58,370 results match your criteria evolution reaction


Artificial metalloenzymes in a nutshell: the quartet for efficient catalysis.

Biol Chem 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Freiburg, Albertstrasse 21, D-79104Freiburg i. Br., Germany.

Artificial metalloenzymes combine the inherent reactivity of transition metal catalysis with the sophisticated reaction control of natural enzymes. By providing new opportunities in bioorthogonal chemistry and biocatalysis, artificial metalloenzymes have the potential to overcome certain limitations in both drug discovery and green chemistry or related research fields. Ongoing advances in organometallic catalysis, directed evolution, and bioinformatics are enabling the design of increasingly powerful systems that outperform conventional catalysis in a growing number of cases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Synergistic Cyanamide Functionalization and Charge-Induced Activation of Nickel/Carbon Nitride for Enhanced Selective Photoreforming of Ethanol.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Particles and Catalysis Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

Photoreforming is a promising alternative to water splitting for H generation due to the favorable organic oxidation half-reaction and the potential to simultaneously produce solar fuel and value-added chemicals. Recently, carbon nitride has received significant attention as an inexpensive photocatalyst for the photoreforming process. However, the application of carbon nitride continues to be hampered by its poor photocatalytic performance. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Promoting Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution of Ultrasmall NiFe (Hydr)oxide Nanoparticles by Graphene-Support Effects.

ChemSusChem 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Heilongjiang University, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, No.74 Xuefu Road, Nangang District, Harbin, China, 150080, Harbin, CHINA.

Although the activity of electrocatalysts towards oxygen evolution reaction (OER) has achieved considerable improvement by modulating the intrinsic electron structure, the role of supports to OER performance, often being summed to enhancing the conductivity, is not fully explored. In this paper, a proof-of-concept study based on a series of hybrids of nickel iron (hydr)oxide nanoparticles (NiFeO NPs) and carbon-supports with different oxidation level compares the motivation of supports for OER activity. The key to implementation lies in anchoring and growing of NiFeO NPs on the various carbon-supports by the first electrostatic assembly and the succedent in-situ reduction. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Temperature-Dependent CO2 Electroreduction over Fe-N-C and Ni-N-C Single-Atom Catalysts.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, CHINA.

Reaction temperature is an important parameter to tune the selectivity and activity of electrochemical CO 2 reduction reaction (CO 2 RR) due to different thermodynamics of CO 2 RR and competitive hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In this work, temperature-dependent CO 2 RR over Fe-N-C and Ni-N-C single-atom catalysts are investigated from 303 to 343 K. Increasing the reaction temperature improves and decreases CO Faradaic efficiency over Fe-N-C and Ni-N-C catalysts at high overpotentials, respectively. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Iridium metallene oxide for acidic oxygen evolution catalysis.

Nat Commun 2021 Oct 14;12(1):6007. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, 215123, Jiangsu, P. R. China.

Exploring new materials is essential in the field of material science. Especially, searching for optimal materials with utmost atomic utilization, ideal activities and desirable stability for catalytic applications requires smart design of materials' structures. Herein, we report iridium metallene oxide: 1 T phase-iridium dioxide (IrO) by a synthetic strategy combining mechanochemistry and thermal treatment in a strong alkaline medium. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Nickel Boride / Boron Carbide Particles Embedded in Boron-Doped Phenolic Resin Derived Carbon Coating on Nickel Foam for Oxygen Evolution Catalysis in Water and Seawater Splitting.

ChemSusChem 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Yanshan University, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei Street 438, 066004, Qinghuangdao, CHINA.

Electrolysis of seawater can be a promising technology, but chloride ions in seawater can lead to adverse side reactions and the corrosion of electrodes. A new transition metal boride-based self-supported electrocatalyst has been prepared for efficient seawater electrolysis by directly soaking nickel foam (NF) in a mixture of phenolic resin (PR) and boron carbide (B4C), followed by an 800 ℃ annealing. During PR carbonization process, the reaction of B4C and NF generates nickel boride (NixB) with high catalytic activity, while PR-derived carbon coating is doped with boron atoms from B4C (B-CPR). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Active Site Engineering in [email protected]/Graphene Heterostructures Enabling Enhanced Hydrogen Evolution.

Inorg Chem 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, People's Republic of China.

As the core of an electrocatalyst, the active site is critical to determine its catalytic performance in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). In this work, porous N-doped carbon-encapsulated CoP nanoparticles on both sides of graphene ([email protected]/GR) are derived from a bimetallic metal-organic framework (MOF)@graphene oxide composite. Through active site engineering by tailoring the environment around CoP and engineering the structure, the HER activity of [email protected]/GR heterostructures is significantly enhanced. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

A self-healing catalyst for electrocatalytic and photoelectrochemical oxygen evolution in highly alkaline conditions.

Nat Commun 2021 Oct 13;12(1):5980. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 610054, Chengdu, China.

While self-healing is considered a promising strategy to achieve long-term stability for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts, this strategy remains a challenge for OER catalysts working in highly alkaline conditions. The self-healing of the OER-active nickel iron layered double hydroxides (NiFe-LDH) has not been successful due to irreversible leaching of Fe catalytic centers. Here, we investigate the introduction of cobalt (Co) into the NiFe-LDH as a promoter for in situ Fe redeposition. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Manipulation on active electronic states of metastable phase β-NiMoO for large current density hydrogen evolution.

Nat Commun 2021 Oct 13;12(1):5960. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Institute of Special Materials and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Non-noble transition metal oxides are abundant in nature. However, they are widely regarded as catalytically inert for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) due to their scarce active electronic states near the Fermi-level. How to largely improve the HER activity of these kinds of materials remains a great challenge. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Oscillatory dynamics during the methanol electrooxidation reaction on Pt(111).

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Oct 13;23(39):22263-22272. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Chemistry Department, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Rod. Washington Luis, km 235, Sao Carlos, 13565-905, Brazil.

Despite several papers describing the oscillatory methanol electrooxidation reaction (OMOR) catalyzed by polycrystalline Pt, these dynamic instabilities are less explored on single crystalline surfaces. Herein, we observed and mapped for the first time the OMOR on Pt(111) in non-adsorbing anion solutions as well as in the presence of small amounts of sulfate anions. Period 1 oscillations with oscillation frequencies from 1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Laser induced thermal effect on the polymerization behavior in up-conversion particle assisted near-infrared photopolymerization.

Chemphyschem 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Jiangnan University, No 1800 Lihu Avenue, Wuxi, CHINA.

Laser induced thermal effect is inevitable in the up-conversion particle assisted near-infrared polymerization (UCAP). In this article, the influence of thermal effect on the polymerization behavior is investigated. The effects of up-conversion particles content and NIR laser intensity on the polymerization rate and surface oxygen inhibition were systematically investigated, and the temperature evolution and complex viscosity changes in the polymerization system during the polymerization process were also monitored. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

growth of MOFs on Ni(OH) for efficient electrocatalytic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Centre for Environmental and Energy Nanomaterials, Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Institute of Solid State Physics, HFIPS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, P. R. China.

A Ni-based MOF is grown onto Ni(OH) nanosheets to effectively suppress the oxygen evolution reaction for the efficient electrocatalytic oxidation of biomass-derived 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid with 100% yield and faradaic efficiency at 1.4 V ( RHE). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Ultrahigh-Throughput Detection of Enzymatic Alcohol Dehydrogenase Activity in Microfluidic Droplets with a Direct Fluorogenic Assay.

Chembiochem 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80 Tennis Court Road, CB2 1GA, Cambridge, UK.

The exploration of large DNA libraries of metagenomic or synthetic origin is greatly facilitated by ultrahigh-throughput assays that use monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets as sequestered reaction compartments. Millions of samples can be generated and analysed in microfluidic devices at kHz speeds, requiring only micrograms of reagents. The scope of this powerful platform for the discovery of new sequence space is, however, hampered by the limited availability of assay substrates, restricting the functions and reaction types that can be investigated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Improved Interface Charge Transfer and Redistribution in CuO-CoOOH p-n Heterojunction Nanoarray Electrocatalyst for Enhanced Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Oct 12:e2103314. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

MIIT Key Laboratory of Critical Materials Technology for New Energy Conversion and Storage, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, P. R. China.

Electron density modulation is of great importance in an attempt to achieve highly active electrocatalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Here, the successful construction of [email protected] p-n heterojunction (i.e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Evolution of RNA viruses from SARS to SARS-CoV-2 and diagnostic techniques for COVID-19: a review.

Beni Suef Univ J Basic Appl Sci 2021 6;10(1):60. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, Assam 786004 India.

Background: From the start of the twenty-first century up to the year 2021, RNA viruses are the main causative agents of the majority of the disease outbreaks the world has confronted. Recently published reviews on SARS-CoV-2 have mainly focused on its structure, development of the outbreak, relevant precautions, management trials and available therapies. However, in this review, we aim to explore the history, evolution of all coronaviruses and the associated viral outbreaks along with the diagnostics for COVID-19 in the twenty-first century. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Intra-host evolution during SARS-CoV-2 prolonged infection.

Virus Evol 2021 Sep 29;7(2):veab078. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Laboratório de Bioinformática, Laboratório Nacional de Computação Científica, Av. Getúlio Vargas, 333 - Quitandinha, Petrópolis 25651-076, Brazil.

Long-term infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents a challenge to virus dispersion and the control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The reason why some people have prolonged infection and how the virus persists for so long are still not fully understood. Recent studies suggested that the accumulation of intra-host single nucleotide variants (iSNVs) over the course of the infection might play an important role in persistence as well as emergence of mutations of concern. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Effect of heat treatment on the morphology of carbon fibers doped with Cop nanoparticles.

Chem Zvesti 2021 Oct 7:1-13. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Kosice, Slovak Republic.

Abstract: Carbon fibers (CFs) decorated by CoP nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes were prepared via needle-less electrospinning technique. Formation of catalytically active CoP nanoparticles and growth of carbon nanotubes were monitored in open and closed sintering environment at different sintering exposure times. Higher porosity, important in the catalytic reaction for easier penetration of electrolyte into the CFs, was achieved by mixing two immiscible polymers with natrium dodecyl sulfate and subsequent heat treatment process. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Revealing the Dynamics and Roles of Iron Incorporation in Nickel Hydroxide Water Oxidation Catalysts.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, United States.

The surface of an electrocatalyst undergoes dynamic chemical and structural transformations under electrochemical operating conditions. There is a dynamic exchange of metal cations between the electrocatalyst and electrolyte. Understanding how iron in the electrolyte gets incorporated in the nickel hydroxide electrocatalyst is critical for pinpointing the roles of Fe during water oxidation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Interfacial Engineering of 3D Hollow Mo-Based Carbide/Nitride Nanostructures.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds Campus, Locked Bag 20000, Victoria 3220, Australia.

Molybdenum carbide and nitride nanocrystals have been widely recognized as ideal electrocatalyst materials for water splitting. Furthermore, the interfacial engineering strategy can effectively tune their physical and chemical properties to improve performance. Herein, we produced N-doped molybdenum carbide nanosheets on carbonized melamine (N-doped [email protected]) and 3D hollow MoC-MoN nanostructures (3D H-MoC-MoN) with tuneable interfacial properties via high-temperature treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Insights on the Electrocatalytic Seawater Splitting at Heterogeneous Nickel-Cobalt Based Electrocatalysts Engineered from Oxidative Aniline Polymerization and Calcination.

Molecules 2021 Sep 30;26(19). Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Institut Européen des Membranes, IEM, UMR 5635, University Montpellier, ENSCM, CNRS, 34090 Montpellier, France.

Given the limited access to freshwater compared to seawater, a growing interest surrounds the direct seawater electrolysis to produce hydrogen. However, we currently lack efficient electrocatalysts to selectively perform the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) over the oxidation of the chloride ions that are the main components of seawater. In this contribution, we report an engineering strategy to synthesize heterogeneous electrocatalysts by the simultaneous formation of separate chalcogenides of nickel (NiS, x = 0, 2/3, 8/9, and 4/3) and cobalt (CoS, x = 0 and 8/9) onto a carbon-nitrogen-sulfur nanostructured network. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

How Substitution Combines with Non-Covalent Interactions to Modulate 1,4-Naphthoquinone and Its Derivatives Molecular Features-Multifactor Studies.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 26;22(19). Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wrocław, ul. F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wrocław, Poland.

Substitution is well-known to modulate the physico-chemical properties of molecules. In this study, a combined, multifactor approach was employed to determine a plethora of substitution patterns using -Br and -O-H in 1,4-naphthoquinone and its derivatives. On the basis of classical Density Functional Theory (DFT), 25 models divided into three groups were developed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Prolonged-Photoresponse-Lifetime NiP Nanocrystalline with Highly Exposed (001) for Efficient Photoelectrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

Inorg Chem 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Solid Waste Recycling Engineering Research Center of Jilin Province, Open Research Laboratory for Physicochemical Testing Methods of Functional Minerals-Ministry of Natural Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China.

Seeking highly efficient non-preference electrocatalytic materials that serve photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting in acidic systems is expectant in the context of environmentally friendly production. We designed NiP electrocatalysts synthesized in oil phases via the hot-bubbling method with superb stability in air and sulfuric acid solution for PEC, which were found with excellent hydrogen evolution performance. A tunable particle size and highly exposed (001) planes of NiP nanocrystals were achieved. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Realizing the Excellent HER Performance of PtPbS by d-Orbital Electronic Modulation.

Inorg Chem 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

State Key Laboratory of High-Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, P. R. China.

Exploring new excellent electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is of significance for the development of hydrogen energy. Herein, a ternary chalcogenide (PtPbS) is successfully designed and synthesized using layered PtS as a matrix. The energy level of the Pt 5d orbital is upshifted to the Fermi surface after replacing S atoms by Pb atoms, which results in the high conductivity of PtPbS. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Microneedle-mediated delivery of MIL-100(Fe) as a tumor microenvironment-responsive biodegradable nanoplatform for O-evolving chemophototherapy.

Biomater Sci 2021 Oct 12;9(20):6772-6786. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Guangzhou Neworld Micnanobio Pharmatech Co., Ltd, Guangzhou 510632, China.

The low oxygen level in tumors significantly reduces the antitumor efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). The provision of O and monomeric hydrophobic photosensitizers (PSs) under physiological conditions would greatly help to shrink malignant tumors. We take advantage of the high porosity and multifunctionality of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to fabricate a simple all-in-one nanoplatform mediated by microneedle delivery to achieve synergistic O evolution and chemophototherapy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Chemically Activating Tungsten Disulfide Structural and Electronic Engineering Strategy for Upgrading the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Fujian Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007, China.

Both improving the intrinsic activity and activating basal plane sites of the layered metal dichalcogenides are desirable to enhance their electrocatalytic performance for energy storage and conversion. Herein, we present palladium (Pd)-doped tungsten disulfide (WS) epitaxially sheathed around linear tungsten oxide for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The Pd doping is evidenced to tune the electronic structure of WS for activating basal sites of WS, while the unique core-shell structure facilitates charge transfer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Evolution of Morphological and Chemical Properties at p-n Junction of Cu(In,Ga)Se Solar Cells with Zn(O,S) Buffer Layer as a Function of KF Postdeposition Treatment Time.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

ICT Creative Research Laboratory, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 34129, Korea.

We carried out KF postdeposition treatment (PDT) on a Cu(In,Ga)Se (CIGS) layer with a process time varying from 50 to 200 s. The highest CIGS solar-cell efficiency was achieved at a KF PDT process time of 50 s; in this condition, we observed the highest level of K element at the near-surface of the CIGS layer and the perfectly passivated pinholes on the CIGS surface. At process times above 150 s, the oversupplied KF agglomerated into large islands and was subsequently eliminated during the deposition of the chemical bath deposition (CBD)-Zn(O,S) buffer layer owing to the islands' water-soluble characteristics. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Photochemical Hydrogen Evolution at Metal Centers Probed with Hydrated Aluminum Cations, Al+(H2O)n, n = 1-10.

Chemistry 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Universitat Innsbruck, Institut fuer Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Technikerstrasse 25, 6020, Innsbruck, AUSTRIA.

Hydrated aluminum cations are investigated as a photochemical model system with up to 10 water molecules by UV action spectroscopy in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Intense photodissociation has been observed starting at 4.5 eV ranging from two to eight water molecules by loss of atomic hydrogen, molecular hydrogen and water molecules. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Engineering Ultrafine NiFe-LDH into Self-Supporting Nanosheets: Separation-and-Reunion Strategy to Expose Additional Edge Sites for Oxygen Evolution.

Small 2021 Oct 11:e2103785. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Nano-technology and Health Effect, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, P. R. China.

Here, a strategy is reported to prepare Ni-Fe layered double hydroxide (NiFe-LDH) with abundant exposed edge planes for enhanced oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The edge-to-edge assembly of ultrafine NiFe-LDH directed by graphite-like carbon is performed through a one-step hydrothermal process to form self-supporting nanosheet arrays (named NiFe-LDH/C), in which ascorbic acid is employed as the carbon precursor to control both the platelet size and the assembly mode of NiFe-LDH. Benefiting from the unique structural engineering, NiFe-LDH/C can not only achieve a fast surface reconstruction into the highly active γ-phase structure, but also exposes abundant active edge sites, thus leading to a superior OER performance with the overpotential as low as 234 mV at a current density of 50 mA cm . Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

FeNiP nanoparticle/N,P dual-doped carbon composite as a trifunctional catalyst towards high-performance zinc-air batteries and overall water electrolysis.

Nanoscale 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266071, P. R. China.

A composite catalyst with a novel construction of bimetallic phosphide FeNiP nanoparticles embedded in an N,P double-doped carbon matrix was prepared. It was demonstrated to be a trifunctional catalyst that can efficiently catalyze the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). It was found that the introduction of oleylamine during the preparation can adjust the catalytic sites and finally lead to ideal catalytic performances. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Precision measurements on oxygen formation in stellar helium burning with gamma-ray beams and a Time Projection Chamber.

Nat Commun 2021 Oct 11;12(1):5920. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708-0308, USA.

The carbon/oxygen (C/O) ratio at the end of stellar helium burning is the single most important nuclear input to stellar evolution theory. However, it is not known with sufficient accuracy, due to large uncertainties in the cross-section for the fusion of helium with C to form O, denoted as C(α, γ)O. Here we present results based on a method that is significantly different from the experimental efforts of the past four decades. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021