25,420 results match your criteria evidence phylogeny

Neurophysiology goes wild: from exploring sensory coding in sound proof rooms to natural environments.

Heiner Römer

J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Biology, Graz University, Universitätsplatz 2, 8010, Graz, Austria.

To perform adaptive behaviours, animals have to establish a representation of the physical "outside" world. How these representations are created by sensory systems is a central issue in sensory physiology. This review addresses the history of experimental approaches toward ideas about sensory coding, using the relatively simple auditory system of acoustic insects. Read More

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Evidence for Middle Miocene origin and morphological evolutionary stasis in a Barbacenia Inselberg clade (Velloziaceae).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Apr 5:107163. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Botânica, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Atlantic Forest Inselbergs (AFI) and Campos Rupestres (CR) are mountains and highlands of eastern South America, relatively poorly studied and highly threatened, which display extraordinary levels of plant endemism and richness. In spite of their geographical and environmental differences, the origin of the flora of CR and AFI are likely linked to each other, because several plant clades are distributed across both ecosystems. In addition to these studies, little has been investigated about the historical biogeographical connections between AFI and CR and most evolutionary studies are restricted to CR. Read More

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Integrating morphological and molecular approaches for characterizing four species of (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) from Moroccan cyprinids, with comments on their host specificity and phylogenetic relationships.

PeerJ 2021 24;9:e10867. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

Cyprinid fishes are known to harbour highly host-specific gill-associated parasites of . High similarity in the morphology of sclerotized structures among species, especially those parasitizing congeneric cyprinoids, makes their identification difficult. In this paper, four previously known species of are characterized and illustrated under a reliable taxonomic framework integrating morphological and molecular evidence, and their phylogenetic relationships are investigated using molecular data. Read More

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Genetic substructure and complex demographic history of South African Bantu speakers.

Nat Commun 2021 04 7;12(1):2080. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Sydney Brenner Institute for Molecular Bioscience, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

South Eastern Bantu-speaking (SEB) groups constitute more than 80% of the population in South Africa. Despite clear linguistic and geographic diversity, the genetic differences between these groups have not been systematically investigated. Based on genome-wide data of over 5000 individuals, representing eight major SEB groups, we provide strong evidence for fine-scale population structure that broadly aligns with geographic distribution and is also congruent with linguistic phylogeny (separation of Nguni, Sotho-Tswana and Tsonga speakers). Read More

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Microbiomes of willow-galling sawflies: effects of host plant, gall type, and phylogeny on community structure and function.

Genome 2021 Apr 7:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Ecosystems in the Barents Region, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Svanvik, Norway.

While free-living herbivorous insects are thought to harbor microbial communities composed of transient bacteria derived from their diet, recent studies indicate that insects that induce galls on plants may be involved in more intimate host-microbe relationships. We used 16S rDNA metabarcoding to survey larval microbiomes of 20 nematine sawfly species that induce bud or leaf galls on 13 species. The 391 amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) detected represented 69 bacterial genera in six phyla. Read More

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Genomes of Gut Bacteria from Wasps Shed Light on Phylosymbiosis and Microbe-Assisted Hybrid Breakdown.

mSystems 2021 Apr 6;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA

Phylosymbiosis is a cross-system trend whereby microbial community relationships recapitulate the host phylogeny. In parasitoid wasps, phylosymbiosis occurs throughout development, is distinguishable between sexes, and benefits host development and survival. Moreover, the microbiome shifts in hybrids as a rare bacterium in the microbiome becomes dominant. Read More

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Mitogenomic phylogeny of Callithrix with special focus on human transferred taxa.

BMC Genomics 2021 Apr 6;22(1):239. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Primate Genetics Laboratory, German Primate Center, Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Göttingen, Germany.

Background: Callithrix marmosets are a relatively young primate radiation, whose phylogeny is not yet fully resolved. These primates are naturally para- and allopatric, but three species with highly invasive potential have been introduced into the southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest by the pet trade. There, these species hybridize with each other and endangered, native congeners. Read More

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A review of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19): based on genomic structure, phylogeny, current shreds of evidence, candidate vaccines, and drug repurposing.

3 Biotech 2021 Apr 27;11(4):198. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Integrative Biology, School of BioSciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology, Tamil Nadu, Vellore, 632 014 India.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is instigated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of March 13, 2021, more than 118.9 million cases were infected with COVID-19 worldwide. Read More

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The Phylogenetic Relationship Revealed Three New Wood-Inhabiting Fungal Species From Genus .

Front Microbiol 2021 17;12:650195. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Key Laboratory for Forest Resources Conservation and Utilization in the Southwest Mountains of China, Ministry of Education, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, China.

Wood-inhabiting fungi play a significant role in wood degradation and the cycle of matter in the ecological system. In the present study, three new wood-inhabiting fungal species, , , and spp. nov. Read More

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Multiple lines of evidence reveal a new species of Krait (Squamata, Elapidae, ) from Southwestern China and Northern Myanmar.

Zookeys 2021 18;1025:35-71. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China Origins of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China.

Kraits of the genus Daudin 1803 are widely known venomous snakes distributed from Iran to China and Indonesia. Here, we use a combination of mitochondrial DNA sequence data and morphological data to describe a new species from Yingjiang County, Yunnan Province, China: . Phylogenetically, this species forms a monophyletic lineage sister to the // complex based on cyt and ND4 genes but forms a sister species pair with the species Wall & Evans, 1901 based on COI gene fragments. Read More

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Whole-Genome Sequence Benchmark Dataset for Phylogenomic Pipelines.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Mar 16;7(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

is a multidrug-resistant pathogen that represents a serious public health threat due to its rapid global emergence, increasing incidence of healthcare-associated outbreaks, and high rates of antifungal resistance. Whole-genome sequencing and genomic surveillance have the potential to bolster surveillance networks moving forward. Laboratories conducting genomic surveillance need to be able to compare analyses from various national and international surveillance partners to ensure that results are mutually trusted and understood. Read More

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Integrative Taxonomy of the Spinous Assassin Bug Genus (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) Reveals Three Cryptic Species Based on DNA Barcoding and Morphological Evidence.

Insects 2021 Mar 16;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

MOA Key Lab of Pest Monitoring and Green Management, Department of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Stål, 1861 (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) is endemic to China and Vietnam, with only two species, Stål, 1861 and Ren, 2001, characterized by spinous body and dentate abdominal connexivum. However, due to variable morphological characteristics, , which is widely distributed in South China, is possibly a complex of cryptic species, and was suspected to be an extreme group of the cline. In the present study, we conducted species delimitation and phylogenetic analyses based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I () gene sequences of 307 specimens collected from 30 sampling localities combined with morphological evidence. Read More

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Molecular systematics and biogeographic history of the African climbing-mouse complex (Dendromus).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Mar 30:107166. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Science and Education, Field Museum of Natural History, 1400 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605; College of Arts & Sciences, Roosevelt University, 430 S. Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60605.

Climbing mice in the genus Dendromus (sensu lato) are widely distributed in Africa, south of the Saharan Desert. The 17 currently recognized species in the genus range from widespread taxa to single-mountain endemics, and there is considerable variation across species with respect to habitats occupied. These habitats range from arid grasslands and savannahs to sub-alpine and alpine vegetation. Read More

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The complete mitochondrial genome of the pyrophilous jewel beetle (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 19;6(3):1059-1060. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Criminal Science and Technology, Nanjing Forest Police College, Nanjing, China.

The complete mitochondrial of genome (DeGeer 1774) is a typical double-stranded circular molecule of 15,853 bp (GenBank accession number: MW287594). All tRNA genes, ranging from 62 to 72 bp, can be folded into typical clover-leaf secondary structure except for . The control region is 1,080 bp long with an A+T content of 87. Read More

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Divergence-time estimates for hominins provide insight into encephalization and body mass trends in human evolution.

Nat Ecol Evol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Primate Models for Behavioural Evolution Lab, Institute of Cognitive and Evolutionary Anthropology, School of Anthropology and Museum Ethnography, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Quantifying speciation times during human evolution is fundamental as it provides a timescale to test for the correlation between key evolutionary transitions and extrinsic factors such as climatic or environmental change. Here, we applied a total evidence dating approach to a hominin phylogeny to estimate divergence times under different topological hypotheses. The time-scaled phylogenies were subsequently used to perform ancestral state reconstructions of body mass and phylogenetic encephalization quotient (PEQ). Read More

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Unveiling the unknown phylogenetic position of the scallop Austrochlamys natans and its implications for marine stewardship in the Magallanes Province.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 31;11(1):7241. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Laboratorio de Ecosistemas Marinos Antárticos Y Subantárticos, Universidad de Magallanes, Avenida Bulnes 01890, Punta Arenas, Chile.

Two species of scallop, Austrochlamys natans ("Ostión del Sur") and Zygochlamys patagonica ("Ostión patagonico") are presently exploited in the southern part of the Magallanes Province (MP). The lack of clarity in taxonomic identification and ecological aspects is generating both erroneous extraction statistics and an unperceived harvesting pressure on A. natans and Z. Read More

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Dental workers in front-line of COVID-19: an in silico evaluation targeting their prevention.

J Appl Oral Sci 2021 26;29:e20200678. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Universidade de Pernambuco, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde e Desenvolvimento Socioambiental, Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Molecular, Garanhuns, Brasil.

Objective: SARS-CoV-2 has high human-human transmission rate. The aerosols and saliva droplets are the main contamination source. Thus, it is crucial to point out that dental practitioners become a high-risk group of contagion by SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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New insights into the phylogeny of (Apiaceae, Apioideae) based on morphological and molecular data.

PhytoKeys 2021 17;175:13-32. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Resources and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, 610065, Chengdu, Sichuan, China Sichuan University Chengdu China.

is a Sino-Himalayan endemic genus of Apiaceae and distributed in high-elevations from Nepal to SW China. In this study, morphological characteristics were combined with nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) intron sequences ( and ) to determine the phylogenetic placement of and the infrageneric relationships between five species. The results confirmed that was a polyphyletic group separated into two clades, and East Asia clades. Read More

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ESBL and C β-Lactamase Encoding Genes in From Pig and Pig Farm Workers in Vietnam and Their Association With Mobile Genetic Elements.

Front Microbiol 2021 11;12:629139. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Animals are considered important sources of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria in humans. We analyzed indications of transfer of ESBL/AmpC genes between pigs and pig farmers in Vietnam by analyzing whole genome sequences of 114 ESBL/AmpC-producing isolated from the two hosts, and performed conjugation experiments and plasmid profiling to confirm that such transfer could have happened. ESBL-encoding genes detected in pigs and pig farmers included , , , , , , , and , and AmpC β-lactamases included , , and . Read More

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Genome-wide signatures of plastid-nuclear coevolution point to repeated perturbations of plastid proteostasis systems across angiosperms.

Plant Cell 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA.

Nuclear and plastid (chloroplast) genomes experience different mutation rates, levels of selection, and transmission modes, yet key cellular functions depend on their coordinated interactions. Functionally related proteins often show correlated changes in rates of sequence evolution across a phylogeny [evolutionary rate covariation (ERC)], offering a means to detect previously unidentified suites of coevolving and cofunctional genes. We performed phylogenomic analyses across angiosperm diversity, scanning the nuclear genome for genes that exhibit ERC with plastid genes. Read More

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January 2021

Macroevolutionary dynamics of dentition in Mesozoic birds reveal no long-term selection towards tooth loss.

iScience 2021 Mar 1;24(3):102243. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK.

Several potential drivers of avian tooth loss have been proposed, although consensus remains elusive as fully toothless jaws arose independently numerous times among Mesozoic avialans and dinosaurs more broadly. The origin of crown bird edentulism has been discussed in terms of a broad-scale selective pressure or trend toward toothlessness, although this has never been quantitatively tested. Here, we find no evidence for models whereby iterative acquisitions of toothlessness among Mesozoic Avialae were driven by an overarching selective trend. Read More

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First Report of Moldy Core of Sweet Tango Apples from New Zealand Caused by Alternaria arborescens.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 4902 Victoria Avenue North, Vineland Station, ON L0R 2E0, Canada, Vineland, Ontario, Canada;

Moldy core is a fungal disease of apple fruits that is characterized by mycelial growth in the seed locules and is sometimes accompanied by penetration of the immediate surrounding flesh. The disease can go undetected until the fruit is cut open, as no external symptoms appear on the fruit. Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Coniothyrium, Epicoccum, Phoma and Stemphylium are some of the common pathogens associated with moldy core (Serdani et al. Read More

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Reproductive compatibility in Capsicum is not necessarily reflected in genetic or phenotypic similarity between species complexes.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(3):e0243689. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

World Vegetable Center, Shanhua, Tainan, 74151, Taiwan.

Wild relatives of domesticated Capsicum represent substantial genetic diversity and thus sources of traits of potential interest. Furthermore, the hybridization compatibility between members of Capsicum species complexes remains unresolved. Improving our understanding of the relationship between Capsicum species relatedness and their ability to form hybrids is a highly pertinent issue. Read More

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Long known, brand new, and possibly threatened: a new species of watersnake of the genus Helicops Wagler, 1828 (Serpentes; Xenodontinae) from the Tocantins-Araguaia River Basin, Brazil.

Zootaxa 2021 Jan 7;4903(2):zootaxa.4903.2.3. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Departamento de Biologia e Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Av. Fernando Corrêa da Costa, 2367, 78060-900, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Professor Moraes Rego, 1235, Cidade Universitária, 50670-901, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil..

We describe a new species of watersnake of the genus Helicops from the Tocantins-Araguaia River Basin based on characters of coloration and hemipenial morphology, also corroborated by a molecular phylogenetic analysis including 18 terminals of 10 additional congeners. The new species superficially resembles the spotted-patterned He. leopardinus, but differs from it in exhibiting dorsal spots fused into irregular bands, and a unique hemipenial structure with two pairs of distinctly enlarged basal spines. Read More

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January 2021

Tadpole of Nyctimantis galeata (Anura: Hylidae: Lophyohylini), a narrow endemic casque-headed frog from Bahia, Brazil.

Zootaxa 2021 Mar 19;4948(2):zootaxa.4948.2.9. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), Centro de Ciências Exatas e da Natureza, Cidade Universitária, 58000-000, João Pessoa, PB..

Nyctimantis galeata (Pombal, Menezes, Fontes, Nunes, Rocha Van Sluys) is a casque-headed frog member of the Lophyohylini tribe (Blotto et al. 2020), narrow-endemic to the municipality of Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil (Pombal et al. 2012). Read More

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A new species of the genus Daplasa Moore from China based on morphological and molecular evidence (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae).

Zootaxa 2021 Mar 22;4948(3):zootaxa.4948.3.8. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong, China.

A new species, Daplasa medoga sp. nov., is described from Tibet, China. Read More

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Into the Chamber of Horrors: A proposal for the resolution of nomenclatural chaos in the Scaphiophryne calcarata complex (Anura: Microhylidae), with a new species-level phylogenetic hypothesis for Scaphiophryninae.

Zootaxa 2021 Mar 2;4938(4):zootaxa.4938.4.2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstrasse 10, 78464 Konstanz, Germany.

The genus Scaphiophryne (Anura: Microhylidae) contains at least nine species that, together with their probable sister genus Paradoxophyla, form the Madagascar-endemic subfamily Scaphiophryninae. Scaphiophryne are robust burrowing frogs with explosive breeding behavior and are characterized by a unique larval morphology, being intermediate between that of filter-feeding and generalized tadpole types. Based on tadpole morphology, the nominal subgenus Scaphiophryne can be distinguished from the subgenus Pseudohemisus, a clade occurring in arid biomes with a largely unsolved taxonomy and nomenclature. Read More

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Towards completion of the species inventory of small-sized leaf-tailed geckos: two new species of Uroplatus from northern Madagascar.

Zootaxa 2020 Dec 15;4895(2):zootaxa.4895.2.5. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Zoologie et Biodiversité Animale, Université d'Antananarivo, BP 906, Antananarivo, 101 Madagascar.

The northern part of Madagascar is well known for its high species diversity and endemism. Exceptional species richness is related to the existence of large forest blocks and mountain complexes. These areas shelter a diverse variety of habitats occupied by a wide diversity of species, including leaf-tailed geckos of the genus Uroplatus. Read More

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December 2020

A new species of Leucostethus (Anura: Dendrobatidae) from the Cordillera Mache-Chindul in northwestern Ecuador, with comments on similar Colostethus and Hyloxalus.

Zootaxa 2020 Dec 22;4896(3):zootaxa.4896.3.2. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, U.S.A. Present address: Librarius Study Center, Estación Bio-lógica Jatun Sacha, Provincia Napo, Ecuador..

We describe a new species of dendrobatid frog, Leucostethus bilsa sp. nov., using molecular, morphological, and acoustic evidence. Read More

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December 2020