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Georgian Med News 2021 Mar(312):75-78

3Ilia State University, School of Natural Sciences and Medicine, Tbilisi, Georgia.

Psoriasis is a T cell mediated chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting about 2% of the population worldwide. Recently has established the central role of IL-23/Th17 immune axis in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and different subclasses of T cells including Th1 and Th17 cells are involved in initiation and amplification of the skin inflammation process, in addition, in cases of recurrent psoriasis, Th22 cells play the role of memory cells with the help of Th9 cells, which are also important in this process. The main goal was to evaluate the ratio of T cell profile and IL23/Th17 axis by evaluating IL17A, IL22, IL9 in peripheral blood of persons with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Read More

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Position-specific isotope effects during alkaline hydrolysis of 2,4-dinitroanisole resolved by compound-specific isotope analysis, C NMR, and density-functional theory.

Chemosphere 2021 May 1;280:130625. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Earth Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19716, USA. Electronic address:

Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA), position-specific isotope analysis (PSIA), and computational modeling (e.g., quantum mechanical models; reactive-transport models) are increasingly being used to monitor and predict biotic and abiotic transformations of organic contaminants in the field. Read More

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Quantifying spatial heterogeneity of vulnerability to short-term PM exposure with data fusion framework.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 29;285:117266. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Air Quality Protection and Noise Control, Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan.

The current estimations of the burden of disease (BD) of PM exposure is still potentially biased by two factors: ignorance of heterogeneous vulnerabilities at diverse urbanization levels and reliance on the risk estimates from existing literature, usually from different locations. Our objectives are (1) to build up a data fusion framework to estimate the burden of PM exposure while evaluating local risks simultaneously and (2) to quantify their spatial heterogeneity, relationship to land-use characteristics, and derived uncertainties when calculating the disease burdens. The feature of this study is applying six local databases to extract PM exposure risk and the BD information, including the risks of death, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and respiratory disease (RD), and their spatial heterogeneities through our data fusion framework. Read More

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Metabolomics Based Comprehensive Investigation of Gardeniae Fructus Induced Hepatotoxicity.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 May 5:112250. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory for Pharmaceutical Metabolite Research, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China. Electronic address:

Gardeniae Fructus (Zhizi in Chinese, ZZ in brief), a commonly used herbal medicine, has aroused wide concern for hepatotoxicity, but the mechanism remains to be investigated. This study was aimed at investigating the mechanism of ZZ-induced liver injury in vivo and in vitro based on metabolomics and evaluating the hepatotoxicity prediction ability of the in vitro model. SD rats were administered with extracted ZZ and HepG2 cells were treated with genipin, the major hepatotoxic metabolite of ZZ. Read More

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The formulation and efficacy of topical in treating Melasma: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Objectives: An acquired melanin-related hyperpigmentation that occurs in sun exposure areas is Melasma which presents as gray-brown ridges and macules with prominent margins on the skin. The aim of this assay was to assess the formulation and efficacy of topical among Melasma patients.

Methods: This study was a 30 days double-blind, randomized clinical trial in Melasma with a placebo group. Read More

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Role of tumor-associated macrophages at the invasive front in human colorectal cancer progression.

Cancer Sci 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Faculty of Human Culture and Science, Department of Health Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, 1-1-71 Ujinahigashi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, Japan.

Macrophages are an essential component of antitumor activity; however, the role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains controversial. Here, we elucidated the role of TAMs in CRC progression, especially at the early stage. We assessed the TAM number, phenotype, and distribution in 53 patients with colorectal neoplasia, including intramucosal neoplasia, submucosal invasive colorectal cancer (SM-CRC), and advanced cancer, using double immunofluorescence for CD68 and CD163. Read More

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Fetal MRI assessment of posterior fossa anomalies: A review.

J Neuroimaging 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Edward B. Singleton Department of Radiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA.

Prenatal ultrasound (US) is the first prenatal imaging tool for screening and evaluation of posterior fossa malformations since it is noninvasive, widely available, and safe for both mother and child. Fetal MRI is a widely used secondary technique to confirm, correct, or complement questionable US findings and plays an essential role in evaluating fetuses with suspected US findings and /or positive family history. The main sequences of fetal MRI consist of T2-weighted (T2w) ultrafast, single-shot sequences. Read More

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Post-mortem persistence of SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary study.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Section of Legal Medicine, Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine, Bari Policlinico Hospital, University of Bari, 70124, Bari, Italy.

Since the beginning of March 2020, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been the cause of millions of deaths worldwide. The need to better define the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 19 (Covid-19) as well as to provide the correct statistical records concerning deaths related to this virus, inevitably involves the role of forensic pathology and routine autopsy practice. Currently, some data on macroscopic and microscopic features in autopsies performed in suspected Covid-19 cases are reported in the literature. Read More

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Genotype-phenotype correlations of heterozygous HTRA1-related cerebral small vessel disease: case report and systematic review.

Neurogenetics 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Nephrology, Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease and Immunology, Zhengzhou University People's Hospital, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, 450003, Henan, China.

Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL) is caused by biallelic HTRA1 pathogenic variants. Recent studies have shown that heterozygous HTRA1 mutations are associated with autosomal dominant cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). However, large studies evaluating heterozygous HTRA1 carriers are lacking and the genotype-phenotype correlation is unknown. Read More

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Renal tubular dilation and fibrosis after unilateral ureter obstruction revealed by relaxometry and spin-lock exchange MRI.

NMR Biomed 2021 May 8:e4539. Epub 2021 May 8.

Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

We evaluated the use of quantitative MRI relaxometry, including the dispersion of spin-lock relaxation with different locking fields, for detecting and assessing tubular dilation and fibrosis in a mouse model of unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO). C57BL/6 J and BALB/c mice that exhibit different levels of tubular dilation and renal fibrosis after UUO were subjected to MR imaging at 7 T. Mice were imaged before UUO surgery, and at 5, 10 and 15 days after surgery. Read More

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Dietary intake of sulfur amino acids and risk of kwashiorkor malnutrition in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Kwashiorkor is an often-fatal type of severe acute malnutrition affecting hundreds of thousands of children annually, but whose etiology is still unknown. Evidence suggests inadequate sulfur amino acid (SAA) status may explain many signs of the condition but studies evaluating dietary protein intake in relation to the genesis of kwashiorkor have been conflicting. We know of no studies of kwashiorkor that have measured dietary SAAs. Read More

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[Factors affecting survival prognosis of advanced gastric cancer and establishment of a nomogram predictive model].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2021 Apr;41(4):621-627

Department of Oncology, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Foshan 528200, China.

Objective: To explore the factors affecting the survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer and establish a reliable predictive model of the patients' survival outcomes.

Objective: We retrospectively collected the clinical data from patients with advanced gastric cancer treated in our department between January, 2015 and December, 2019. Univariate survival analysis was carried out using Kaplan-Meier method followed by multivariate Cox regression analysis to identify the factors associated with the survival outcomes of the patients. Read More

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[GCS score combined with CT score and serum S100B protein level Can evaluate severity and early prognosis of acute traumatic brain injury].

W Yin S Weng S Lai H Nie

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2021 Apr;41(4):543-548

Department of Emergency Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To explore the value of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and CT score combined with serum S100B protein level for evaluation of injury severity and predicting early prognosis of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Objective: A total of 108 patients with TBI admitted within 24 h after injury in the Emergency Department of West China Hospital from May, 2019 to May, 2020 were enrolled in this study. The clinical data, laboratory test results, CT examination, GCS score, Full Outline of Unresponsiveness score, Fisher CT classification, Rotterdam CT score, and serum S100B protein level of the patients were collected upon admission. Read More

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Chest MRI as an emerging modality in evaluation of empyema in children with specific indications: Pilot study.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector-12, Chandigarh, India.

Objectives: To assess the diagnostic role of chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluating empyema in children with specific indications.

Methods: Nineteen children (5 to 16 years) with a diagnosis of empyema were enrolled in this prospective study from January 2018 to February 2020. MRI and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) of the chest were performed within 48 hours of each other. Read More

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Reference data for hop tests used in pediatric ACL injury rehabilitation: A cross-sectional study of healthy children.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Midwifery, Occupational Therapy and Psychomotor Therapy, Faculty of Health, University College Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

In rehabilitation, four single leg hop tests are frequently used for evaluation of ACL injured children. However, reference values on single leg hop performance and the corresponding limb symmetry indexes (LSIs) of healthy children younger than 15 years of age are lacking. Thus, the purpose was to describe hop performance and LSIs in healthy Danish children, and to quantify the proportion of participants passing LSI values of ≥85% as well as ≥90%. Read More

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Genotype- and tissue-specific physiological and biochemical changes of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cultivars following a rapid dehydration.

Physiol Plant 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.

In nature, plants may suffer rapid dehydration (RD), which causes significant loss of the annual global chickpea production. Thus, ascertaining more knowledge concerning the RD-tolerance mechanisms in chickpea is crucial for developing high drought-tolerant varieties to assure sustainable chickpea production under sudden water deficit. Here, we focused on genotype-driven variation in leaf relative water content (RWC) and associated differences in RD-responsive physiological and biochemical attributes in roots and leaves of two chickpea cultivars, 'FLIP00-21C' and 'FLIP02-89C', subjected to well-watered and RD conditions. Read More

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Evaluating the Contribution of Patient-Provider Communication and Cancer Diagnosis to Racial Disparities in End-of-Life Care Among Medicare Beneficiaries.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Health Policy, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: The quality of end-of-life (EOL) care in the USA remains suboptimal, with significant variations in care by race and across disease subgroups. Patient-provider communication may contribute to racial and disease-specific variations in EOL care outcomes.

Objective: We examined racial disparities in EOL care, by disease group (cancer vs. Read More

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A Pilot RCT Evaluating InThistoGether, an mHealth HIV Prevention Program for Ugandan Youth.

AIDS Behav 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Internet Solutions for Kids Uganda, Mbarara, Uganda.

Despite data suggesting that older adolescence is an important period of risk for HIV acquisition in Uganda, tailored HIV prevention programming is lacking. To address this gap, we developed and tested nationally, InThistoGether (ITG), a text messaging-based HIV prevention program for 18-22 year-old Ugandan youth. To assess feasibility and acceptability, and preliminary indications of behavior change, a randomized controlled trial was conducted with 202 youth. Read More

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Genetic diversity and population structure of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' associated with citrus Huanglongbing in India based on the prophage types.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May 8;37(6):95. Epub 2021 May 8.

Plant Pathology Lab, ICAR-Central Citrus Research Institute, Amravati Road, Nagpur, 440033, India.

Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as 'citrus greening', is an extremely destructive disease of citrus worldwide. HLB is associated with three species of the fastidious proteobacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas), Ca. L. Read More

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Mindfulness-based stress reduction for breast cancer survivors (MBSR(BC)): evaluating mediators of psychological and physical outcomes in a large randomized controlled trial.

J Behav Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA.

MBSR(BC) is known to have a positive impact on psychological and physical symptoms among breast cancer survivors (BCS). The cognitive mechanisms of "how" MBSR(BC) works was addressed in a recent study that found that there was strong consistent evidence that reduced emotional reactivity is a mediator and moderate consistent evidence that mindfulness, rumination, and worry were mediators. The purpose of this study, as part of a larger R01 trial, was to test whether positive effects achieved from the MBSR(BC) program were mediated through changes in increased mindfulness, decreased fear of breast cancer recurrence, and perceived stress. Read More

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Blood flow energy loss: a predictor for the recovery of left ventricular function after bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Cardiovascular Blood Flow Imaging Research Laboratory, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Objectives: It is difficult to estimate the improvement in left ventricular (LV) function after aortic valve replacement (AVR). The present study aimed to evaluate whether energy loss (EL) can predict the postoperative LV function after AVR.

Methods: Nine patients who underwent AVR with a bioprosthetic valve were enrolled in the present study. Read More

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The current progress and critical analysis of three-dimensional scanning and three-dimensional printing applications in breast surgery.

BJS Open 2021 May;5(3)

UCL Division of Surgery & Interventional Science, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK.

Background: Several attempts have been made to develop a tool capable of evaluating breast shape and volume to aid surgical planning and outcome assessment. More recently, newer technologies such as three-dimensional (3D) scanning and 3D printing have been applied in breast assessment. The aim of this study was to review the literature to assess the applicability of 3D scanning and 3D printing in breast surgery. Read More

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Comparison of radiomic feature aggregation methods for patients with multiple tumors.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9758. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA.

Radiomic feature analysis has been shown to be effective at analyzing diagnostic images to model cancer outcomes. It has not yet been established how to best combine radiomic features in cancer patients with multifocal tumors. As the number of patients with multifocal metastatic cancer continues to rise, there is a need for improving personalized patient-level prognosis to better inform treatment. Read More

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A multilevel carbon and water footprint dataset of food commodities.

Sci Data 2021 May 7;8(1):127. Epub 2021 May 7.

Euro-Mediterranean Centre on Climate Change, via Augusto Imperatore 16, 73100, Lecce, Italy.

Informing and engaging citizens to adopt sustainable diets is a key strategy for reducing global environmental impacts of the agricultural and food sectors. In this respect, the first requisite to support citizens and actors of the food sector is to provide them a publicly available, reliable and ready to use synthesis of environmental pressures associated to food commodities. Here we introduce the SU-EATABLE LIFE database, a multilevel database of carbon (CF) and water (WF) footprint values of food commodities, based on a standardized methodology to extract information and assign optimal footprint values and uncertainties to food items, starting from peer-reviewed articles and grey literature. Read More

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A Review of Recent Research on the Role of MicroRNAs in Renal Cancer.

Med Sci Monit 2021 May 8;27:e930639. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical University, Ganzhou, Jiangxi, China (mainland).

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a most common type of urologic neoplasms; it accounts for 3% of malignant tumors, with high rates of relapse and mortality. The most common types of renal cancer are clear cell carcinoma (ccRCC), papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC), and chromophobe renal carcinoma (chRCC), which account for 90%, 6-15%, and 2-5%, respectively, of all renal malignancies. Although surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy are the most common treatment method for those diseases, their effects remain dissatisfactory. Read More

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IL-15 mediated expansion of rare durable memory T cells following adoptive cellular therapy.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Clinical Research Division, Seattle, WA, USA

Background: Synovial sarcoma (SS) and myxoid/round cell liposarcoma (MRCL) are ideal solid tumors for the development of adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) targeting NY-ESO-1, as a high frequency of tumors homogeneously express this cancer-testes antigen. Data from early phase clinical trials have shown antitumor activity after the adoptive transfer of NY-ESO-1-specific T cells. In these studies, persistence of NY-ESO-1 specific T cells is highly correlated with response to ACT, but patients often continue to have detectable transferred cells in their peripheral blood following progression. Read More

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A Narrative Review of the Assessment of Depression in Chronic Pain.

Pain Manag Nurs 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Objectives: This narrative review sought to explore the main critical issues in the assessment of depression in chronic pain and to identify self-report tools that can be reliably used for measuring it.

Design: Narrative review of the literature.

Methods: Articles were obtained through a search of three databases and a hand search of the references of full-text papers. Read More

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Assisted therapy with platelet-rich plasma for burn patients: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

Burns 2020 Dec 24. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Municipal Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Introduction: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy has been used in different medical fields, but its effectiveness in burn wound healing remains debatable. In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available evidence on burn patients treated with PRP to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the treatment.

Methods: Randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of PRP in patients with burn injuries were selected. Read More

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December 2020

Cutaneous leishmaniasis control in Alta Verapaz (northern Guatemala): evaluating current efforts through stakeholders' experiences.

Infect Dis Poverty 2021 May 7;10(1):61. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Global Health and Infection (GHI), Brighton and Sussex Medical School (BSMS), University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.

Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), endemic in Guatemala, mostly affects poor people living in the northern region. A national control program that includes surveillance, diagnose, and treatment offered free of cost by the Ministry of Health (MoH) has been in place since 2003. However, the incidence is increasing and treatment rates are not optimal, suggesting that current efforts are not being effective. Read More

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Application study of 3D LAVA-Flex on lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration.

Eur J Med Res 2021 May 7;26(1):43. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Radiology, The First Medical Center of PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, China.

Background: Degeneration of the intervertebral discs are very common diseases, indicating the specific or malignant changes in intervertebral disc component, structure and function. Imaging examination is currently used to evaluate the severity of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration. This study was designed to investigate the diagnostic value of 3D LAVA-Flex in lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration. Read More

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