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Energy intake focused analysis of sexual dimorphism in biological aging and hypothesized sex-specificity in sirtuin dependency.

Mitochondrion 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Discipline, Life Science School, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh.

The process of biological aging or senescence refers to the gradual loss of homeostasis and subsequently, loss of function leading to higher chances of mortality. Many mechanisms and driving forces have been suggested to facilitate the evolution of a molecular circuit acting as a tradeoff between survival and proliferation resulting in senescence. A major observation on biological aging and longevity in humans and model organisms is the prevalence of significant sexual divergence in the onset, mechanisms and effects of aging associated processes. Read More

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The social facilitation of eating: Why does the mere presence of others cause an increase in energy intake?

Physiol Behav 2021 Jul 28:113539. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

There is strong evidence that people eat more when eating with friends and family, relative to when eating alone. This is known as the 'social facilitation of eating'. In this review, we discuss several gaps in the current scientific understanding of this phenomenon, and in doing so, highlight important areas for future research. Read More

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The Development and Current Status of Subspecialty Training and Certification in Addiction Psychiatry.

Acad Psychiatry 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, Deerfield, IL, USA.

Objective: This article describes the evolution of subspecialty training and certification in addiction psychiatry. The impact of the newer subspecialty in addiction medicine is also addressed.

Methods: Information about programs and trainees was obtained from records of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Read More

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Faceting-roughening transition of a Cu grain boundary under electron-beam irradiation at 300 keV.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 30;11(1):15563. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Research Institute of Advanced Materials (RIAM), Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, South Korea.

In this study, we examined the beam-irradiation effect on the structural evolution of the grain boundary (GB) in a Cu bicrystal at room temperature using a C-corrected, monochromated transmission electron microscope at an acceleration voltage of 300 keV. Faceting of the GB was observed at a low current density of the electron beam. With increasing current density, the GB became defaceted. Read More

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Management of "stone pain" between the 18th and 19th centuries: A brief history of a medical prescription in the Viceroyalty of New Granada.

Actas Urol Esp (Engl Ed) 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Instituto de Genética Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia.

Introduction: The presence of stones in the urinary tract is a condition that has accompanied humans since ancient times. In colonial times, this condition was known as "stone pain" and its non-surgical management was based on the use of medicines derived from plants, animals and minerals.

Objective: To contextualize a medical prescription used to modulate stone pain in the 18th century in the New Kingdom of Granada. Read More

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Data evaluation for surface-sensitive label-free methods to obtain real-time kinetic and structural information of thin films: A practical review with related software packages.

Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 27;294:102431. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Nanobiosensorics Laboratory, Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Centre for Energy Research, 29-33 Konkoly-Thege Miklós út, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address:

Interfacial layers are important in a wide range of applications in biomedicine, biosensing, analytical chemistry and the maritime industries. Given the growing number of applications, analysis of such layers and understanding their behavior is becoming crucial. Label-free surface sensitive methods are excellent for monitoring the formation kinetics, structure and its evolution of thin layers, even at the nanoscale. Read More

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Gold nanodot assembly within a cobalt chalcogenide nanoshell: Promotion of electrocatalytic activity.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 20;605:274-285. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 15588, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The assembly of functional nanoparticles within materials with unique architectures can improve the interfacial surfaces, defects, and active sites, which are key factors for the designing novel nanocatalysts. Nano metal-organic framework (NMOF) can be employed to fabricate nanodots-confined nanohybrids for use in electrocatalytic processes. Herein, we report a controlled synthesis of gold nanodot assembly within cobalt chalcogenide nanoshell (dots-in-shell Au/CoS nanohybrids). Read More

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Risk from pesticide mixtures - The gap between risk assessment and reality.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 13;796:149017. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) Leipzig, 04318 Leipzig, Germany; Institute for Environmental Research, RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen, Germany.

Pesticide applications in agricultural crops often comprise a mixture of plant protection products (PPP), and single fields face multiple applications per year leading to complex pesticide mixtures in the environment. Restricted to single PPP, the current European Union PPP regulation, however, disregards the ecological risks of pesticide mixtures. To quantify this additional risk, we evaluated the contribution of single pesticide active ingredients to the additive mixture risk for aquatic risk indicators (invertebrates and algae) in 464 different PPP used, 3446 applications sprayed and 830 water samples collected in Central Europe, Germany. Read More

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Genome sequence resource of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri from formalin-fixed citrus leaf specimens showing canker lesions collected in 1982.

Plant Dis 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

South China Agricltural University, Department of Plant Pathology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China;

Xanthomonas citri pv. citri (Xcc) is the causative agent of citrus canker, one of the most devastating disease threatening global citrus production. Here, we present the genome sequence of Xcc strain GD82 from a formalin-fixed citrus leaf specimen showing canker lesions collected at 1982 in Guangdong Province, China. Read More

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Cobalt Metaphosphates as Economic Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Hybrid Sodium-Air Batteries.

Inorg Chem 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Faraday Materials Laboratory, Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

Bifunctional electrocatalysts are pre-eminent to achieve high capacity, cycling stability, and high Coulombic efficiency for rechargeable hybrid sodium-air batteries. The current work introduces metaphosphate (Na)KCo(PO) nanostructures as noble metal-free bifunctional electrocatalysts suitable for the rechargeable aqueous sodium-air battery. Prepared by the scalable solution combustion method, the metaphosphate class of (Na)KCo(PO) with spherical morphology exhibited robust oxygen reduction as well as evolution activity similar to the state-of-the-art catalysts. Read More

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Autosomic dominant polycystic kidney disease and metformin: Old knowledge and new insights on retarding progression of chronic kidney disease.

Med Res Rev 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Health Sciences, Renal Unit, "Magna Graecia" University, Catanzaro, Italy.

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common congenital kidney disorder, generally caused by mutations in the PKD1 and PKD2 genes, coding for polycystins 1 and 2. Its pathogenesis is accompanied by alterations of the cAMP, mTOR, MAPK/ERK, and JAK/STAT pathways. ADPKD is clinically characterized by the formation of many growing cysts with kidney enlargement and a progressive damage to the parenchyma, up to its complete loss of function, and the onset of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Read More

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The Y chromosome and its impact on health and disease.

Authors:
Melissa A Wilson

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

School of Life Sciences, Center for Evolution and Medicine, Biodesign Center for Mechanisms of Evolution, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85282 USA.

The Y chromosome is the most gene-deficient chromosome in the human genome (though not the smallest chromosome), and has largely been sequestered away from large-scale studies of the effects of genetics on human health. Here I review the literature, focusing on the last two years, for recent evidence of the role of the Y chromosome in protecting from or contributing to disease. While many studies have focused on Y chromosome gene copy number and variants in fertility, the role of the Y chromosome in human health is now known to extend to many other conditions including the development of multiple cancers and Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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Emerging roles of miRNAs in the development of pancreatic cancer.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 10;141:111914. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Skull Base Research Center, Loghman Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Pancreatic cancer is a fatal cancer which is expected to exceed breast cancer as the third foremost source of cancer mortality by 2025. This cancer has been associated with several somatic genetic aberrations including mutations in the KRAS, CDKN2A/p16, TP53, and SMAD4. In addition, epigenetic alterations have been shown to affect development of this cancer. Read More

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Composite Elastomer-Enabled Rapid Photofabrication of Microfluidic Devices.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Research Center for Analytical Instrumentation, Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, State Key Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310023, China.

Microfluidics, as an emerging technology, is highly dependent on the evolution of device materials and fabrication techniques. While replica molding of polydimethylsiloxane and hot embossing/injection molding of thermoplastics are most popular, they are either hard to scale up or inappropriate for laboratory-scale prototyping. Recently, photocurable resins, as a huge class of materials, have attracted extensive interest. Read More

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Evolution of MEG: A first MEG-feasible fluxgate magnetometer.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

M-Granat, Russian Quantum Center, Moscow, Russia.

In the current article, we present the first solid-state sensor feasible for magnetoencephalography (MEG) that works at room temperature. The sensor is a fluxgate magnetometer based on yttrium-iron garnet films (YIGM). In this feasibility study, we prove the concept of usage of the YIGM in terms of MEG by registering a simple brain induced field-the human alpha rhythm. Read More

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The utility of metabolomics as a tool to inform maize biology.

Plant Commun 2021 Jul 21;2(4):100187. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Potsdam, Germany.

With the rise of high-throughput omics tools and the importance of maize and its products as food and bioethanol, maize metabolism has been extensively explored. Modern maize is still rich in genetic and phenotypic variation, yielding a wide range of structurally and functionally diverse metabolites. The maize metabolome is also incredibly dynamic in terms of topology and subcellular compartmentalization. Read More

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Use of Portable Imaging Modalities in Patients With Neurologic Disorders: A Case-Based Discussion.

Cureus 2021 Jun 22;13(6):e15841. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Neurology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA.

Imaging technologies have significantly improved over the past few decades and play a critical role in the diagnosis and management of patients with neurologic conditions. With the evolution of these technologies to portable versions, significant implications exist for current neurologic care as well as potential improvements for the future. This article serves to describe portable imaging technologies and their potential impact on the field of neurology highlighted through the case of a patient who presented with symptoms consistent with a stroke. Read More

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A star is torn-molecular analysis divides the Mediterranean population of Poli's stellate barnacle, (Cirripedia, Chtamalidae).

PeerJ 2021 21;9:e11826. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

The Mina & Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel.

Poli's stellate barnacle, Poli, populates the Mediterranean Sea, the North-Eastern Atlantic coasts, and the offshore Eastern Atlantic islands. Previous studies have found apparent genetic differences between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean populations of , suggesting possible geological and oceanographic explanations for these differences. We have studied the genetic diversity of 14 populations spanning from the Eastern Atlantic to the Eastern Mediterranean, using two nuclear genes sequences revealing a total of 63 polymorphic sites. Read More

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Complex population structure of the Atlantic puffin revealed by whole genome analyses.

Commun Biol 2021 Jul 29;4(1):922. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

The factors underlying gene flow and genomic population structure in vagile seabirds are notoriously difficult to understand due to their complex ecology with diverse dispersal barriers and extensive periods at sea. Yet, such understanding is vital for conservation management of seabirds that are globally declining at alarming rates. Here, we elucidate the population structure of the Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica) by assembling its reference genome and analyzing genome-wide resequencing data of 72 individuals from 12 colonies. Read More

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Habitat monitoring and conservation prioritization of Western Hoolock Gibbon in upper Brahmaputra Valley, Assam, India.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 29;11(1):15427. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology and Wildlife Biology Lab., Gauhati University, Gopinath Bordoloi Nagar, Jalukbari, Guwahati-14, Assam, India.

The present study aimed at predicting the potential habitat of Western Hoolock Gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in the upper Brahmaputra River Valley, Assam, India, and identifying priority conservation areas for the species, taking canopy cover into account. We used the maximum entropy algorithm for the prediction of the potential habitat of the gibbon using its current distribution with 19 environmental parameters as primary predictors. Spatio-temporal analyses of the habitat were carried out using satellite-based remote sensing and GIS techniques for two decades (1998-2018) along with Terra Modis Vegetation Continuous Field product to examine land use land cover (LULC), habitat fragmentation, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and tree cover percentage of the study area. Read More

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Highly efficient and robust noble-metal free bifunctional water electrolysis catalyst achieved via complementary charge transfer.

Nat Commun 2021 Jul 29;12(1):4606. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Perovtronics Research Center, Low Dimensional Carbon Materials Center, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan, Republic of Korea.

The operating principle of conventional water electrolysis using heterogenous catalysts has been primarily focused on the unidirectional charge transfer within the heterostructure. Herein, multidirectional charge transfer concept has been adopted within heterostructured catalysts to develop an efficient and robust bifunctional water electrolysis catalyst, which comprises perovskite oxides (LaSrCoO, LSC) and potassium ion-bonded MoSe (K-MoSe). The complementary charge transfer from LSC and K to MoSe endows MoSe with the electron-rich surface and increased electrical conductivity, which improves the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) kinetics. Read More

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Analysis of Google Trends to monitor new psychoactive substance. Is there an added value?

Forensic Sci Int 2021 Jul 21;326:110918. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Centre for Forensic Science, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

The past decade has seen an increase in the development and availability of a broad category of drugs, known as new psychoactive substances (NPS). NPS are challenging for public health authorities, therefore the two major drug monitoring bodies - the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) - have implemented the EU Early Warning System (EWS) and Early Warning Advisory (EWA), respectively. While these monitoring systems are informative, it is difficult to keep up with the constant and rapid developmental rate of NPS. Read More

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Post-mastectomy Radiation Therapy in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients: Analysis of the BEATRICE Trial.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Radiation Oncology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.

Purpose: Post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) improves locoregional control and overall survival in patients with breast cancer. With the evolution of systemic therapy, the benefit of PMRT in patients with triple-negative disease requires further evaluation.

Patients And Methods: BEATRICE is a phase III randomized clinical trial that examined the efficacy of bevacizumab in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Read More

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Refining Convergent Rate Analysis with Topology in Mammalian Longevity and Marine Transitions.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Orthopaedic Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, 02124, USA.

The quest to map the genetic foundations of phenotypes has been empowered by the modern diversity, quality, and availability of genomic resources. Despite these expanding resources, the abundance of variation within lineages makes it challenging to associate genetic change to specific phenotypes, without an a priori means of isolating the changes from background genomic variation. Evolution provides this means through convergence-i. Read More

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Deciphering the origin of groundwater inflow into the Talave tunnel (SE Spain).

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 21;789:147904. Epub 2021 May 21.

Groundwater Hydrology Group, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia. Jordi Girona 1-3, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; Spanish Royal Academy of Sciences, Spain.

The Talave tunnel (TT) is an infrastructure of a major water transfer from the Tajo river basin (center Spain) to the Segura river basin (SE Spain), crossing the Júcar river basin. The tunnel was drilled between 1969 and 1978. It is 32 km long, N/NW-S/SE oriented, has a maximum depth of 320 m, intersects several aquifers, and its southern stretch follows the eastern boundary of the Alcadozo aquifer. Read More

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Electrochemical removal of tetrabromobisphenol A by fluorine-doped titanium suboxide electrochemically reactive membrane.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 18;419:126434. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, PR China. Electronic address:

This study reports fluorine-doped titanium suboxide anode for electrochemical mineralization of hydrophobic micro-contaminant, tetrabromobisphenol A. Fluorinated TiSO anode promoted electro-generated hydroxyl radicals (•OH) with higher selectivity and activity, due to increased O evolution potential and more loosely interaction with hydrophobic electrode surface. For electro-oxidation process, fluorine doping had an insignificant impact on outer-sphere reaction and exerted inhibition on inner-sphere reaction, as indicated by cyclic voltammogram performed on Ru(NH), Fe(CN) and Fe redox couple. Read More

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Impact of Single-Pulse, Low-Intensity Laser Post-Processing on Structure and Activity of Mesostructured Cobalt Oxide for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, Mülheim an der Ruhr 45470, Germany.

Herein, we report nanosecond, single-pulse laser post-processing (PLPP) in a liquid flat jet with precise control of the applied laser intensity to tune structure, defect sites, and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity of mesostructured CoO. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are consistent with the formation of cobalt vacancies at tetrahedral sites and an increase in the lattice parameter of CoO after the laser treatment. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) further reveal increased disorder in the structure and a slight decrease in the average oxidation state of the cobalt oxide. Read More

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Pancreatic Cancer Related Pain: Review of Pathophysiology and Intrathecal Drug Delivery Systems for Pain Management.

Authors:
Gabriel Carvajal

Pain Physician 2021 Aug;24(5):E583-E594

Centro Nacional de Control del Dolor y Cuidados Paliativos Interventional Pain Management Unit, San José, Costa Rica.

Background: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most lethal cancers and is the eleventh most common cancer worldwide. This disease is characterized by an often-fatal evolution and a high burden of symptoms, particularly pain. Several studies have demonstrated that pancreatic cancer patients have a high prevalence of pain, with up to 82% of patients reporting pain, often requiring systemic strong opioids as mainstay treatment. Read More

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Single-Atom Doping and High-Valence State for Synergistic Enhancement of NiO Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation.

Small 2021 Jul 29:e2102448. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710119, P. R. China.

The NiO-based electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of water splitting is recognized as a promising approach to produce clean H fuel. However, the OER performance is still low, and especially, the overpotential is larger than 200 mV at the current density of 10 mA cm . Herein, an [email protected] sample is prepared with single-atom (SA) Ir doping and surface metallic Ir nanoparticles loaded onto the NiO. Read More

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[Evaluating malnutrition in pediatrics, a current challenge].

Nutr Hosp 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Grupo de Investigación VALORNUT-UCM (920030). Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

Malnutrition in pediatric patients conditions their health/illness. Malnutrition in sick children further aggravates their baseline situation, and conditions their evolution and prognosis. Despite its relevance, it is not evaluated in many cases, nor is there a single definition that facilitates its diagnosis. Read More

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