45,896 results match your criteria evaluating risk


Quantifying spatial heterogeneity of vulnerability to short-term PM exposure with data fusion framework.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 29;285:117266. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Air Quality Protection and Noise Control, Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan.

The current estimations of the burden of disease (BD) of PM exposure is still potentially biased by two factors: ignorance of heterogeneous vulnerabilities at diverse urbanization levels and reliance on the risk estimates from existing literature, usually from different locations. Our objectives are (1) to build up a data fusion framework to estimate the burden of PM exposure while evaluating local risks simultaneously and (2) to quantify their spatial heterogeneity, relationship to land-use characteristics, and derived uncertainties when calculating the disease burdens. The feature of this study is applying six local databases to extract PM exposure risk and the BD information, including the risks of death, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and respiratory disease (RD), and their spatial heterogeneities through our data fusion framework. Read More

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Role of tumor-associated macrophages at the invasive front in human colorectal cancer progression.

Cancer Sci 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Faculty of Human Culture and Science, Department of Health Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, 1-1-71 Ujinahigashi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, Japan.

Macrophages are an essential component of antitumor activity; however, the role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains controversial. Here, we elucidated the role of TAMs in CRC progression, especially at the early stage. We assessed the TAM number, phenotype, and distribution in 53 patients with colorectal neoplasia, including intramucosal neoplasia, submucosal invasive colorectal cancer (SM-CRC), and advanced cancer, using double immunofluorescence for CD68 and CD163. Read More

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Fetal MRI assessment of posterior fossa anomalies: A review.

J Neuroimaging 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Edward B. Singleton Department of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA.

Prenatal ultrasound (US) is the first prenatal imaging tool for screening and evaluation of posterior fossa malformations since it is noninvasive, widely available, and safe for both mother and child. Fetal MRI is a widely used secondary technique to confirm, correct, or complement questionable US findings and plays an essential role in evaluating fetuses with suspected US findings and /or positive family history. The main sequences of fetal MRI consist of T2-weighted (T2w) ultrafast, single-shot sequences. Read More

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Genotype-phenotype correlations of heterozygous HTRA1-related cerebral small vessel disease: case report and systematic review.

Neurogenetics 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Nephrology, Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease and Immunology, Zhengzhou University People's Hospital, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, 450003, Henan, China.

Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL) is caused by biallelic HTRA1 pathogenic variants. Recent studies have shown that heterozygous HTRA1 mutations are associated with autosomal dominant cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). However, large studies evaluating heterozygous HTRA1 carriers are lacking and the genotype-phenotype correlation is unknown. Read More

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Dietary intake of sulfur amino acids and risk of kwashiorkor malnutrition in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Kwashiorkor is an often-fatal type of severe acute malnutrition affecting hundreds of thousands of children annually, but whose etiology is still unknown. Evidence suggests inadequate sulfur amino acid (SAA) status may explain many signs of the condition but studies evaluating dietary protein intake in relation to the genesis of kwashiorkor have been conflicting. We know of no studies of kwashiorkor that have measured dietary SAAs. Read More

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Evaluating the Contribution of Patient-Provider Communication and Cancer Diagnosis to Racial Disparities in End-of-Life Care Among Medicare Beneficiaries.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Health Policy, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: The quality of end-of-life (EOL) care in the USA remains suboptimal, with significant variations in care by race and across disease subgroups. Patient-provider communication may contribute to racial and disease-specific variations in EOL care outcomes.

Objective: We examined racial disparities in EOL care, by disease group (cancer vs. Read More

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A Pilot RCT Evaluating InThistoGether, an mHealth HIV Prevention Program for Ugandan Youth.

AIDS Behav 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Internet Solutions for Kids Uganda, Mbarara, Uganda.

Despite data suggesting that older adolescence is an important period of risk for HIV acquisition in Uganda, tailored HIV prevention programming is lacking. To address this gap, we developed and tested nationally, InThistoGether (ITG), a text messaging-based HIV prevention program for 18-22 year-old Ugandan youth. To assess feasibility and acceptability, and preliminary indications of behavior change, a randomized controlled trial was conducted with 202 youth. Read More

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Assisted therapy with platelet-rich plasma for burn patients: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

Burns 2020 Dec 24. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Municipal Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Introduction: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy has been used in different medical fields, but its effectiveness in burn wound healing remains debatable. In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence on burn patients treated with PRP to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the treatment.

Methods: Randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of PRP in patients with burn injuries were selected. Read More

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December 2020

The incidence of hydrocephalus among patients with and without spinal muscular atrophy (SMA): Results from a US electronic health records study.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 May 7;16(1):207. Epub 2021 May 7.

Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Background: The incidence of hydrocephalus in the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) population relative to the general population is currently unknown. Since the approval of nusinersen, an intrathecally administered drug for SMA, a small number of hydrocephalus cases among nusinersen users have been reported. Currently, the incidence of hydrocephalus in untreated SMA patients is not available, thereby making it difficult to determine if hydrocephalus is a side effect of nusinersen or part of SMA's natural history. Read More

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Electromyographic features and efficacy of orofacial myofunctional treatment for skeletal anterior open bite in adolescents: an exploratory study.

BMC Oral Health 2021 May 7;21(1):242. Epub 2021 May 7.

Hospital of Stomatology, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510055, People's Republic of China.

Background: Due to the multifactorial aetiology and unpredictable long-term stability, skeletal anterior open bite (SAOB) is one of the most intractable conditions for orthodontists. The abnormal orofacial myofunctional status (OMS) may be a major risk factor contributing to the development and relapse of SAOB. This study is aimed at evaluating the OMS and the efficacy of orofacial myofunctional therapy (OMT) alone for SAOB subjects. Read More

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Thoracic radiotherapy and concurrent almonertinib for unresectable stage III EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase 2 study.

BMC Cancer 2021 May 7;21(1):511. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, Key Laboratory of Clinical Cancer Pharmacology and Toxicology Research of Zhejiang Province, Affiliated Hangzhou Cancer Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310002, People's Republic of China.

Background: Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy remains the standard treatment in unresectable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Several studies have shown a potential value of concurrent epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) with thoracic radiotherapy in EGFR-mutated population, but a high risk of radiation pneumonitis raised a major concern. This study intends to explore the safety and efficacy of concurrent almonertinib, a new third-generation EGFR-TKI, with radiotherapy in locally advanced EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients. Read More

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Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for adults after heart valve surgery.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 May 7;5:CD010876. Epub 2021 May 7.

REHPA, The Danish Knowledge Centre for Rehabilitation and Palliative Care, Odense University Hospital, Nyborg, Denmark.

Background: The impact of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) following heart valve surgery is uncertain. We conducted an update of this systematic review and a meta-analysis to assess randomised controlled trial evidence for the use of exercise-based CR following heart valve surgery.

Objectives: To assess the benefits and harms of exercise-based CR compared with no exercise training in adults following heart valve surgery or repair, including both percutaneous and surgical procedures. Read More

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Understanding the Value of Total Shoulder Arthroplasties at Physician-Owned Hospitals.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2020 Dec;28(23):e1066-e1072

From the Department of Orthopaedics, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH.

Background: Owing to concerns regarding higher cost, low quality of care and cherry-picking in physician-owned hospitals (POHs), the Affordable Care Act imposed sanctions that prevented the formation of new POHs. With an increasing utilization of total shoulder arthroplasties (TSAs), there is a need for re-evaluation and assessment of quality and cost of TSAs performed at these POHs.

Methods: The 2011 to 2014 Medicare 100% Standard Analytical Files was used to identify patients undergoing a reverse TSA or anatomic TSA at POHs and non-POHs. Read More

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December 2020

Smoke Evacuation During Laparoscopic Surgery: A Problem Beyond the COVID-19 Period. A Quantitative Analysis of CO Environmental Dispersion Using Different Devices.

Surg Innov 2021 May 7:15533506211014857. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of General Surgery and Surgical Specialty, General and Mini-Invasive Surgical Unit, University Federico II of Naples, Naples, Italy.

The COVID-19 pandemic leads to several debates regarding the possible risk for healthcare professionals during surgery. SAGES and EAES raised the issue of the transmission of infection through the surgical smoke during laparoscopy. They recommended the use of smoke evacuation devices (SEDs) with CO filtering systems. Read More

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Correlates of High HIV Viral Load and Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among Viremic Youth in the United States Enrolled in an Adherence Improvement Intervention.

AIDS Patient Care STDS 2021 May;35(5):145-157

Department of Biostatistics, Gillings School of Public Health, Collaborative Studies Coordinating Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

A sizable portion of youth (ages 13-24) living with HIV in the United States have unsuppressed viral load. The AIDS Interventions (ATN) 152 study [evaluating the Triggered Escalating Real-Time Adherence (TERA) intervention] baseline data were examined to identify correlates of high viremia (>5000 copies/mL) and self-reported adherence, which can help in planning of differentiated services for viremic youth. Depression, HIV-stigma, and cannabis use were common in this sample of 87 youth. Read More

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Pacemaker guided screening for severe sleep apnea, a possible option for patients with atrial fibrillation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, Hasselt University, Martelarenlaan 42, Hasselt, 3500, Belgium.

Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea is often underdiagnosed in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients although it is an important risk factor. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess which techniques cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) and Holter monitors use to screen for sleep apnea (SA), and to evaluate if these are suitable for AF patients from a diagnostic accuracy perspective.

Methods: The search was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA-guidelines. Read More

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N-Ammonia myocardial blood flow quantitation in patient with aneurismal coronary artery disease.

J Nucl Cardiol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Nuclear Cardiology Department, National Institute of Cardiology Ignacio Chavez, Juan Badiano Nº 1, Colonia Seccion XVI, Tlalpan, P.C 14080, Mexico City, Mexico.

Aneurysmal coronary artery disease includes coronary artery aneurysms and ectasia; this condition has been associated with poor long-term outcomes. Few studies have explored myocardial blood flow N-ammonia PET/CT MPI added value. We present a 45-year-old man who came to the emergency department with chest pain. Read More

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Spleen Stiffness Performance in the Noninvasive Assessment of Gastroesophageal Varices after Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts.

Biomed Res Int 2021 17;2021:5530004. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Ultrasonic Medicine, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China 710032.

Objectives: To investigate the performance of spleen stiffness (SS) by using two-dimensional shear-wave elastography (2D-SWE) for assessing the severity of gastroesophageal varices (GEVs) after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS).

Methods: 102 eligible patients were categorized as in the post-TIPS short-term ( = 69) and long-term ( = 38) follow-up groups. The performance of SS by using 2D-SWE for evaluating the severity of GEVs was compared with liver stiffness (LS), spleen stiffness-to-liver stiffness ratio (SS/LS), liver stiffness spleen-diameter-to-platelet-ratio score (LSPS), portal hypertension (PH) risk score, platelet count-to-spleen diameter ratio (PSR), and varices risk score by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and DeLong test. Read More

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Psoriasis and Periodontitis: Exploring an association or lack thereof.

Indian Dermatol Online J 2021 Mar-Apr;12(2):281-284. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Biochemistry, Dr. Harvansh Singh Judge Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.

Objectives: Psoriasis is a common, chronic, non-communicable skin disease with no clear etiology or cure. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition which is now known to significantly influence various systemic diseases as an established risk factor. This study aimed at comparatively evaluating the periodontal status of Psoriatic patients vis. Read More

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February 2021

Clinico-Epidemiological Profile of Childhood Alopecia Areata Along with Dermoscopic Correlation: A Cross-Section, Observational Study.

Indian Dermatol Online J 2021 Mar-Apr;12(2):250-257. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Dermatology, Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Background: Childhood alopecia areata (AA) is a common cause of dermatologic consultation; however, data is scarce in the present set-up.

Objectives: To evaluate the clinico-epidemiological profile of childhood AA along with dermoscopic correlation.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 50 new cases of childhood AA for 1 year. Read More

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Disease Spectrum of Breast Cancer Susceptibility Genes.

Front Oncol 2021 20;11:663419. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

Background: Pathogenic variants in cancer susceptibility genes can increase the risk of a spectrum of diseases, which clinicians must manage for their patients. We evaluated the disease spectrum of breast cancer susceptibility genes (BCSGs) with the aim of developing a comprehensive resource of gene-disease associations for clinicians.

Methods: Twelve genes (, and ), all of which have been conclusively established as BCSGs by the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) and/or the NCCN guidelines, were investigated. Read More

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Evaluating how lethal management affects poaching of Mexican wolves.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 10;8(3):200330. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Despite illegal killing (poaching) being the major cause of death among large carnivores globally, little is known about the effect of implementing lethal management policies on poaching. Two opposing hypotheses have been proposed in the literature: implementing lethal management may decrease poaching incidence (killing for tolerance) or increase it (facilitated illegal killing). Here, we report a test of the two opposed hypotheses that poaching (reported and unreported) of Mexican grey wolves () in Arizona and New Mexico, USA, responded to changes in policy that reduced protections to allow more wolf-killing. Read More

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Postural Balance Evaluation in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Tanaffos 2020 Dec;19(4):392-400

Proteomics Research Center, Department of Biostatistics, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The risk of falling in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is higher than healthy people, imposing a great financial burden on patients due to clinical diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to compare static balance between two groups of healthy people and COPD patients, based on cognitive tasks and vision tests, using linear and non-linear analyses.

Materials And Methods: A total of 15 patients with COPD and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals were recruited in this study. Read More

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December 2020

Preoperative laboratory testing in elderly patients.

Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose Of Review: Preoperative testing in elderly patients is performed to examine the patient's current medical condition in the context of evaluating vulnerabilities and predicting postoperative complications to ensure that all functions recover before surgery. This review focused on preoperative laboratory tests in geriatric patients.

Recent Findings: Preoperative complete blood count, electrolyte testing, and blood chemistry can predict postoperative complications. Read More

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Abdominal ultrasound findings contribute to a multivariable predictive risk score for surgical necrotizing enterocolitis: A pilot study.

Am J Surg 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Abdominal ultrasound (AUS) is a promising adjunct to abdominal x-ray (AXR) for evaluating necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We developed a multivariable risk score incorporating AUS to predict surgical NEC.

Methods: 83 patients were evaluated by AXR and AUS for suspected NEC. Read More

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Relationship between perceived social support and postpartum care attendance in three Latin American countries: a cross-sectional analytic study.

Glob Health Res Policy 2021 May 7;6(1):16. Epub 2021 May 7.

University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Obstetrics and Gynecology Department Research Division, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA.

Background: Postpartum Care is a strategy to improve survival of women and newborns, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Early post-partum care can promote healthy behaviors and the identification of risk factors associated with poorer pregnancy-related outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the association of perceived social support with attendance to post-partum care in women from three Latin-American and Caribbean countries: Costa Rica, Dominican Republic and Honduras. Read More

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Evaluating the fitness of PA/I38T-substituted influenza A viruses with reduced baloxavir susceptibility in a competitive mixtures ferret model.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 6;17(5):e1009527. Epub 2021 May 6.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Australia.

Baloxavir is approved in several countries for the treatment of uncomplicated influenza in otherwise-healthy and high-risk patients. Treatment-emergent viruses with reduced susceptibility to baloxavir have been detected in clinical trials, but the likelihood of widespread occurrence depends on replication capacity and onward transmission. We evaluated the fitness of A/H3N2 and A/H1N1pdm09 viruses with the polymerase acidic (PA) I38T-variant conferring reduced susceptibility to baloxavir relative to wild-type (WT) viruses, using a competitive mixture ferret model, recombinant viruses and patient-derived virus isolates. Read More

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Safety Monitoring of the Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 Vaccine - United States, March-April 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 May 7;70(18):680-684. Epub 2021 May 7.

CDC COVID-19 Response Team.

On February 27, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Janssen (Ad.26.COV2. Read More

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Impaired left atrial strain in the presence of interatrial block in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Cardiology, Adana Training and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, 01060, Adana, Turkey.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases, and is a risk factor for atrial cardiomyopathy. Interatrial block (IAB), as a predictor of AF, is correlated with the extent of LA fibrosis in the process of atrial cardiomyopathy. We have not encountered any study evaluating LA and LV functions with 3D-STE in the presence of IAB in the T2DM patients. Read More

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Risk of Recall Among Medical Devices Undergoing US Food and Drug Administration 510(k) Clearance and Premarket Approval, 2008-2017.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e217274. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City.

Importance: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) uses 510(k) clearance and premarket approval (PMA) pathways to ensure device safety before marketing. Premarket approval evaluates high-risk medical devices and requires clinical trials, whereas 510(k) clearance evaluates moderate-risk devices and relies on benchtop (nonclinical and biomechanical) and descriptive data. Existing literature suggests that the clinical trials required by PMA are associated with reduced risk of recall compared with devices granted 510(k) clearance. Read More

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