4 (Wnt4), a member of the wingless-related integration site (Wnt) family, is widely accepted as a key regulator of ovarian development in mammals. In this study, a full-length cDNA of Wnt4 (designated as Sp-Wnt4) was cloned, characterized, and functionally studied in mud crab (Scylla paramamosain). The full-length cDNA of Sp-Wnt4 consists of 2659 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding 359 amino acids, a 907 bp 5'-UTR and a 672 bp 3'-UTR. Read More

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Niche divergence contributes to geographical parthenogenesis in two dandelion taxa.

J Evol Biol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94248, 1090GE, Amsterdam.

Many sexual-asexual complexes show a distinct pattern where the asexuals have larger and more northerly ranges than closely related sexuals. A prime candidate to explain this so-called "geographical parthenogenesis" is ecological niche divergence between the sexuals and asexuals. Modern niche modelling techniques allow testing niche divergence by directly comparing the niches of sexuals and asexuals. Read More

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Males, Outcrossing, and Sexual Selection in Caenorhabditis Nematodes.

Genetics 2019 Sep;213(1):27-57

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Ontario M5S3B2, Canada.

Males of Caenorhabditis elegans provide a crucial practical tool in the laboratory, but, as the rarer and more finicky sex, have not enjoyed the same depth of research attention as hermaphrodites. Males, however, have attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists who are exploiting the C. elegans system to test longstanding hypotheses about sexual selection, sexual conflict, transitions in reproductive mode, and genome evolution, as well as to make new discoveries about Caenorhabditis organismal biology. Read More

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September 2019

E Pluribus Unum: The Fungal Kingdom as a Rosetta Stone for Biology and Medicine.

Authors:
Joseph Heitman

Genetics 2019 Sep;213(1):1-7

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27710.

THE Genetics Society of America's (GSA's) Edward Novitski Prize recognizes a single experimental accomplishment or a body of work in which an exceptional level of creativity, and intellectual ingenuity, has been used to design and execute scientific experiments to solve a difficult problem in genetics. The 2019 recipient is Joseph Heitman, who is recognized for his work on fungal pathogens of humans and for ingenious experiments using yeast to identify the molecular targets of widely used immunosuppressive drugs. The latter work, part of Heitman's postdoctoral research, proved to be a seminal contribution to the discovery of the conserved Target of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway. Read More

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September 2019

Minimal Effects of Proto-Y Chromosomes on House Fly Gene Expression in Spite of Evidence that Selection Maintains Stable Polygenic Sex Determination.

Genetics 2019 Sep;213(1):313-327

Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Texas 77204-5001.

Sex determination pathways evolve fast and can even be variable within species. Son et al. used the house fly as a model to study the evolution of sex determination because it has a male. Read More

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September 2019

Minimal Effects of Proto-Y Chromosomes on House Fly Gene Expression in Spite of Evidence that Selection Maintains Stable Polygenic Sex Determination.

Genetics 2019 Sep;213(1):313-327

Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Texas 77204-5001.

Sex determination pathways evolve fast and can even be variable within species. Son et al. used the house fly as a model to study the evolution of sex determination because it has a male. Read More

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September 2019

E Pluribus Unum: The Fungal Kingdom as a Rosetta Stone for Biology and Medicine.

Authors:
Joseph Heitman

Genetics 2019 Sep;213(1):1-7

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina 27710.

THE Genetics Society of America's (GSA's) Edward Novitski Prize recognizes a single experimental accomplishment or a body of work in which an exceptional level of creativity, and intellectual ingenuity, has been used to design and execute scientific experiments to solve a difficult problem in genetics. The 2019 recipient is Joseph Heitman, who is recognized for his work on fungal pathogens of humans and for ingenious experiments using yeast to identify the molecular targets of widely used immunosuppressive drugs. The latter work, part of Heitman's postdoctoral research, proved to be a seminal contribution to the discovery of the conserved Target of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway. Read More

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September 2019

Males, Outcrossing, and Sexual Selection in Caenorhabditis Nematodes.

Genetics 2019 Sep;213(1):27-57

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Ontario M5S3B2, Canada.

Males of Caenorhabditis elegans provide a crucial practical tool in the laboratory, but, as the rarer and more finicky sex, have not enjoyed the same depth of research attention as hermaphrodites. Males, however, have attracted the attention of evolutionary biologists who are exploiting the C. elegans system to test longstanding hypotheses about sexual selection, sexual conflict, transitions in reproductive mode, and genome evolution, as well as to make new discoveries about Caenorhabditis organismal biology. Read More

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September 2019

Evolution of Reproductive Behavior.

Genetics 2020 Jan;214(1):49-73

Laboratory of Systems Genetics, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

Behaviors associated with reproduction are major contributors to the evolutionary success of organisms and are subject to many evolutionary forces, including natural and sexual selection, and sexual conflict. Successful reproduction involves a range of behaviors, from finding an appropriate mate, courting, and copulation, to the successful production and (in oviparous animals) deposition of eggs following mating. As a consequence, behaviors and genes associated with reproduction are often under strong selection and evolve rapidly. Read More

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January 2020

Evolution of Reproductive Behavior.

Genetics 2020 Jan;214(1):49-73

Laboratory of Systems Genetics, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

Behaviors associated with reproduction are major contributors to the evolutionary success of organisms and are subject to many evolutionary forces, including natural and sexual selection, and sexual conflict. Successful reproduction involves a range of behaviors, from finding an appropriate mate, courting, and copulation, to the successful production and (in oviparous animals) deposition of eggs following mating. As a consequence, behaviors and genes associated with reproduction are often under strong selection and evolve rapidly. Read More

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January 2020

The Pheromone and Pheromone Receptor Mating-Type Locus Is Involved in Controlling Uniparental Mitochondrial Inheritance in Cryptococcus.

Genetics 2020 Mar;214(3):703-717

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.

Mitochondria are inherited uniparentally during sexual reproduction in the majority of eukaryotic species studied, including humans, mice, and nematodes, as well as many fungal species. Mitochondrial uniparental inheritance (mito-UPI) could be beneficial in that it avoids possible genetic conflicts between organelles with different genetic backgrounds, as recently shown in mice, and it could prevent the spread of selfish genetic elements in the mitochondrial genome. Despite the prevalence of observed mito-UPI, the underlying mechanisms and the genes involved in controlling this non-Mendelian inheritance are poorly understood in many species. Read More

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Evolution and extinction can occur rapidly: a modeling approach.

PeerJ 2021 13;9:e11130. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Systems Biology, Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation.

Fossil record of Earth describing the last 500 million years is characterized by evolution discontinuity as well as recurring global extinctions of some species and their replacement by new types, the causes of which are still debate. We developed a model of evolutionary self-development of a large ecosystem. This model of biota evolution based on the universal laws of living systems functioning: reproduction, dependence of reproduction efficiency and mortality on biota density, mutational variability in the process of reproduction and selection of the most adapted individuals. Read More

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Positive allometry of sexually selected traits: Do metabolic maintenance costs play an important role?

Authors:
Ummat Somjee

Bioessays 2021 May 5:e2000183. Epub 2021 May 5.

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, Panama.

Sexual selection drives the evolution of some of the most exaggerated traits in nature. Studies on sexual selection often focus on the size of these traits relative to body size, but few focus on energetic maintenance costs of the tissues that compose them, and the ways in which these costs vary with body size. The relationships between energy use and body size have consequences that may allow large individuals to invest disproportionally more in sexually selected structures, or lead to the reduced per-gram maintenance cost of enlarged structures. Read More

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In situ radiation explains the frequency of dioecious palms on islands.

Ann Bot 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Laboratório de Genética & Biodiversidade, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74001-970, Goiânia, GO, Brazil.

Background And Aims: Dioecy has evolved up to 5,000 times in angiosperms, despite the potentially high intrinsic costs to unisexuality. Dioecy prevents inbreeding, which is especially relevant on isolated islands when gene pools are small. Dioecy is also associated with certain dispersal traits, such as fruit size and type. Read More

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Weapons Evolve Faster Than Sperm in Bovids and Cervids.

Cells 2021 Apr 29;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Svante Arrhenius väg 18b, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

In polyandrous species, males face reproductive competition both before and after mating. Sexual selection thus shapes the evolution of both pre- and postcopulatory traits, creating competing demands on resource allocation to different reproductive episodes. Traits subject to strong selection exhibit accelerated rates of phenotypic divergence, and examining evolutionary rates may inform us about the relative importance and potential fitness consequences of investing in traits under either pre- or postcopulatory sexual selection. Read More

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Cortical and trabecular bone structure of the hominoid capitate.

J Anat 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Skeletal Biology Research Centre, School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK.

Morphological variation in the hominoid capitate has been linked to differences in habitual locomotor activity due to its importance in movement and load transfer at the midcarpal joint proximally and carpometacarpal joints distally. Although the shape of bones and their articulations are linked to joint mobility, the internal structure of bones has been shown experimentally to reflect, at least in part, the loading direction and magnitude experienced by the bone. To date, it is uncertain whether locomotor differences among hominoids are reflected in the bone microarchitecture of the capitate. Read More

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Worker ants promote outbreeding by transporting young queens to alien nests.

Commun Biol 2021 May 3;4(1):515. Epub 2021 May 3.

Chair of Zoology and Evolutionary Biology - University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Choosing the right mating partner is one of the most critical decisions in the life of a sexually reproducing organism and is the basis of sexual selection. This choice is usually assumed to be made by one or both of the sexual partners. Here, we describe a system in which a third party - the siblings - promote outbreeding by their sisters: workers of the tiny ant Cardiocondyla elegans carry female sexuals from their natal nest over several meters and drop them in the nest of another, unrelated colony to promote outbreeding with wingless, stationary males. Read More

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The ecological causes and consequences of hard and soft selection.

Ecol Lett 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Interactions between natural selection and population dynamics are central to both evolutionary-ecology and biological responses to anthropogenic change. Natural selection is often thought to incur a demographic cost that, at least temporarily, reduces population growth. However, hard and soft selection clarify that the influence of natural selection on population dynamics depends on ecological context. Read More

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Impact of male trait exaggeration on sex-biased gene expression and genome architecture in a water strider.

BMC Biol 2021 Apr 30;19(1):89. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, CNRS UMR 5242, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46, allée d'Italie, 69364, Lyon Cedex 07, France.

Background: Exaggerated secondary sexual traits are widespread in nature and often evolve under strong directional sexual selection. Although heavily studied from both theoretical and empirical viewpoints, we have little understanding of how sexual selection influences sex-biased gene regulation during the development of exaggerated secondary sexual phenotypes, and how these changes are reflected in genomic architecture. This is primarily due to the limited availability of representative genomes and associated tissue and sex transcriptomes to study the development of these traits. Read More

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Evolutionary insights into sexual behavior from whiptail lizards.

J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA.

Is the brain bipotential or is sex-typical behavior determined during development? Thirty years of research in whiptail lizards transformed the field of behavioral neuroscience to show the brain is indeed bipotential, producing behaviors along a spectrum of male-typical and female-typical behavior via a parliamentary system of neural networks and not a predetermined program of constrained behavioral output. The unusual clade of whiptail lizards gave these insights as there are several parthenogenetic all-female species that display both male-typical and female-typical sexual behavior. These descendant species exist alongside their ancestors, allowing a unique perspective into how brain-behavior relationships evolve. Read More

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Exploring diversification drivers in golden orbweavers.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 29;11(1):9248. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Evolutionary Zoology Laboratory, Institute of Biology, ZRC SAZU, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Heterogeneity in species diversity is driven by the dynamics of speciation and extinction, potentially influenced by organismal and environmental factors. Here, we explore macroevolutionary trends on a phylogeny of golden orbweavers (spider family Nephilidae). Our initial inference detects heterogeneity in speciation and extinction, with accelerated extinction rates in the extremely sexually size dimorphic Nephila and accelerated speciation in Herennia, a lineage defined by highly derived, arboricolous webs, and pronounced island endemism. Read More

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Urinary neopterin of wild chimpanzees indicates that cell-mediated immune activity varies by age, sex, and female reproductive status.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 29;11(1):9298. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Interim Group Primatology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

The study of free-living animal populations is necessary to understand life history trade-offs associated with immune investment. To investigate the role of life history strategies in shaping proinflammatory cell-mediated immune function, we analyzed age, sex, and reproductive status as predictors of urinary neopterin in 70 sexually mature chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. In the absence of clinical signs of acute infectious disease, neopterin levels significantly increased with age in both male and female chimpanzees, as observed in humans and several other vertebrate species. Read More

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Molecular Basis of Apomixis in Plants.

Authors:
Diego Hojsgaard

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 16;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution of Plants, Albrecht-von-Haller Institute for Plant Sciences, University of Göttingen, Untere Karspüle 2, 37073 Göttingen, Germany.

Sexual reproduction in plants is a complex, stringently regulated process that leads to the creation of diaspores for a new generation: sexual seeds [... Read More

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Sex-Biased Gene Expression and Evolution in the Cerebrum and Syrinx of Chinese Hwamei ().

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

MOE Key Laboratory of Biosystems Homeostasis & Protection, State Conservation Centre for Gene Resources of Endangered Wildlife, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

It is common that males and females display sexual dimorphisms, which usually result from sex-biased gene expression. Chinese hwamei () is a good model for studying sex-biased gene expression because the song between the sexes is quite different. In this study, we analyze cerebrum and syrinx sex-biased gene expression and evolution using the assembled Chinese hwamei transcriptome. Read More

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Thermal Preferences of Cowpea Seed Beetles (): Effects of Sex and Nuptial Gift Transfers.

Insects 2021 Apr 1;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institute of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Jagiellonian University, 30-387 Kraków, Poland.

The thermal environment influences insect performance, but the factors affecting insect thermal preferences are rarely studied. We studied seed beetles and hypothesized that thermal preferences are influenced by water balance, with individuals with limited water reserves preferring cooler habitats to reduce evaporative water loss. Adult , in their flightless morph, do not consume food or water, but a copulating male provides a female with a nuptial gift of ejaculate containing nutrients and water. Read More

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The evolution of imprinting in plants: beyond the seed.

Plant Reprod 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Gregor Mendel Institute (GMI), Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna BioCenter (VBC), Dr. Bohr Gasse 3, 1030, Vienna, Austria.

Genomic imprinting results in the biased expression of alleles depending on if the allele was inherited from the mother or the father. Despite the prevalence of sexual reproduction across eukaryotes, imprinting is only found in placental mammals, flowering plants, and some insects, suggesting independent evolutionary origins. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the selective pressures that favour the innovation of imprinted gene expression and each differs in their experimental support and predictions. Read More

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Reproductive Proteins Evolve Faster Than Non-reproductive Proteins Among Species.

Front Plant Sci 2021 12;12:635990. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States.

Elevated rates of evolution in reproductive proteins are commonly observed in animal species, and are thought to be driven by the action of sexual selection and sexual conflict acting specifically on reproductive traits. Whether similar patterns are broadly observed in other biological groups is equivocal. Here, we examine patterns of protein divergence among wild tomato species ( section ), to understand forces shaping the evolution of reproductive genes in this diverse, rapidly evolving plant clade. Read More

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Eunuchs or Females? Causes and Consequences of Gynodioecy on Morphology, Ploidy, and Ecology of L. (Caryophyllaceae).

Front Plant Sci 2021 12;12:589093. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Plant Science and Biodiversity Centre, Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Plant speciation results from intricate processes such as polyploidization, reproductive strategy shifts and adaptation. These evolutionary processes often co-occur, blurring their respective contributions and interactions in the speciation continuum. Here, relying on a large-scale study, we tested whether gynodioecy triggers the divergent evolution of flower morphology and genome between sexes, and contributes to the establishment of polyploids and colonization of ecological niches in . Read More

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Dispersal Alters the Nature and Scope of Sexually Antagonistic Variation.

Am Nat 2021 05 7;197(5):543-559. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

AbstractIntralocus sexual conflict, or sexual antagonism, occurs when alleles have opposing fitness effects in the two sexes. Previous theory suggests that sexual antagonism is a driver of genetic variation by generating balancing selection. However, most of these studies assume that populations are well mixed, neglecting the effects of spatial subdivision. Read More

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Role of sex-concordant gene expression in the coevolution of exaggerated male and female genitalia in a beetle group.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Zoology, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8502, Japan.

Some sexual traits, including genitalia, have undergone coevolutionary diversification toward exaggerated states in both sexes among closely related species, but the underlying genetic mechanisms that allow correlated character evolution between the sexes are poorly understood. Here, we studied interspecific differences in gene expression timing profiles involved in the correlated evolution of corresponding male and female genital parts in three species of ground beetle in Carabus (Ohomopterus). The male and female genital parts maintain morphological matching, while large interspecific variation in genital part size has occurred in the genital coevolution between the sexes toward exaggeration. Read More

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