1,284 results match your criteria evansi


Polymerase Spiral Reaction (PSR) as a novel rapid colorimetric isothermal point of care assay for detection of Trypanosoma evansi genomic DNA.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Dec 28;302:109644. Epub 2021 Dec 28.

Parasitology Lab, ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar, Haryana, 125001, India. Electronic address:

Polymerase spiral reaction (PSR) opens new avenues for specific diagnosis of pathogens known for cryptic infection at field level and its application is still unexplored in the field of parasitology. The present study aimed to explore and optimize colorimetric based PSR technique for the detection of Trypanosoma evansi in the blood of the host by targeting the 196bp Invariable Surface Glycoprotein (ISG) gene of Trypanosoma evansi. The specificity of the test was determined against Theileria equi, Theileria annulata, Babesia caballi, Burkholderia mallei and Equine herpes virus. Read More

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December 2021

Comparative analysis of ketone body metabolism in BALB/c mice infected with Trypanosoma evansi and Toxoplasma gondii.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Dec 20;143:134-141. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Key Laboratory of Livestock Infectious Diseases, Ministry of Education, China; College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China. Electronic address:

KBs (ketone bodies), i.e., acetoacetate, acetone, and (R)-3-Hydroxybutanoate, constitute the intermediate products of the incomplete oxidative degradation of fatty acids. Read More

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December 2021

First molecular survey of animal trypanosomes in Paraguayan horses.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2022 Jan 19;27:100664. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Inada, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan. Electronic address:

Despite the epidemic situation of animal trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma vivax in South American countries, there are no reports for the prevalence of animal trypanosomes in Paraguay. In this study, 408 blood samples were obtained from apparently healthy horses from sixteen departments of Paraguay, for routine medical check-up from August to September 2019, and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based cross-sectional study was carried out to identify trypanosome prevalence. The prevalence of Trypanozoon (T. Read More

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January 2022

Gum-based nanocapsules comprising naphthoquinones enhance the apoptotic and trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma evansi.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2022 Jan 8;171:106118. Epub 2022 Jan 8.

ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar-125001, Haryana, India. Electronic address:

Nanoencapsulation is a promising approach to enhance the therapeutic potential of a drug. Herein, three selected naphthoquinone (NTQ) derivatives, based on the IC value against Trypanosoma evansi, were encapsulated using gum damar as biocompatible and biodegradable natural gum via nanoprecipitation method. Nanoformulation of NTQs (NNTQs) was less than 150 nm in size, was found to be stable and released the drug in a sustained manner. Read More

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January 2022

Benzophenone Glucosides and B-Type Proanthocyanidins Dimer from Zambian and Their Trypanocidal Activities.

J Nat Prod 2021 Dec 29. Epub 2021 Dec 29.

Division of Pharmacognosy, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 4-1 Komatsushima 4-chome Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8558, Japan.

Two benzophenone glucosides ( and ), five flavan-3-ol dimers (-), and 17 known compounds (, , and -) were identified from the bark extract of . The chemical structures display two points of interest. First, as an unusual characteristic feature of the H NMR spectra of and , the signals for the protons on glucosidic carbons C-2 are shielded as compared to those generally observed for glucosyl moieties. Read More

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December 2021

Serological survey and associated risk factors' analysis of Trypanosomiasis in camels from Southern Tunisia.

Parasite Epidemiol Control 2022 Feb 8;16:e00231. Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Service de Parasitologie, École Nationale de Médecine Vétérinaire de Sidi Thabet, Université de la Manouba, Tunisia.

Surra ( infection) is one of the main causes of dromedary () abortion, besides generating severe economic losses in herds. A sero-epidemiological survey was carried out between December 2018 and December 2019 in Southern Tunisia to estimate the seroprevalence of infection in camels and to determine its possible associated risk factors. Two-stage sampling was conducted to select breeders and camels targeted in our study. Read More

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February 2022

Occurrence, diversity and distribution of Trypanosoma infections in cattle around the Akagera National Park, Rwanda.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Dec 15;15(12):e0009929. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe), Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: African Trypanosomiases threaten the life of both humans and animals. Trypanosomes are transmitted by tsetse and other biting flies. In Rwanda, the African Animal Trypanosomiasis (AAT) endemic area is mainly around the tsetse-infested Akagera National Park (NP). Read More

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December 2021

First Report of Trypanosoma theileri in Equine Host and Tabanus sp. in Malaysia.

J Equine Vet Sci 2022 Jan 13;108:103807. Epub 2021 Nov 13.

Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri is a non-pathogenic or weakly pathogenic parasite of domestic cattle that is cyclically transmitted by blood-sucking insects, mainly tabanid flies. It has been reported in several countries like Brazil, Venezuela, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, and the Philippines. Although the ruminant industry is actively expanded in Malaysia, T. Read More

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January 2022

Histopathologic and histomorphometric evaluation of infection in camel testicular tissue.

J Parasit Dis 2021 Dec 16;45(4):959-963. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, P. O. Box: 7616914111, Kerman, Iran.

Camels are important sources of milk, meat, wool and leather, and are widely used in transportation in arid and semi-arid areas. But their illnesses, especially parasitic diseases, have not been taken into consideration. The microfilariae are in the blood. Read More

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December 2021

Single-cell transcriptome profiling and the use of AID deficient mice reveal that B cell activation combined with antibody class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation do not benefit the control of experimental trypanosomosis.

PLoS Pathog 2021 11 11;17(11):e1010026. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Laboratory for Biomedical Research, Ghent University Global Campus, Incheon, South Korea.

Salivarian trypanosomes are extracellular protozoan parasites causing infections in a wide range of mammalian hosts, with Trypanosoma evansi having the widest geographic distribution, reaching territories far outside Africa and occasionally even Europe. Besides causing the animal diseases, T. evansi can cause atypical Human Trypanosomosis. Read More

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November 2021

Parasitological, serological, and molecular survey of trypanosomosis (Surra) in camels slaughtered in northwestern Nigeria.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Nov 10;53(6):537. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

National Veterinary Research Institute, PMB 01, Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.

Surra is a parasitic disease caused by Trypanosoma evansi and transmitted non-cyclically by biting flies. The disease significantly affects the health, productivity, and market value of camels thereby constituting a major constraint to food safety, security, and economy. This is the first study on the prevalence of surra in northwestern Nigeria, using a range of diagnostic tests along the parasitological-serological-molecular continuum hence, emphasizing it as a major enzootic risk for camels in Nigeria. Read More

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November 2021

Review on trypanosomiasis and their prevalence in some country on the Red Sea.

Braz J Biol 2021 22;83:e251671. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

University of Jeddah, College of Science, Biology Department, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan infection affecting both human and animals in almost all parts of the world. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles and elephants. This review paper was designed to address the effect of this economically important disease in countries on the Red Sea, especially in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, and Saudi Arabia during the period 2010 to 2020. Read More

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October 2021

Single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy-number variations in the Trypanosoma brucei repeat (TBR) sequence can be used to enhance amplification and genotyping of Trypanozoon strains.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(10):e0258711. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium.

The Trypanosoma brucei repeat (TBR) is a tandem repeat sequence present on the Trypanozoon minichromosomes. Here, we report that the TBR sequence is not as homogenous as previously believed. BLAST analysis of the available T. Read More

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November 2021

Prevalence and Molecular Identification of Trypanosomes in Dogs in Enugu North Senatorial Zone, South East Nigeria.

Acta Parasitol 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

Purpose: Dogs are of immense social, psychological and economic importance in Nigeria and are severely affected by African trypanosomosis. However, the prevalence of canine African trypanosomosis (CAT) in Nigeria is underreported and the identification of the parasites relies mostly on basic morphological characteristics under the microscope, which could be misleading. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence and characterize trypanosomes isolated from dogs in South east Nigeria. Read More

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October 2021

Prevalence and risk factors for trypanosome infection in cattle from communities surrounding the Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Oct 7;14(1):513. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Veterinary Pharmacy, Clinical and Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Bovine trypanosomosis transmitted by tsetse flies is a major constraint to cattle health and productivity in all sub-Saharan countries, including Uganda. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and identify its associated risk factors and the species of trypanosomes associated with the disease.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted around Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda from January 2020 to April 2020. Read More

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October 2021

Diversity and Epidemiology of Bat Trypanosomes: A One Health Perspective.

Pathogens 2021 Sep 6;10(9). Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Centre for Biosecurity and One Health, Harry Butler Institute, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia.

Bats (order Chiroptera) have been increasingly recognised as important reservoir hosts for human and animal pathogens worldwide. In this context, molecular and microscopy-based investigations to date have revealed remarkably high diversity of spp. harboured by bats, including species of recognised medical and veterinary importance such as and (aetiological agents of Chagas disease and Surra, respectively). Read More

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September 2021

Bioinformatics of thymidine metabolism in Trypanosoma evansi: exploring nucleoside deoxyribosyltransferase (NDRT) as a drug target.

Trop Biomed 2021 Sep;38(3):311-317

Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, King Faisal University, Alahsa, 31982, Saudi Arabia.

Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of surra or camel trypanosomiasis, is characterized by the widest geographic distribution and host range among the known trypanosomes. Its zoonotic importance and increasing evidence of drug resistance necessitate the discovery of new drug targets. The drug discovery process entails finding an exploitable difference between the host and the parasite. Read More

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September 2021

First identification of Trypanosoma vivax among camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Yazd, central Iran, jointly with Trypanosoma evansi.

Parasitol Int 2022 Feb 8;86:102450. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Pathobiology Department of Veterinary Faculty, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran; Pathobiology Department of Shahmirzad School of Veterinary Medicine, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran. Electronic address:

Trypanosomes are protozoan parasites of class Kinetoplastida. Trypanosoma vivax is one of the organisms that can cause Nagana and Trypanosoma evansi can cause Surra. In Africa, Trypanosoma vivax is mainly transmitted by Glossina spp. Read More

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February 2022

No more cold-chain failures, using dehydrated reagents in ELISA antibody-detection against animal trypanosomes of African origin.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Nov 4;299:109568. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

INTERTRYP, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, IRD, Montpellier, France; CIRAD, UMR INTERTRYP, Bangkok, Thailand; Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, 10900, Bangkok, Thailand.

Animal trypanosomoses due to trypanosomes of African origin (ATAO), mainly caused by Trypanosoma congolense type Savannah (TCS), T. brucei brucei (TBB), T. vivax (TV), and T. Read More

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November 2021

Molecular survey and phylogenetic analysis of tick-borne pathogens in ticks infesting cattle from two South Indian states.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2021 Jul 31;25:100595. Epub 2021 May 31.

Spatial Epidemiology Laboratory, ICAR- National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (NIVEDI), Post Box No. 6450, Ramagondanahalli, Yelahanka, Bengaluru 560064, Karnataka, India.

In this study, the molecular survey of cattle ticks and tick-borne pathogens in various agroclimatic zones in Karnataka and Kerala states, India, and phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences were accomplished. Overall, 240 pooled tick DNA samples from two states were used for the identification of three tick genera and nine tick-borne pathogens by using the PCR method and sequencing. The distribution of Haemaphysalis (Ha. Read More

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Evaluation of five primer sets for molecular detection of Trypanosoma vivax by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and their implementation for diagnosis in naturally infected ruminants from Venezuela.

Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports 2021 Jul 27;25:100594. Epub 2021 May 27.

Centro de Estudios Biomédicos y Veterinarios (CEBIV), Instituto de Estudios Científicos y Tecnológicos (IDECYT), Universidad Nacional Experimental Simón Rodríguez, Apartado Postal 47925, Caracas, Venezuela. Electronic address:

Trypanosoma vivax is a protozoan parasite that causes trypanosomosis in ruminants and is widely distributed in tropical areas in the world. The control of this disease depends on the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tests implemented for naturally infected samples, where parasitaemias are usually low. This study aimed to evaluate the analytical sensitivity and specificity of several primers for T. Read More

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High Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor to Interleukin 10 Ratio and Marked Antioxidant Enzyme Activities Predominate in Symptomatic Cattle Naturally Infected with , , and .

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jul 29;11(8). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia.

The aim of this study was to measure the serum proinflammatory (IL-12, GM-CSF & IFN-γ) to anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4) cytokine ratio, oxidant (MDA) level and antioxidant enzyme (SOD; GPx) activities after blood parasite infections. The blood and serum samples were obtained from 130 cattle and screened for identity of the infecting blood parasites by conventional PCR. The following blood parasite species were detected: (70/130); (65/130); (32/130); (49/130); (7/130); and (4/130). Read More

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A new strategy for canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis based on FTIR spectroscopy and machine learning.

J Biophotonics 2021 11 26;14(11):e202100141. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Grupo de Óptica e Fotônica, Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Brazil.

Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. The successful control of the disease depends on its accurate and early diagnosis, which is usually made by combining clinical symptoms with laboratory tests such as serological, parasitological, and molecular tests. However, early diagnosis based on serological tests may exhibit low accuracy due to lack of specificity caused by cross-reactivities with other pathogens, and sensitivity issues related, among other reasons, to disease stage, leading to misdiagnosis. Read More

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November 2021

Monomorphic : towards reconciling phylogeny and pathologies.

Microb Genom 2021 08;7(8)

Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FL, UK.

and are animal infective trypanosomes conventionally classified by their clinical disease presentation, mode of transmission, host range, kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) composition and geographical distribution. Unlike other members of the subgenus , they are non-tsetse transmitted and predominantly morphologically uniform (monomorphic) in their mammalian host. Their classification as independent species or subspecies has been long debated and genomic studies have found that isolates within and have polyphyletic origins. Read More

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evades host innate immunity by releasing extracellular vesicles to activate TLR2-AKT signaling pathway.

Virulence 2021 12;12(1):2017-2036

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education; College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Surra, one of the most important animal diseases with economic consequences in Asia and South America, is caused by . However, the mechanism of immune evasion by has not been extensively studied. In the present study, extracellular vesicles (TeEVs) were characterized and the role of TeEVs in infection were examined. Read More

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December 2021

Trypanosome Signaling-Quorum Sensing.

Authors:
Keith R Matthews

Annu Rev Microbiol 2021 Oct 4;75:495-514. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, Ashworth Laboratories, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FL, United Kingdom; email:

African trypanosomes are responsible for important diseases of humans and animals in sub-Saharan Africa. The best-studied species is , which is characterized by development in the mammalian host between morphologically slender and stumpy forms. The latter are adapted for transmission by the parasite's vector, the tsetse fly. Read More

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October 2021

Comparative pathology of mice infected with high and low virulence of Indonesian isolates.

J Parasit Dis 2021 Jun 3;45(2):502-511. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Indonesian Research Centre for Veterinary Science, Bogor, 16114 Indonesia.

Mice infected with cause various clinical manifestations and histopathological changes. The aim of this study was to compare the histopathological lesions of mice infected with Bang 87 isolates (high virulence) and Pml 287 isolates (low virulence). A total of 15 susceptible mice (DDY) were divided into three groups (five mice/group): Groups I and II each were infected with 10 of high virulence (Bang87) and low virulence (Pml 287), respectively, whereas group III served as a control group. Read More

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Mining the pervasiveness of surra in different animal species of Northeastern states of India: Assam, Mizoram and Tripura.

J Parasit Dis 2021 Jun 23;45(2):330-335. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

ICAR- National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (NIVEDI), Ramagondanahalli, Yelahanka, P.B. No. 6450, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560064 India.

is a flagellated, extracellular haemoprotozoan parasite infecting a wide range of mammalian hosts including dromedaries, cattle, equines and dogs cause disease surra. Carrier animals with sub-clinical infection cause significant monetary losses to livestock holders and therefore detection of infection status using molecular diagnostic techniques becomes important in order to control the disease. In the current study cattle, buffalo, goat, pig and dog samples from three northeastern states of India-Assam, Mizoram and Tripura were screened to determine the prevalence of surra. Read More

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Molecular detection of Theileria species, Anaplasma species, Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos, Trypanosoma evansi and first evidence of Theileria sinensis-associated bovine anaemia in crossbred Kedah-Kelantan x Brahman cattle.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Jul 18;17(1):246. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Serious disease outbreaks in cattle are usually associated with blood pathogens. This study aims to detect blood pathogens namely Theileria species, Anaplasma species, Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos and Trypanosoma evansi, and determine their phylogenetic relationships and haemato-biochemical abnormalities in naturally infected cattle.

Methods: Molecular analysis was achieved by PCR amplification and sequencing of PCR amplicons of 18SrRNA gene of Theileria species, 16SrRNA genes of Anaplasma and Mycoplasma species, MPSP genes of T. Read More

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Comparative evaluation of Babesia bigemina truncated C-terminal rhoptry associated protein-1 and 200 kDa merozoite protein in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 09 12;12(5):101783. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Eastern Regional Station, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 037, India.

Babesia bigemina is an intra-erythrocytic apicomplexan protozoon which causes an acute as well as chronic disease in cattle and is transmitted by ixodid ticks throughout the world. Due to low sensitivity of microscopy for detection of the parasite, there is a need for developing effective diagnostic tests that can be used to identify carrier animals in endemic areas. In the present study, C-terminal fragment of rhoptry associated protein-1 (RAP-1/CT) and 200 kDa merozoite protein (P200/CT) of B. Read More

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September 2021