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Vaccine hesitancy in migrant communities: a rapid review of latest evidence.

Curr Opin Immunol 2021 Jun 9;71:62-68. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Cochrane South Africa, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Global Health, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

By refusing or delaying vaccination, vaccine hesitant individuals and communities undermine the prevention, and ultimately, elimination of communicable diseases against which safe and effective vaccines are available. We reviewed recent evidence of vaccine hesitancy within migrant communities in the context of increased human mobility and widespread anti-immigrant sentiment and manifest xenophobia. Among many immigrant parents and families, vaccine hesitancy is largely associated with fears and misinformation about vaccine harms, limited knowledge of both preventable diseases and vaccines, distrust of host countries' health systems and their attendant intentions, language barriers, and perceived incompatibility between vaccine uptake and migrants' religion. Read More

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A Qualitative Study of Mothers' Perspectives on Enrolling and Engaging in an Evidence-Based Nurse Home Visiting Program.

Prev Sci 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Health Systems, Management & Policy, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, USA.

Prevention programs like Nurse-Family Partnership® (NFP) must enroll and retain clients of the intended population to maximize program impact. NFP is an evidence-based nurse home visitation program shown in randomized trials to improve maternal and child health and life course outcomes for first-time parents experiencing economic adversity, particularly for mothers with limited psychological resources. The purpose of this study was to understand enrollment and engagement experiences of mothers with previous live births referred to NFP in a formative study of the program for this population, but did not enroll or dropped out before program graduation. Read More

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Parental Involvement in Adolescents' Learning and Academic Achievement: Cross-lagged Effect and Mediation of Academic Engagement.

J Youth Adolesc 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Assessment toward Basic Education Quality, Beijing Normal University, No. 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing, 100875, China.

Parental involvement in adolescents' learning has been linked to high academic achievement, yet few studies have examined its reverse relationship at the same time and the potential mechanisms that underly these associations. To address this research gap, this study investigated the reciprocal relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement as well as the mediating role of adolescents' academic engagement among Chinese adolescents. In addition, the current study explored whether these relationships varied by gender. Read More

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Parental Opinions on Medical Decision-Making in Adolescence: A Case-Based Survey.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Spaarne Gasthuis, Haarlem and Hoofddorp, the Netherlands; Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, Belgium; Department of Pediatrics, University Hospitals Leuven, Flanders, Belgium; Centre for Sociological Research, KU Leuven, Belgium.

Objective: Patient trust and consent are complex topics for health care workers in pediatrics, specifically when relating to adolescent's legal status. In the context of medical decisions, not much work has been performed to understand the opinion of parents on health care decision-making, especially on confidentiality concerning their adolescent children. The purpose of this research was to assess the parental opinions on these decisions and the influence of different perspectives. Read More

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Automated Self-Administered 24-H Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24) recalls for parent proxy-reporting of children's intake (> 4 years of age): a feasibility study.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2021 Jun 11;7(1):123. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Robust measurement of dietary intake in population studies of children is critical to better understand the diet-health nexus. It is unknown whether parent proxy-report of children's dietary intake through online 24-h recalls is feasible in large cohort studies.

Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the feasibility of the Automated Self-Administered 24-h Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24) to measure parent proxy-reported child dietary intake. Read More

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Exome sequencing reveals novel rare variants in Iranian familial multiple sclerosis: The importance of POLD2 in the disease pathogenesis.

Genomics 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; MS Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The prevalence of familial multiple sclerosis (FMS) is increasing worldwide which endorses the heritability of the disease. Given that many genome variations are ethnicity-specific and consanguineous marriage could affect genetic diseases, hereditary disease gene analysis among FMS patients from Iran, a country with high rates of parental consanguinity, could be highly effective in finding mutations underlying disease pathogenesis. To examine rare genetic mutations, we selected three Iranian FMS cases with ≥3 MS patients in more than one generation and performed whole exome sequencing. Read More

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A double-closed wedge broken-line osteotomy for cubitus varus deformity.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e26124

Department of Orthopedic Ward II, Shenzhen Children's Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Abstract: Various osteotomy methods have been proposed in the treatment of cubitus varus. We designed an improved stepped osteotomy to achieve improved deformity correction. We refer to this new approach as double-closed wedge broken-line osteotomy and report a series of clinical and imaging results (deformity correction, range of motion [ROM], function, osteotomy healing, and complications) of patients with cubitus varus treated with this technique. Read More

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Psychometric properties of a new ADHD screening questionnaire: Parent report on the (potential) underlying explanation of inattention in their school-aged children.

Child Neuropsychol 2021 Jun 11:1-16. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Neuropsychology & Psychopharmacology, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

The present study examined psychometric properties of a recently developed parent report screening questionnaire, i.e., Parent ADHD Screening questionnaire: Signaling the Core explanation underlying behavioral symptoms (PASSC). Read More

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Haploinsufficiency of ARFGEF1 is associated with developmental delay, intellectual disability, and epilepsy with variable expressivity.

Genet Med 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Inserm UMR1231 team GAD, University of Burgundy and Franche-Comté, Dijon, France.

Purpose: ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARFGEFs) are a family of proteins implicated in cellular trafficking between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane through vesicle formation. Among them is ARFGEF1/BIG1, a protein involved in axon elongation, neurite development, and polarization processes. ARFGEF1 has been previously suggested as a candidate gene for different types of epilepsies, although its implication in human disease has not been well characterized. Read More

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Importance of the origin of mesenchymal (stem) stromal cells in cancer biology: "alliance" or "war" in intercellular signals.

Cell Biosci 2021 Jun 10;11(1):109. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Unit Research, Fundación Hospital de Jove, Avda. Eduardo Castro 161, 33290, Gijón, Asturias, Spain.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a central role in the intercellular signaling within the tumor microenvironment (TME), exchanging signals with cancer cells and tumor stromal cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts and inflammatory mononuclear cells. Research attributes both pro-tumor and anti-tumor actions to MSCs; however, evidence indicates that MSCs specific effect on the tumor depends on the source of the MSCs and the type of tumor. There are consistent data proving that MSCs from reproductive tissues, such as the uterus, umbilical cord or placenta, have potent anti-tumor effects and tropism towards tumor tissues. Read More

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Mechanisms of impact and experiences of a person-centred transition programme for adolescents with CHD: the Stepstones project.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Jun 10;21(1):573. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute of Health and Care Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: During the past decade there has been some evaluation of transition programmes for adolescents with chronic conditions. However, this has rarely involved process evaluations focusing on mechanisms leading to outcomes, thus hampering implementation of these complex interventions. Our aim was to (I) describe adolescents' and parents' experiences of participating in a person-centred transition programme aiming to empower them in transition to adulthood and (II) explore the mechanisms of impact. Read More

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Cross-cultural validation of the Arabic version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire DCDQ'07, in a Lebanese sample of children.

Res Dev Disabil 2021 Jun 7;115:103999. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Health School of Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: The revised version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ'07) is a parent questionnaire designed to identify Developmental Coordination Disorder in 5-15-year-old children.

Aim: The aim of this study was to carry out the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the DCDQ'07, to examine psychometric properties, and to define the cut-off scores of the Arabic-Lebanese version of the questionnaire (DCDQ-AL).

Method: 38 parents of children with and without motor difficulties participated in the translation and cross-cultural phase. Read More

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Stress management interventions among socioeconomically disadvantaged parents: A meta-analysis and moderation analysis.

Int J Nurs Stud 2021 Apr 24;120:103954. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Michigan State University College of Nursing, 1355 Bogue St., C241, East Lansing, MI 48824, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Socioeconomically disadvantaged parents experience high levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. Many interventions have been tested to reduce parental stress, but no meta-analysis has been conducted to quantitatively summarize the effects and explore the moderators of intervention effects among socioeconomically disadvantaged parents.

Objective: This meta-analysis aimed to (1) quantitatively examine the intervention effects of prior stress management interventions among socioeconomically disadvantaged parents on reducing stress, depression, and anxiety; and (2) explore the potential moderators of intervention effects. Read More

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What predicts the early sexual debut among unmarried adolescents (10-19 years)? Evidence from UDAYA survey, 2015-16.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252940. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Population Council, New Delhi, India.

Introduction: The societal norm in India is such that adolescents are expected to respect and follow traditional values and view early sexual debut as undesirable and deviant from the social mores. However, a dramatic shift in attitudes towards sex before marriage has been observed in India. We in this study, aim to study the factors associated with early sexual debut among unmarried adolescents. Read More

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Parental Beliefs and Knowledge, Children's Home Language Experiences, and School Readiness: The Dual Language Perspective.

Front Psychol 2021 24;12:661208. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Public Policy and Administration, Rutgers University, Camden, NJ, United States.

Parental beliefs and knowledge about child development affect how they construct children's home learning experiences, which in turn impact children's developmental outcomes. A rapidly growing population of dual language learners (DLLs) highlights the need for a better understanding of parents' beliefs and knowledge about dual language development and practices to support DLLs. The current study examined the dual language beliefs and knowledge of parents of Spanish-English preschool DLLs ( = 32). Read More

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A Randomized Case Series Approach to Testing Efficacy of Interventions for Minimally Verbal Autistic Children.

Front Psychol 2021 24;12:621920. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Language and Cognition, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for assessing whether an intervention is effective; however, they require large sample sizes in order to detect small effects. For rare or complex populations, we advocate a case series approach as a more realistic and useful first step for intervention evaluation. We consider the importance of randomization to such designs, and advocate for the use of Randomization Tests and Between Case Effect Sizes to provide a robust and statistically powerful evaluation of outcomes. Read More

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Early Shared Reading, Socioeconomic Status, and Children's Cognitive and School Competencies: Six Years of Longitudinal Evidence.

Sci Stud Read 2018 25;22(6):485-502. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Charles Sturt University, Australia, Address: Panorama Ave, Bathurst NSW, Australia.

This study explored the longitudinal association between early shared reading and children's later school achievement. We also examined the mediating role of children's academic school readiness and the moderating effect of family socioeconomic status. Data were drawn from the ( = 4,768). Read More

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Association of assisted reproductive technology, germline de novo mutations and congenital heart defects in a prospective birth cohort study.

Cell Res 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Emerging evidence suggests that children conceived through assisted reproductive technology (ART) have a higher risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs) even when there is no family history. De novo mutation (DNM) is a well-known cause of sporadic congenital diseases; however, whether ART procedures increase the number of germline DNM (gDNM) has not yet been well studied. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1137 individuals from 160 families conceived through ART and 205 families conceived spontaneously. Read More

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The longitudinal association between early-life screen viewing and abdominal adiposity-findings from a multiethnic birth cohort study.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Importance: Screen viewing in adults has been associated with greater abdominal adiposity, with the magnitude of associations varying by sex and ethnicity, but the evidence is lacking at younger ages. We aimed to investigate sex- and ethnic-specific associations of screen-viewing time at ages 2 and 3 years with abdominal adiposity measured by magnetic resonance imaging at age 4.5 years. Read More

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Alcohol use and associated factors among adolescent boys and young men in Kampala, Uganda.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2021 Jun 9;16(1):49. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Disease Control and Environmental Health, Makerere University School of Public Health, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Alcohol use leads to about 3 million deaths globally. The alcohol industry employs marketing strategies to establish their brands in the lives of young people at a time when addictive behaviors are initiated and reinforced. We conducted a survey among adolescent boys and young men (ABYM) to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors using the Health Belief Model as the guiding framework. Read More

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Resemblance in Physical Activity in Families with Children in Time Segments during the Week: The Lolland-Falster Health Study.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, Research Unit for Exercise Epidemiology, Centre of Research in Childhood Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Lolland-Falster Health Study, Centre for Epidemiological Research, Nykøbing F. Hospital, Nykøbing, Denmark University College Absalon, Nykøbing, Denmark Faculty of Education, Arts and Sports, Department of Sport, Food and Natural Sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Sogndal, Norway.

Purpose: Evidence of shared physical activity (PA) habits within families is inconsistent. The present study aimed at examining intra-family resemblance in PA during different time segments of the week.

Method: This cross-sectional study used data from the Danish household-based population study Lolland-Falster Health Study. Read More

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Pediatric epilepsy and psychoeducational interventions: A review of the literature.

A Maya Kaye

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Jun 6;121(Pt A):108084. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Tulane University School of Social Work, United States. Electronic address:

For many individuals, living with epilepsy is truly a family affair throughout the life span. When it comes to childhood epilepsy, the unpredictability of seizure patterns, comorbid conditions, the risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), and societal stigma can be emotionally taxing on children and their primary caregivers. To this end, this article proposes to review psychoeducational interventions provided to primary caregivers of children with an epilepsy diagnosis and the impact of such interventions on general parental coping skills. Read More

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[Recommendations on organization, design, characteristics and operation of neonatology services].

Andes Pediatr 2021 Feb 3;92(1):138-150. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Neonatal care has undergone important advances involving the technology for treatment and mo nitoring, the design of care spaces, the incorporation of support professionals, and, especially, the strengthening of an organizational model in networks with centers of different levels of care. Neona tal units should be located in centers with maternity services and, ideally, with pediatric ones of an equivalent level of care. This document defines the admission and transfer criteria according to the level of care and among the different levels, respectively. Read More

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February 2021

[Developmental care of premature newborns: Fundamentals and main characteristics].

Andes Pediatr 2021 Feb 22;92(1):131-137. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Facultad de Psicología, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile.

Premature newborns, especially the extreme ones, need to be cared for in the different units in the neonatal services. In addition to ensuring the survival of these newborns, these services have gra dually incorporated interventions to promote their development. This review provides an updated synthesis of developmental-focused neonatal care. Read More

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February 2021

Qualitative insights into Australian consumers' views for and against government action on sugary drinks.

Public Health Res Pract 2021 Jun 9;31(2). Epub 2021 Jun 9.

HHealth Policy Centre, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide; School of Psychology, University of Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Objectives: Despite significant evidence of harms associated with high levels of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption, and international moves towards regulation to curb overconsumption of such drinks, Australia has been slow to take policy action. This study provides in-depth insights into consumers' reactions to different SSB policy options.

Methods: Eight focus groups were undertaken with 59 regular SSB consumers and/or household purchasers, stratified by: young adults aged 21-29 years (no children), parents aged 35-50 (with children at home); gender; and socio-economic status. Read More

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The possible effects of maternal electronic media device usage during pregnancy on children's sleep patterns.

Turk Arch Pediatr 2021 6;56(3):254-260. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Biophysics, Gaziantep University, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep, Turkey.

Objective: In recent years, there has been increasing scientific evidence about potential health risks caused by electromagnetic fields because of electronic media devices. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the possible association between electronic media device usage during pregnancy and sleep patterns in children and the possible role of electronic media device presence in the sleeping environment on children's sleep disturbances.

Material And Methods: The study was carried out with 400 healthy children aged between 1 month and 5 years whose parents agreed to complete the questionnaire form. Read More

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January 2021

Role of parents in fatigue of children with a chronic disease: a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Paediatr Open 2021 21;5(1):e001055. Epub 2021 May 21.

Social Paediatrics, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objective: As parents majorly impact their child's well-being, and as fatigue is a highly prevalent threat to the well-being of children with a chronic disease, we aimed to explore the association between parental factors and fatigue in children with a chronic disease.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Two Dutch children's hospitals. Read More

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Role of montelukast in multitrigger wheezers attending chest clinic in Punjab, India.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Background: Wheeze is seen in 40% of preschool children, one-third of these may develop recurrent wheeze. Montelukast is an oral, once a day, easy to give therapy but there is no definite evidence to support its use in a recent meta-analysis. Present study was done to evaluate role of daily montelukast and various factors affecting the outcome after therapy in multitrigger wheeze (MTW). Read More

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A response to Justen et al. 2020 Estimating hybridization rates in the wild: easier said than done?

Evolution 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee Knoxville, 569 Dabney Hall, Knoxville, Tennessee, United States.

We consider four key challenges related to estimating per-individual rates of hybridization in wild birds: 1) what is the meaning of the term "hybrid"? 2) the importance of distinguishing between shared DNA sequences and on-going hybridization between populations, 3) the perils of focusing exclusively on known hybrid zones and 4) the implications of very low rates of per individual hybridization. Because our focus is on using phenotype to recognize hybrids, we define a hybrid as an individual with a phenotype that is intermediate between two parental species. We emphasize the value of quantifying the rate of between-species mating that is ongoing in current populations and distinguish this endeavor from estimates of gene flow between populations based on genomic analysis, which can reflect both current and ancient hybridization. Read More

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Effects of substance misuse on inhibitory control in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Addict Biol 2021 Jun 7:e13063. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often diagnosed with comorbid substance misuse (SM), which is associated with poor treatment efficacy. Although literature indicates similar inhibitory control deficits in both conditions, it is unclear whether SM in ADHD exaggerates pre-existing deficits, with additive or distinct impairments in patients. Our aim was to examine SM effects on inhibitory control in ADHD. Read More

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