2,319 results match your criteria evaporation small

Aligned Millineedle Arrays for Solar Power Seawater Desalination with Site-Specific Salt Formation.

Small 2021 Jun 21:e2101487. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, 999077, P. R. China.

As a sustainable and clean water production technology, solar thermal water evaporation has been extensively studied in the past few years. One challenge is that upon operation, salt would form on surface of the solar absorbers leading to inefficient water supply and light absorption and thus much reduced water vaporization rate. To address this problem, a simple solar evaporator based on an array of aligned millineedles for efficient solar water evaporation and controlled site-specific salt formation is demonstrated. Read More

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Printed and Laser-Activated Liquid Metal-Elastomer Conductors Enabled by Ethanol/PDMS/Liquid Metal Double Emulsions.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

School of Engineering and Applied Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, United States.

Soft electronic systems require stretchable, printable conductors for applications in soft robotics, wearable technologies, and human-machine interfaces. Gallium-based room-temperature liquid metals (LMs) have emerged as promising candidates, and recent liquid metal-embedded elastomers (LMEEs) have demonstrated favorable properties such as stable conductivity during strain, cyclic durability, and patternability. Here, we present an ethanol/polydimethylsiloxane/liquid metal (EtOH/PDMS/LM) double emulsion ink that enables a fast, scalable method to print LM conductors with high conductivity (7. Read More

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Dual Inorganic Sacrificial Template Synthesis of Hierarchically Porous Carbon with Specific N Sites for Efficient Oxygen Reduction.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan, China.

It is still a challenge to achieve efficiently controlled preparation of functional oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) carbon electrocatalysts with multi-preferred structures (hierarchically porous networks and specific carbon-nitrogen bonds) from carbohydrate-containing small molecules via simple one-step pyrolysis. Based on the step-by-step spontaneous gas-foaming strategy, we successfully prepare 3D hierarchically porous networks with tunable N sites (N/N ≈ 1:1) by pyrolyzing diverse carbohydrates (glucose, maltose, and cyclodextrin) using nonmetal-metal dual inorganic sacrificial templates. In situ evaporation templates can simplify the procedure of the experiments and avoid the active site loss compared with traditional hard templates. Read More

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Breathing, speaking, coughing or sneezing: What drives transmission of SARS-CoV-2?

J Intern Med 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

From the, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is highly contagious, as demonstrated by numerous well-documented superspreading events. The infection commonly starts in the upper respiratory tract (URT) but can migrate to the lower respiratory tract (LRT) and other organs, often with severe consequences. Whereas LRT infection can lead to shedding of virus via breath and cough droplets, URT infection enables shedding via abundant speech droplets. Read More

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Carbon Materials for Solar Water Evaporation and Desalination.

Small 2021 Jun 6:e2007176. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712, USA.

Seawater desalination is viewed as a promising solution to world freshwater scarcity. Solar assisted desalination is proposed to overcome the high energy consumption in current desalination technologies, as it uses abundant and sustainable solar energy as the only energy input. Interfacial solar vapor generation (SVG) has attracted considerable research interest due to its high energy conversion efficiency, simple implementation, and cost-effectiveness. Read More

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Flexible and Filter-Free Color-Imaging Sensors with Multicomponent Perovskites Deposited Using Enhanced Vapor Technology.

Small 2021 Jun 6:e2007543. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, School of Microelectronics, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Halide perovskites are promising photoactive materials for filter-free color-imaging sensors owing to their outstanding optoelectronic properties, tunable bandgaps, and suitability for large-scale fabrication. However, producing patterned perovskite films of sufficiently high quality for such applications poses a challenge for existing fabrication methods: using solution processes to prepare patterned perovskite films is complicated, while evaporation methods often result in perovskite photodetectors with limited performance. In this paper, the authors report the development of an improved evaporation method in which substrates are treated with a brominated (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane self-assembled monolayer to improve the properties of the patterned perovskite films. Read More

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Airborne Virus Transmission Via Respiratory Droplets: Effects of Droplet Evaporation and Sedimentation.

Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 2021 May 29:101471. Epub 2021 May 29.

Fachbereich Physik, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany.

Airborne transmission is considered as an important route for the spread of infectious diseases, such as SARS-CoV-2, and is primarily determined by the droplet sedimentation time, i.e., the time droplets spend in air before reaching the ground. Read More

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Fabrication of Chiral M13 Bacteriophage Film by Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly.

Small 2021 Jun 3:e2008097. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Graduate School of Nanoscience and Technology, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea.

Biomacromolecules are likely to undergo self-assembly and show specific collective behavior concentrated in the medium. Although the assembly procedures have been studied for unraveling their mysteries, there are few cases to directly demonstrate the collective behavior and phase transition process in dynamic systems. In the contribution, the drying process of M13 droplet is investigated, and can be successfully simulated by a doctor blade coating method. Read More

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Enhanced Sensing Behavior of Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices (3D-μPADs) with Evaporation-Free Enclosed Channels for Point-of-Care Testing.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 May 28;11(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoburo 2066, Jangan-gu, Suwon 16419, Korea.

Despite the potential in fabrication of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for point-of-care testing (POCT) kits, the development of simple, accurate, and rapid devices with higher sensitivity remains challenging. Here, we report a novel method for 3D-μPAD fabrication with enclosed channels using vat photopolymerization to avoid fluid evaporation. In detail, height of the enclosed channels was adjusted from 0. Read More

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Facile Patterning of Thermoplastic Elastomers and Robust Bonding to Glass and Thermoplastics for Microfluidic Cell Culture and Organ-on-Chip.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 May 18;12(5). Epub 2021 May 18.

NMI Natural and Medical Sciences Institute at the University of Tübingen, 72770 Reutlingen, Germany.

The emergence and spread of microfluidics over the last decades relied almost exclusively on the elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The main reason for the success of PDMS in the field of microfluidic research is its suitability for rapid prototyping and simple bonding methods. PDMS allows for precise microstructuring by replica molding and bonding to different substrates through various established strategies. Read More

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Preparation of Polyetherimide Nanoparticles by a Droplet Evaporation-Assisted Thermally Induced Phase-Separation Method.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 12;13(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

College of Textile Science and Engineering (International Institute of Silk), Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China.

The droplet evaporation effect on the preparation of polyetherimide (PEI) nanoparticles by thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) was studied. PEI nanoparticles were prepared in two routes. In route I, the droplet evaporation process was carried out after TIPS. Read More

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Thermal and Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Poly(L-lactic Acid) Biocomposites Containing β-Cyclodextrin/d-Limonene Inclusion Complex.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 15;14(10). Epub 2021 May 15.

National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials (IPCB), c/o Comprensorio Olivetti, via Campi Flegrei, 34, 80078 Pozzuoli, NA, Italy.

Bio-based composites made of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and β-cyclodextrin/d-limonene inclusion complex (CD-Lim) were prepared by melt extrusion. Encapsulation of volatile d-limonene molecules within β-cyclodextrin cages was proven to be a successful strategy to prevent evaporation during high-temperature processing. However, small amounts of limonene were released upon processing, resulting in the plasticization of the polymeric matrix. Read More

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Numerical Simulation of Evaporation of Ethanol-Water Mixture Droplets on Isothermal and Heated Substrates.

ACS Omega 2021 May 4;6(19):12577-12590. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Thomas J. Watson College of Engineering and Applied Science, Binghamton University, State University of New York, Binghamton, New York 13902, United States.

In many printing technologies involving multicomponent liquids, the deposition and printing quality depend on the small-scale transport processes present. For liquids with dispersed particles, the internal flow within the droplet and the evaporation process control the structure of the deposition pattern on the substrate. In many situations, the velocity field inside microdroplets is often subject to either thermal or solutal Marangoni convection. Read More

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Chiral Photonic Liquid Crystal Films Derived from Cellulose Nanocrystals.

Small 2021 May 28:e2007306. Epub 2021 May 28.

State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, Plant Fiber Research Center, School of Light Industry and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, CN510640, China.

As a nanoscale renewable resource derived from lignocellulosic materials, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have the features of high purity, high crystallinity, high aspect ratio, high Young's modulus, and large specific surface area. The most interesting trait is that they can form the entire films with bright structural colors through the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) process under certain conditions. Structural color originates from micro-nano structure of CNCs matrixes via the interaction of nanoparticles with light, rather than the absorption and reflection of light from the pigment. Read More

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Hydropower generation by transpiration from microporous alumina.

Sci Rep 2021 May 26;11(1):10954. Epub 2021 May 26.

International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0044, Japan.

Traditional hydropower generation is one of the most sustainable energy sources; however, the local environmental impact of hydroelectric dams and reservoirs is serious, and hydroelectric power requires high-cost turbines and generators. Because these installations utilize gravitational potential energy of massive volumes of falling water, this sort of hydropower generation is unsuitable for ubiquitous, small-scale energy production. Here, we report that wetting and evaporation of pure water from a tiny block of porous alumina generates electrical current in the direction of water transpiration. Read More

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A Co-Crystallised Cobalt(II) Cluster of Pyridinedicarboxylic Acid (PDC) as a Luminescent Material for Selective Sensing of Methanol.

J Fluoresc 2021 Jul 25;31(4):1177-1190. Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD, University Park, Nottingham, UK.

A luminescent Cobalt(II) co-crystal [Co(PDC)(HO).7HO] 1 (where HPDC = 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid) have been prepared by oven-heating and slow evaporation of solvent. Single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) analysis revealed that 1 is a mixture of complexes that crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 and the geometry around the Co(II) ions is octahedral. Read More

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Cloaked Droplets on Lubricant-Infused Surfaces: Union of Constant Mean Curvature Interfaces Dictated by Thin-Film Tension.

Langmuir 2021 Jun 24;37(22):6601-6612. Epub 2021 May 24.

Thermal and Fluid Transport Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, R113, Block III, Bihta, Bihar 801103, India.

It has been recently shown that small-volume droplets on lubricant-infused surfaces (LISs) can be analytically modeled using rotationally symmetric constant mean curvature (CMC) surfaces. While such an approach is available for noncloaked droplets, a similar approach is missing for cloaked droplets that are ubiquitous in a number of LIS-related applications. The presence of a thin cloaking film on the top spherical cap portion and its gradual transition to a bulk meniscus remain unaddressed for its implications on the interfacial profile of cloaked droplets. Read More

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Crystallization of nanoparticles induced by precipitation of trace polymeric additives.

Nat Commun 2021 05 13;12(1):2767. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Orthogonal to guided growth of nanoparticle (NP) crystals using DNA or supramolecules, a trace amount of polymeric impurities (<0.1 wt.%) leads to reproducible, rapid growth of 3D NP crystals in solution and on patterned substrates with high yield. Read More

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When the doorbell rings in COVID-19 times: Numerical insights into some possible scenarios.

Phys Fluids (1994) 2021 Apr 28;33(4):045128. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085, India.

As ongoing Corona virus disease 2019 pandemic is ravaging the world, more and more people are following social distancing norms, avoiding unnecessary outings and preferring online shopping from the safety of their home over visiting brick and mortar stores and neighborhood shops. Although this has led to a significant reduction in chances of exposure, human-to-human interaction at the doorstep of the customer might be involved during the delivery of the ordered items. This human-to-human doorstep interaction arises in some other situations also. Read More

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Propolis Extract Regulate microRNA Expression in Glioblastoma and Brain Cancer Stem Cells.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Ege University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Izmir, Turkey.

Background: Grade IV gliomas are classified as glioblastoma (GBM), which is the most malignant brain cancer type. Various genetic and epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the initiation and progression of GBM. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that are the main epigenetic regulatory RNA class. Read More

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Anisotropic Evaporator with a T-Shape Design for High-Performance Solar-Driven Zero-Liquid Discharge.

Small 2021 Jun 3;17(24):e2100969. Epub 2021 May 3.

State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730000, China.

Solar-driven evaporation is regarded as a sustainable wastewater treatment strategy for clean water recovery and salt condensation. However, achieving both high evaporation rate and long-term stability remain challenging due to poor thermal management and rapid salt accumulation and blocking. Here, a T-shape solar-driven evaporator, composed of a surface-carbonized longitudinal wood membrane (C-L-wood) is demonstrated as the top "" for solar harvesting/vapor generation/salt collection and another piece of natural L-wood as the support "" for brine transporting and thermally insulating. Read More

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Distributed solar desalination by membrane distillation: current status and future perspectives.

Water Res 2021 Jun 16;198:117154. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Key Laboratory of Power Mechanical Engineering, MOE China, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240, China. Electronic address:

Membrane distillation (MD) has been proven promising in solar-driven desalination. Moreover, its unique characteristics such as simple process, module compactness, high salt rejection rate, etc. allow for a small-scale device in a distributed system. Read More

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Engineering of Solid Dosage Forms of siRNA-Loaded Lipidoid-Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles Using a Quality-by-Design Approach.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2282:137-157

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

Therapy based on RNA interference (RNAi), which can be mediated by exogenous small interfering RNA (siRNA), has potential for the management of diseases at the genetic level by silencing gene function(s). In all eukaryotic cells, RNAi is an endogenous regulatory mechanism, where messenger RNA (mRNA) is degraded, preventing its translation into protein. A significant advantage of RNAi therapy is that siRNA is very potent and gene silencing is highly specific, ensuring few off-target effects. Read More

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January 2021

Numerical Model to Analyze the Physicochemical Mechanisms Involved in CO Absorption by an Aqueous Ammonia Droplet.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 13;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

IES de Valga, 36645 Xanza, Pontevedra, Spain.

CO is the main anthropogenic greenhouse gas and its reduction plays a decisive role in reducing global climate change. As a CO elimination method, the present work is based on chemical absorption using aqueous ammonia as solvent. A CFD (computational fluid dynamics) model was developed to study CO capture in a single droplet. Read More

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Evolution of Small Strain Soil Stiffness during Freeze-Thaw Cycle: Transition from Capillarity to Cementation Examined Using Magnetic and Piezo Crystal Sensors.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 24;21(9). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1710, USA.

Freeze-thaw cycles caused by seasonal temperature fluctuations significantly affect the geotechnical engineering properties. This study investigated the crucial role of water distribution patterns in the characterization of elastic wave properties for the fine F-110 sand during a freeze-thaw cycle. Sand specimens with four different water distribution patterns were prepared, namely homogeneously-mixed, evaporation-driven, vertically-, and horizontally-layered specimens. Read More

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Experimental Investigation on Floating Solar-Driven Membrane Distillation Desalination Modules.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Apr 21;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China.

Membrane distillation (MD) processes need a relatively mild temperature gradient as the driving force for desalination. In the field, it is reasonable to utilize solar energy as the heat source for the feed, and seawater as the infinite cold source for condensation. Solar-driven MD provides a route for the practical application of seawater desalination at a small scale. Read More

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Spectroscopy and photochemistry of copper nitrate clusters.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Apr;23(16):9911-9920

Institut für Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstraße 25, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

The investigation of copper nitrate cluster anions Cu(ii)n(NO3)2n+1-, n ≤ 4, in the gas phase using ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/vis/NIR) spectroscopy provides detailed insight into the electronic structure of the copper salt and its intriguing photochemistry. In the experimentally studied region up to 5.5 eV, the spectra of copper(ii) nitrate exhibit a 3d-3d band in the vis/NIR and well-separated bands in the UV. Read More

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Groundwater geochemical signatures and implication for sustainable development in a typical endorheic watershed on Tibetan plateau.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Bureau of Qinghai Environmental Geological Prospecting, Xi'ning, 810007, China.

Groundwater resource is significantly important for sustainable development of the world, especially for arid endorheic watersheds. A total of 28 groundwaters were collected for hydrogeochemical analysis from the arid Chaka watershed on Tibetan plateau to illustrate the hydrochemical evolution, formation mechanisms and feasibility of groundwater in small arid endorheic watersheds where groundwater is much scarcer. The results showed groundwater has a slightly alkaline nature, and varies from soft fresh HCO-Ca type to hard brackish/saline Cl-Na type along the groundwater flow path in the watershed with the total hardness in the range of 270-2,127 mg/L and the total dissolved solids in the range of 282-41,770 mg/L. Read More

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Spatio-temporal modulation of self-assembled central aggregates of buoyant colloids in sessile droplets using vapor mediated interactions.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Sep 8;598:136-146. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India. Electronic address:

A functional sessile droplet containing buoyant colloids (ubiquitous in applications like chemical sensors, drug delivery systems, and nanoreactors) forms self-assembled aggregates. The particles initially dispersed over the entire drop-flocculates at the center. We attribute the formation of such aggregates to the finite radius of curvature of the drop and the buoyant nature of particles. Read More

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September 2021

Revealing the electronic structure, heterojunction band offset and alignment of CuZnGeSe: a combined experimental and computational study towards photovoltaic applications.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Apr;23(15):9553-9560

Institute for Material Research (IMO), Hasselt University (Partner in Solliance), Wetenschapspark 1, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium. and Imec division IMOMEC (Partner in Solliance), Wetenschapspark 1, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium and EnergyVille, Thorpark, Poort Genk 8310 & 8320, 3600, Belgium.

Cu2ZnGeSe4 (CZGSe) is a promising earth-abundant and non-toxic semiconductor material for large-scale thin-film solar cell applications. Herein, we have employed a joint computational and experimental approach to characterize and assess the structural, optoelectronic, and heterojunction band offset and alignment properties of a CZGSe solar absorber. The CZGSe films were successfully prepared using DC-sputtering and e-beam evaporation systems and confirmed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy analyses. Read More

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