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Features of low functional load in mono- and bilinguals' lexical access: evidence from Swedish tonal accent.

Phonetica 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Faculty of Linguistics, Philology and Phonetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Swedish makes use of tonal accents (Accents 1 and 2) to contrast words, but the functional load is very low, with some regional dialects not even exhibiting the contrast. In particular given the low number of minimal pairs, the question is whether tonal word accent is used in lexical access. Here we present two cross-modal fragment semantic priming studies in order to address this question. Read More

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[Function-based tests to determine the return-to-activity state in patients with non-specific low back pain].

Sportverletz Sportschaden 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Hochschule Furtwangen, Germany.

Background:  Most people with back pain suffer from non-specific low back pain, for which no specific reasons can be found. Two out of three have recurrent pain episodes. To reduce the likelihood of recurrence and long-lasting pain, functional tests are increasingly used to determine the current functional status. Read More

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Interventions to reduce preterm birth in pregnant women with psychosocial vulnerability factors-A systematic review.

Midwifery 2021 Apr 20;100:103018. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Health Science and Technology, Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Aalborg University, Niels Jernes Vej 14, 9220 Aalborg Øst, Denmark.

Objective: Pregnant women with psychosocial vulnerability factors face a higher risk of preterm birth, a heavier burden of perinatal morbidity and mortality and less social health equity. Prevention of preterm birth in this group has proved difficult, and more knowledge is needed to ensure evidence-based care and improve prevention. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce preterm birth among pregnant women with psychosocial vulnerability factors. Read More

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Putting ATM to BED: How Adipose Tissue Macrophages Are Affected by Bariatric Surgery, Exercise, and Dietary Fatty Acids.

Adv Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Health, Kinesiology, and Applied Physiology, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

With increasing adiposity in obesity, adipose tissue macrophages contribute to adipose tissue malfunction and increased circulating proinflammatory cytokines. The chronic low-grade inflammation that occurs in obesity ultimately gives rise to a state of metainflammation that increases the risk of metabolic disease. To date, only lifestyle and surgical interventions have been shown to be somewhat effective at reversing the negative consequences of obesity and restoring adipose tissue homeostasis. Read More

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Neonatal and infant mortality associated with spina bifida: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0250098. Epub 2021 May 12.

National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit (NPEU), Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Objectives: A systematic review was conducted in high-income country settings to analyse: (i) spina bifida neonatal and IMRs over time, and (ii) clinical and socio-demographic factors associated with mortality in the first year after birth in infants affected by spina bifida.

Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, Ovid, Web of Science, CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library were searched from 1st January, 1990 to 31st August, 2020 to review evidence.

Study Selection: Population-based studies that provided data for spina bifida infant mortality and case fatality according to clinical and socio-demographical characteristics were included. Read More

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Social mobility and healthy behaviours from a gender perspective in the Spanish multicase-control study (MCC-Spain).

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0251447. Epub 2021 May 12.

Cancer and Public Health Area, Foundation for the Promotion of the Research in Healthcare and Biomedicine (FISABIO-Salud Pública), Valencia, Valencian Community, Spain.

There is evidence for the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on healthy behaviours but the effect of social mobility (SM) is not yet well known. This study aims to analyse the influence of origin and destination SES (O-SES and D-SES) and SM on healthy behaviours and co-occurrence, from an integrated gender and age perspective. Data were obtained from the controls of MCC-Spain between 2008-2013 (3,606 participants). Read More

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High titers and low fucosylation of early human anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG promote inflammation by alveolar macrophages.

Authors:

Sci Transl Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) become critically ill primarily around the time of activation of the adaptive immune response. Here, we provide evidence that antibodies play a role in the worsening of disease at the time of seroconversion. We show that early phase severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein-specific IgG in serum of critically ill COVID-19 patients induces excessive inflammatory responses by human alveolar macrophages. Read More

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Neuroprotective Effect of Ultrasound Neuromodulation on Kainic Acid-Induced Epilepsy in mice.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2021 May 12;PP. Epub 2021 May 12.

Preliminary evidence suggest that low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has neuroprotective effects on ischemic stroke, d epression and other conditions leading to neuronal cell death (e.g., Pa rkinson's disease). Read More

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Use of low-frequency contact ultrasonic debridement with and without polyhexamethylene biguanide in hard-to-heal leg ulcers: an RCT protocol.

J Wound Care 2021 May;30(5):372-379

School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, The University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore, QLD 4558, Australia.

Objective: The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of low-frequency contact ultrasonic debridement therapy (LFCUD) in hard-to-heal wounds with suspected biofilm, and compare the effect with or without a surfactant antimicrobial on bacterial colony counts and wound healing rates.

Method: A single-blinded randomised controlled trial (RCT) will investigate the combination of LFCUD and the antiseptic polyhexamethylene biguanide with a surfactant betaine (referred to in this paper as PHMB) as a topical solution post-treatment and in a sustained dressing, compared with use of LFCUD alone. Potential participants from a community wound clinic (n=50) will be invited to take part in the 12-week trial. Read More

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Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Coronavirus Spike: ACE2 Protein-Protein Interaction as Blockers of Viral Attachment and Entry for SARS-CoV-2.

ACS Infect Dis 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Inhibitors of the protein-protein interaction (PPI) between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and human ACE2 (hACE2), which acts as a ligand-receptor pair that initiates the viral attachment and cellular entry of this coronavirus causing the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, are of considerable interest as potential antiviral agents. While blockade of such PPIs with small molecules is more challenging than that with antibodies, small-molecule inhibitors (SMIs) might offer alternatives that are less strain- and mutation-sensitive, suitable for oral or inhaled administration, and more controllable/less immunogenic. Here, we report the identification of SMIs of this PPI by screening our compound library focused around the chemical space of organic dyes. Read More

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Reduced microglia activity in patients with long-term immunosuppressive therapy after liver transplantation.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.

Purpose: Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) can cause long-term impairment of brain function. Possible pathomechanisms include alterations of the cerebral immune system. This study used positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with the translocator protein (TSPO) ligand F-GE-180 to evaluate microglial activation in liver-transplanted patients under different regimens of immunosuppression. Read More

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Empathy-based tolerance towards poor norm violators in third-party punishment.

Exp Brain Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Psychology and Cognitive Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.

Third-party punishment (TPP) plays an important role in fairness norm enforcement. This study investigated how the economic status of proposers could modulate third parties' behavioural and neural responses to unfairness. Participants played a TPP game as third parties deciding whether to punish proposers after observing the offers from proposers while behavioural and electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded. Read More

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Complications and functional, psychological outcomes of bilateral tibial lengthening over intramedullary nail: evidence from Vietnam.

Int Orthop 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of Trauma and Orthopaedics, 108 Military Central Hospital, No. 01 Tran Hung Dao Street, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the functional, psychological outcomes and complications of bilateral tibial lengthening over intramedullary nail. The intramedullary nail in this study was the Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) nail.

Material And Methods: We enrolled patients desiring stature lengthening at the 108 Military Central Hospital (Hanoi, Vietnam) from October 2011 to January 2019. Read More

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High variability and lack of standardization in the evaluation of return to sport after ACL reconstruction: a systematic review.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Sports Medicine Institute, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: Return to sport (RTS) after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) has been recognized as an important outcome, which is associated with success of the surgery. This study aimed to assess the methods used to determine return to sport after ACLR in the published literature, report on variability of methods and evaluate their strength in establishing accurate RTS data.

Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase) were searched via a defined search strategy with no limits, to identify relevant studies from January 2008 to December 2020 for inclusion in the review. Read More

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Bacteriome depiction and the trophic status of the largest Northern highland lake from Andes system: Lago de Tota, Boyacá, Colombia.

Arch Microbiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Escuela de Ciencias Biológicas, Laboratorio de Investigación en Genética Evolutiva - LIGE, L-214, Universidad Pedagógica Y Tecnológica de Colombia, Avenida Central del Norte 39-115, Tunja, Boyacá, Colombia.

Lago de Tota is the largest highland lake in Colombia and one of the most remarkable of Northern Andean Mountain range. This lake is under an anthropogenic-based eutrophication process as a consequence of non-sustainable agriculture practices developing nearby. Notable relationship between the trophic status and Bacteriome loop dynamics has been increasingly disclosed in lakes worldwide. Read More

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Influence of rapid maxillary expansion on nocturnal enuresis in children.

Angle Orthod 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Objectives: To evaluate the influence of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on nocturnal enuresis (NE) in children to discuss whether RME can be indicated as an alternative treatment for NE in those patients.

Materials And Methods: An electronic search was performed in the following databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar and LILACS. The literature review was blindly performed by two reviewers. Read More

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Bone health in diabetes: Indian perspective.

Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Endocrinology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Purpose Of Review: Despite estimated 77 million people having diabetes, bone health in Asian Indians with diabetes is largely unknown. This review summarizes the published literature on fracture risk and factors affecting it in Asian Indians with diabetes.

Recent Findings: Data on fracture prevalence in diabetes is limited; one study showed that diabetes was associated with a significantly higher number of fractures compared with subjects without diabetes (4% vs. Read More

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Pharmaceutical contaminants in shallow groundwater and their implication to poor sanitation facilities in low-income countries.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Faculty of Engineering, University of Ruhuna, Hapugala, Galle, Sri Lanka.

Rudimentary onsite sanitation systems (OSSs) are extensively used in low-income countries despite the risk of groundwater contamination. The present study investigated the potential impact of community soak pits on sandy shallow aquifers in a rural area in Sri Lanka. Thirty-two groundwater samples were collected and measured for traditional indicators, i. Read More

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Identifying UK travellers at increased risk of developing pneumococcal infection: a novel algorithm.

J Travel Med 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Medicine & Dentistry, Gfiffith University Gold Coast campus, Queensland 4222, Australia.

Background: In 2016, the travel subcommittee of the UK Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) recommended that 13-valent PCV (PCV13) could be offered to travellers aged over 65 years, visiting countries without infant PCV immunization programmes. This study aimed to identify, collate and review the available evidence to identify specific countries where UK travellers might be at an increased risk of developing pneumococcal infection. The data were then used to develop an algorithm, which could be used to facilitate implementation of the JCVI recommendation. Read More

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Sterol sulfate alleviates atherosclerosis mediating hepatic cholesterol metabolism in ApoE mice.

Food Funct 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, Shandong, China.

Compared with terrestrial organisms, the sterols in sea cucumber exhibit a sulfate group at the C-3 position. Our previous study demonstrated that dietary sterol sulfate was superior to phytosterol in alleviating metabolic syndrome by ameliorating inflammation and mediating cholesterol metabolism in high-fat-high-fructose diet mice, which indicated its potential anti-atherosclerosis bioactivity. In the present study, administration with sea cucumber-derived sterol sulfate (SCS) significantly decreased the cholesterol level in oleic acid/palmitic acid-treated HepG2 cells, while no significant changes were observed in the triacylglycerol level. Read More

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A multi-omics approach for understanding the effects of moderate wine consumption on human intestinal health.

Food Funct 2021 May;12(9):4152-4164

Institute of Food Science Research (CIAL), CSIC-UAM, C/Nicolás Cabrera 9, 28049-Madrid, Spain.

The human gut is a highly diverse microbial ecosystem. Although showing a well-defined core of dominant taxa, an interindividual variability exists in microbiome arrangement patterns, and the presence and proportion of specific species, determining individual metabolic features-metabotypes-which govern the health effects of dietary interventions (i.e. Read More

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The role of medications in successful aging.

Authors:
R D Langer

Climacteric 2021 May 12:1-8. Epub 2021 May 12.

Jackson Hole Center for Preventive Medicine, Jackson, WY, USA.

Successful aging includes good health and low levels of disability. To that end, primary prevention is far better than managing subsequent organ damage. When medication is needed to prevent or manage disease, the preferred choice should be associated with the greatest benefits and fewest adverse effects. Read More

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Sources of SARS-CoV-2 and Other Microorganisms in Dental Aerosols.

J Dent Res 2021 May 12:220345211015948. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

On March 16, 2020, 198,000 dentists in the United States closed their doors to patients, fueled by concerns that aerosols generated during dental procedures are potential vehicles for transmission of respiratory pathogens through saliva. Our knowledge of these aerosol constituents is sparse and gleaned from case reports and poorly controlled studies. Therefore, we tracked the origins of microbiota in aerosols generated during ultrasonic scaling, implant osteotomy, and restorative procedures by combining reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (to identify and quantify SARS-CoV-2) and 16S sequencing (to characterize the entire microbiome) with fine-scale enumeration and source tracking. Read More

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Detection of Endogenous RASSF1A Interacting Proteins.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2262:303-310

James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

RASSF1A is a Ras effector that promotes the anti-proliferative properties of Ras. It acts as a scaffold protein that regulates several pro-apoptotic signaling pathways, thereby linking Ras to their regulation. However, accumulating evidence suggests that RASSF1A functions as a regulator of other additional biological processes, such as DNA repair and transcription, thereby implicating Ras in the modulation of these biological processes. Read More

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January 2021

Sex differences in pharmacological treatment of major depressive disorder: results from the AMSP pharmacovigilance program from 2001 to 2017.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, LMU University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany.

Data on drug prescription for outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) suggest women are more likely to be treated with psychotropic drugs, while data on sex differences regarding pharmacological treatment of psychiatric inpatients are currently not available. Drug utilization data from the program "Drug Safety in Psychiatry" (German: Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie, AMSP) of 44,418 psychiatric inpatients with MDD were analyzed for sex differences between 2001 and 2017. Sex differences were analyzed using relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Read More

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Applicability of evidence from randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews to clinical practice: A conceptual review.

Authors:
Antti Malmivaara

J Rehabil Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Centre for Health and Social Economics / Scientific Unit, Centre for Health and Social Economics/Scientific Unit, FI-00270 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail:

Background: The value of randomized controlled trials is dependent on the applicability of their findings to clinical decision-making. The aim of this study is to determine a definition and principles for the applicability of evidence from randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews.

Methods: This narrative review searched studies from PubMed and Web of Science databases using Cochrane Collaboration's Qualitative Evidence Syntheses guidance. Read More

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Training the Trainers in Ultrasound-guided Access to Improve Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Placement among Children Presenting for Anesthesia.

Pediatr Qual Saf 2021 May-Jun;6(3):e406. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Wash.

Factors predicting difficult peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheter placement in children are known. Ultrasound guidance can decrease the number of attempts required for difficult PIV placement. However, the uptake of this technique among attending anesthesiologists at our institution remained low. Read More

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Nursing care and outcome in surgical patients - why do we have to care?

Authors:
Nadja Nestler

Innov Surg Sci 2019 Dec 25;4(4):139-143. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Institute of Nursing Science and Practice, Paracelsus Medical University, Strubergasse 21, 5020 Salzburg, Austria.

Nurses have an important role in patient care. They continuously work in very close contact with patients and foster the realization of activities of daily living as well as ensure quality medical treatment. For both, a high educational level is needed. Read More

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December 2019

Association between body mass index and blood pressure levels across socio-demographic groups and geographical settings: analysis of pooled data in Peru.

PeerJ 2021 21;9:e11307. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

CRONICAS Center of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

Background: Understanding the relationship between BMI and blood pressure requires assessing whether this association is similar or differs across population groups. This study aimed to assess the association between body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure levels, and how these associations vary between socioeconomic groups and geographical settings.

Methods: Data from the National Demographic Health Survey of Peru from 2014 to 2019 was analyzed considering the complex survey design. Read More

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Geology and taphonomy of a unique tyrannosaurid bonebed from the upper Campanian Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah: implications for tyrannosaurid gregariousness.

PeerJ 2021 19;9:e11013. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University of North Queensland, Townsville, QLD, Australia.

Tyrannosaurids are hypothesized to be gregarious, possibly parasocial carnivores engaging in cooperative hunting and extended parental care. A tyrannosaurid (cf. ) bonebed in the late Campanian age Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah, nicknamed the Rainbows and Unicorns Quarry (RUQ), provides the first opportunity to investigate possible tyrannosaurid gregariousness in a taxon unique to southern Laramidia. Read More

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