1,828 results match your criteria evidence ach

The Effects of Internal Attention on Knee Biomechanics in Volleyball Spike Jump through Augmented Video Feedback.

Brain Sci 2021 Apr 25;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Faculty of Sport Science, Research Academy of Grand Health, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China.

Poor knee biomechanics in a volleyball spike jump generally result in a higher knee injury risk, which can be altered by an internal focus of attention (FOA). The constrained action hypothesis (CAH) purports that the FOA inhibits sports performance whereas no ecologically valid evidence has been found in previous studies. The purpose of this research is to explore the effect of video feedback on knee biomechanics in a volleyball spike jump including landing and take-off phases. Read More

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Is the Antidepressant Activity of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Mediated by Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors?

Molecules 2021 Apr 8;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Morón, CONICET, Morón 1708, Argentina.

It is generally assumed that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) induce antidepressant activity by inhibiting serotonin (5-HT) reuptake transporters, thus elevating synaptic 5-HT levels and, finally, ameliorates depression symptoms. New evidence indicates that SSRIs may also modulate other neurotransmitter systems by inhibiting neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are recognized as important in mood regulation. There is a clear and strong association between major depression and smoking, where depressed patients smoke twice as much as the normal population. Read More

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A Review of "Optimal Fallow Period" Guidance Across Canadian Jurisdictions.

Int Dent J 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Introduction: Understanding how different countries have responded to mitigate the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) transmission in dental offices is important. This article describes the different approaches taken towards optimal fallow periods in Canadian jurisdictions.

Methods: We searched publicly available information from dentist and dental hygiene regulator websites across the 10 provinces and 3 territories in Canada. Read More

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Management of Monogenic IL-1 Mediated Autoinflammatory Diseases in Childhood.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:516427. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Autoinflammation Reference Center Tuebingen (arcT) and Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.

Monogenic Interleukin 1 (IL-1) mediated autoinflammatory diseases (AID) are rare, often severe illnesses of the innate immune system associated with constitutively increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Clinical characteristics include recurrent fevers, inflammation of joints, skin, and serous membranes. CNS and eye inflammation can be seen. Read More

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Pharmacological and Genetic Evidence of Dopamine Receptor 3-Mediated Vasoconstriction in Isolated Mouse Aorta.

Biomolecules 2021 Mar 11;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, via S. Sofia 97, 95123 Catania, Italy.

Dopamine receptors (DRs) are generally considered as mediators of vasomotor functions. However, when used in pharmacological studies, dopamine and/or DR agonists may not discriminate among different DR subtypes and may even stimulate alpha1 and beta-adrenoceptors. Here, we tested the hypothesis that D2R and/or D3R may specifically induce vasoconstriction in isolated mouse aorta. Read More

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Sex differences in cholinergic circuits and behavioral disruptions following chronic ethanol exposure with and without thiamine deficiency.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Psychology, Binghamton University of the State University of New York, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Few studies have investigated differences in the vulnerabilities of males and females to alcohol use disorder and alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD). According to epidemiological and clinical findings, females appear to be more sensitive to the effects of alcohol and thiamine deficiency and have a worse prognosis in recovery from neurocognitive deficits compared with males. This study aimed to characterize the effects of chronic ethanol (EtOH) toxicity and thiamine deficiency across the sexes using rodent models. Read More

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Melamine Disrupts Acetylcholine-Mediated Neural Information Flow in the Hippocampal CA3-CA1 Pathway.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 18;15:594907. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Medical College of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Rehabilitation, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Considering the cognitive and synaptic deficits following intragastric administration of melamine, the aim of the current investigation was to test whether the hippocampal oscillations were affected. The local field potential (LFP) was recorded in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway of Wistar rats during a spatial-dependent Y-maze task. The general partial directed coherence (gPDC) method was used to assess the directionality of neural information flow (NIF) between the CA3 and CA1 regions. Read More

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February 2021

Activation of the cardiac non-neuronal cholinergic system prevents the development of diabetes-associated cardiovascular complications.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2021 Feb 22;20(1):50. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Physiology, HeartOtago, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Otago, 270, Great King Street, Dunedin, 9016, New Zealand.

Background: Acetylcholine (ACh) plays a crucial role in the function of the heart. Recent evidence suggests that cardiomyocytes possess a non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS) that comprises of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), choline transporter 1 (CHT1), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and type-2 muscarinic ACh receptors (MAChR) to synthesize, release, degrade ACh as well as for ACh to transduce a signal. NNCS is linked to cardiac cell survival, angiogenesis and glucose metabolism. Read More

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February 2021

Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease and beneficial action of luteolin.

Biofactors 2021 Mar 21;47(2):207-217. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Laboratory of Molecular Immunopharmacology and Drug Discovery, Department of Immunology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Alzheimer's disease (AD), already the world's most common form of dementia, is projected to continue increasing in prevalence over the next several decades. The current lack of understanding of the pathogenesis of AD has hampered the development of effective treatments. Historically, AD research has been predicated on the amyloid cascade hypothesis (ACH), which attributes disease progression to the build-up of amyloid protein. Read More

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Absolute Coronary Blood Flow Measured by Continuous Thermodilution in Patients With Ischemia and Nonobstructive Disease.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Feb;77(6):728-741

Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Intracoronary continuous thermodilution is a novel technique to quantify absolute coronary flow (Q) and resistance (R) and has potential advantages over current methods such as coronary flow reserve (CFR) and index of microvascular resistance (IMR). However, no data are available in patients with ischemia and nonobstructive coronary artery disease (INOCA).

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the relationship of Q and R with the established CFR/IMR in INOCA patients, to explore the potential of absolute Q, and to predict self-reported angina. Read More

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February 2021

Ventilation and air cleaning to limit aerosol particle concentrations in a gym during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Build Environ 2021 Apr 4;193:107659. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Industrial Design, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven, the Netherlands.

SARS-CoV-2 can spread by close contact through large droplet spray and indirect contact via contaminated objects. There is mounting evidence that it can also be transmitted by inhalation of infected saliva aerosol particles. These particles are generated when breathing, talking, laughing, coughing or sneezing. Read More

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Striatal cholinergic transmission. Focus on nicotinic receptors' influence in striatal circuits.

Maxime Assous

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Apr 26;53(8):2421-2442. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA.

The critical role of acetylcholine (ACh) in the basal ganglia is evident from the effect of cholinergic agents in patients suffering from several related neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Tourette syndrome, or dystonia. The striatum possesses the highest density of ACh markers in the basal ganglia underlying the importance of ACh in this structure. Striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) are responsible for the bulk of striatal ACh, although extrinsic cholinergic afferents from brainstem structures may also play a role. Read More

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Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Jan 30. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

Objectives: To summarise existing evidence and quantify the effects of physical activity on vascular function and structure in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs).

Methods: Databases were searched (up to March 2020) for clinical trials evaluating the effects of physical activity interventions on markers of micro- and macrovascular function and macrovascular structure in ARDs. Studies were combined using random-effects meta-analysis, which was conducted using the Hedge's g. Read More

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January 2021

Therapeutic efficacy of α7 ligands after acute ischaemic stroke is linked to conductive states of α7 nicotinic ACh receptors.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 23;178(7):1684-1704. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, Texas, USA.

Background And Purpose: Targeting α7 nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) in neuroinflammatory disorders including acute ischaemic stroke holds significant therapeutic promise. However, therapeutically relevant signalling mechanisms remain unidentified. Activation of neuronal α7 nAChRs triggers ionotropic signalling, but there is limited evidence for it in immunoglial tissues. Read More

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Medication adherence, self-efficacy and health literacy among patients with glaucoma: a mixed-methods study protocol.

BMJ Open 2021 01 20;11(1):e039788. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus.

Introduction: As the world population ages, glaucoma is becoming an increasingly significant cause of blindness. A key component in the management of glaucoma is the use of prescribed medications and the adherence to treatment. However, there is evidence of low adherence to prescribed medication in chronic diseases, such as glaucoma. Read More

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January 2021

Seasonality and immunity to laboratory-confirmed seasonal coronaviruses (HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-229E): results from the Flu Watch cohort study.

Wellcome Open Res 2020 10;5:52. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

UCL Public Health Data Science Research Group, Institute of Health Informatics, UCL, London, NW1 2DA, UK.

There is currently a pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The intensity and duration of this first and second waves in the UK may be dependent on whether SARS-CoV-2 transmits more effectively in the winter than the summer and the UK Government response is partially built upon the assumption that those infected will develop immunity to reinfection in the short term. In this paper we examine evidence for seasonality and immunity to laboratory-confirmed seasonal coronavirus (HCoV) from a prospective cohort study in England. Read More

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December 2020

Kinetics of Postpartum Mesenteric Artery Structure and Function Relative to Pregnancy and Lactation in Mice.

Reprod Sci 2021 04 7;28(4):1200-1215. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Vermont, Larner College of Medicine, Given Building, 89 Beaumont Avenue, Burlington, VT, 05405, USA.

Epidemiological evidence suggests that normal pregnancy in women is associated with decreased cardiovascular risk in later life. Clinical studies have provided evidence that alterations in vascular function and structure are detectable long after delivery. To understand these findings, we examined mesenteric artery reactivity at both early (3 days and 2-4 weeks) and late (12 weeks) postpartum (PP) time points in relation to late pregnancy (LP) and lactation. Read More

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Beneficial Effect of Melatonin on Motor and Memory Disturbances in 6-OHDA-Lesioned Rats.

J Mol Neurosci 2021 Apr 5;71(4):702-712. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Institute of Neurobiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G, Bonchev Str., bl. 23, Sofia, 1113, Bulgaria.

Previous evidence has shown a link between neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), and melatonin. The data in the literature about the impact of the hormone under different experimental PD conditions are quite controversial, and its effect on memory impairment in the disease is very poorly explored. The current research was aimed at investigating the role of melatonin pretreatment on memory and motor behavior in healthy rats and those with the partial 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of PD. Read More

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Aster tataricus alleviates constipation by antagonizing the binding of acetylcholine to muscarinic receptor and inhibiting Ca influx.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jan 11;133:111005. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Research Center of Chinese Medicine Analysis and Transformation, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 100029, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Syndrome Prescription Basic Research, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 100029, China. Electronic address:

Background: The dried root and rhizome of Aster tataricus (RA), is a traditional Chinese medicine has been used for more than 2000 years with the function of antitussive, expectorant and antiasthmatic. Ancient books and modern pharmacological researches demonstrated that RA may have the function of moistening intestines and relieving constipation, but there was a lack of systematic evidence. The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the efficacy and possible mechanisms of ethanol extract of Aster tataricus (ATE) in treating constipation from in vivo to in vitro. Read More

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January 2021

Critical role of hippocampal muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on memory reconsolidation in mice.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2021 01 9;177:107360. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Laboratorio de Neurofarmacología de los Procesos de Memoria, Cátedra de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA) - CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Over the years, experimental and clinical evidence has given support to the idea that acetylcholine (Ach) plays an essential role in mnemonic phenomena. On the other hand, the Hippocampus is already known to have a key role in learning and memory. What is yet unclear is how the Ach receptors may contribute to this brain region role during memory retrieval. Read More

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January 2021

An inhibitory effect of Berberine from herbal Coptis chinensis Franch on rat detrusor contraction in benign prostatic hyperplasia associated with lower urinary tract symptoms.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Mar 7;268:113666. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin Health Industry Park, Jinghai District, Tianjin, 301617, China; State Key Laboratory of Component-based Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 301617, China; Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Traditional Chinese Medical Formula, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin Health Industry Park, Jinghai District, Tianjin, 301617, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Coptis chinensis Franch (CCF), also known as Huang Lian in China, is a traditional Chinese medicine that commonly used for more than 2000 years. Clinically, CCF often used as anti-inflammatory, immune regulation and other effects. It has been reported that the decoction containing CCF can be used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Read More

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Physcion, a tetra-substituted 9,10-anthraquinone, prevents homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction by activating Ca- and Akt-eNOS-NO signaling pathways.

Phytomedicine 2021 Jan 18;81:153410. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Institute of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, Key Laboratory of Atherosclerosis in Universities of Shandong, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Taian, Shandong, 271000, China. Electronic address:

Background: Homocysteine (Hcy) induced vascular endothelial dysfunction is known to be closely associated with oxidative stress and impaired NO system. 1,8-Dihydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylanthracene-9,10-dione (physcion) has been known to has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties.

Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to define the protective effect of physcion on Hcy-induced endothelial dysfunction and its mechanisms involved. Read More

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January 2021

Endogenous Cholinergic Signaling Modulates Sound-Evoked Responses of the Medial Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body.

J Neurosci 2021 01 2;41(4):674-688. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Biological Sciences, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015

The medial nucleus of trapezoid body (MNTB) is a major source of inhibition in auditory brainstem circuitry. The MNTB projects well-timed inhibitory output to principal sound-localization nuclei in the superior olive (SOC) as well as other computationally important centers. Acoustic information is conveyed to MNTB neurons through a single calyx of Held excitatory synapse arising from the cochlear nucleus. Read More

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January 2021

Revisiting the role of neurotransmitters in epilepsy: An updated review.

Life Sci 2021 Jan 28;265:118826. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Neuropharmacology Research Strength, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Epilepsy is a neurologicaldisorder characterized by persistent predisposition to recurrent seizurescaused by abnormal neuronal activity in the brain. Epileptic seizures maydevelop due to a relative imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Expressional alterations of receptors and ion channelsactivated by neurotransmitters can lead to epilepsy pathogenesis. Read More

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January 2021

Intra tester reliability of sympathetic skin responses in subjects with primary palmar hyperhidrosis.

J Bodyw Mov Ther 2020 Oct 26;24(4):57-62. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Nanotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Primary palmar hyperhidrosis (PPH) is a disorder related to sympathetic dysfunction. Iontophoresis can be used to reduce sweating rate. Sympathetic skin response (SSR) is commonly used to evaluate the sympathetic system. Read More

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October 2020

Study of Antispasmodic and Antidiarrheal Activities of (Mexican Tarragon) in Experimental Models and Its Mechanism of Action.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 28;2020:7140642. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón s/n, Col. Casco de Santo Tomás, 11340 Ciudad de México, Mexico.

has been used in traditional medicine as a remedy to alleviate several gastrointestinal disorders that provoke stomachaches, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. However, there is not enough scientific evidence that supports these effects. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate antispasmodic and antidiarrheal activities of aqueous extract of (AqExt-TL) as well as its mechanism of action in experimental models. Read More

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October 2020

Effects of Xingnaojing on serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and neuron-specific enolase in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage: A protocol of systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Nov;99(45):e21379

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Background: This study will systematically explore the effects of Xingnaojing (XNJ) on serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage (ACH).

Methods: We will comprehensively search the following electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure) from inception to the March 1, 2020. There are no limitations related to the language and publication status. Read More

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November 2020

Evidence That the Central Nervous System Can Induce a Modification at the Neuromuscular Junction That Contributes to the Maintenance of a Behavioral Response.

J Neurosci 2020 11 23;40(48):9186-9209. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843

Neurons within the spinal cord are sensitive to environmental relations and can bring about a behavioral modification without input from the brain. For example, rats that have undergone a thoracic (T2) transection can learn to maintain a hind leg in a flexed position to minimize exposure to a noxious electrical stimulation (shock). Inactivating neurons within the spinal cord with lidocaine, or cutting communication between the spinal cord and the periphery (sciatic transection), eliminates the capacity to learn, which implies that it depends on spinal neurons. Read More

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November 2020

Full-scale experimental and numerical study of bioaerosol characteristics against cross-infection in a two-bed hospital ward.

Build Environ 2020 Dec 12;186:107373. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Hebei Academy of Building Research Co,Ltd, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050031, PR China.

The transmission and deposition of pathogenic bioaerosols and the subsequent contamination of the air and surfaces is well recognized as a potential route of hospital cross-infection. A full-scale experiment using and computational fluid dynamics were utilized to model the bioaerosol characteristics in a two-bed hospital ward with a constant air change rate (12 ACH). The results indicated that the bioaerosol removal efficiency of unilateral downward ventilation was 50% higher than that of bilateral downward ventilation. Read More

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December 2020

A parallel-group, multicenter randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 2/3, clinical trial to test the efficacy of pyridostigmine bromide at low doses to reduce mortality or invasive mechanical ventilation in adults with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection: the Pyridostigmine In Severe COvid-19 (PISCO) trial protocol.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Oct 16;20(1):765. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Departamento de Neurología, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), may lead to severe systemic inflammatory response, pulmonary damage, and even acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This in turn may result in respiratory failure and in death. Experimentally, acetylcholine (ACh) modulates the acute inflammatory response, a neuro-immune mechanism known as the inflammatory reflex. Read More

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October 2020