16,120 results match your criteria evaluate spatial

Geographical variations in maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy associated with birth weight in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254891. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, P.R. China.

The geographical variation of maternal dietary patterns related to birth outcomes is important for improving the health of mothers and children; however, it is currently unknown. Thus, the objective of the study was to investigate geographical variations of maternal dietary pattern during pregnancy, and evaluate the spatial varying association of maternal dietary patterns in pregnancy with abnormal birth weight. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Shaanxi province in Northwest China in 2013 to evaluate the relationship between abnormal birth weight and dietary pattern using the Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression (GWLR). Read More

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Spatiotemporal Patterns of Ant Metacommunity in a Montane Forest Archipelago.

Neotrop Entomol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade e Uso dos Recursos Naturais, Univ Estadual de Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Naturally fragmented landscapes are adequate systems for evaluating patterns and mechanisms that determine species distribution without confounding effects of anthropogenic fragmentation and habitat loss. We aimed to evaluate an ant metacommunity's spatiotemporal patterns in montane forest islands amid a grassland-dominated matrix. We assessed these patterns by deconstructing the ant metacommunity into forest-dependent and habitat generalist species. Read More

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Mathematical Model Predicts that Acceleration of Diabetic Wound Healing is Dependent on Spatial Distribution of VEGF-A mRNA (AZD8601).

Cell Mol Bioeng 2021 Aug 15;14(4):321-338. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA USA.

Introduction: Pharmacologic approaches for promoting angiogenesis have been utilized to accelerate healing of chronic wounds in diabetic patients with varying degrees of success. We hypothesize that the distribution of proangiogenic drugs in the wound area critically impacts the rate of closure of diabetic wounds. To evaluate this hypothesis, we developed a mathematical model that predicts how spatial distribution of VEGF-A produced by delivery of a modified mRNA (AZD8601) accelerates diabetic wound healing. Read More

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Geospatial analysis of pediatric surgical need and geographical access to care in Somaliland: a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2021 Jul 21;11(7):e042969. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Public Health, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, USA

Background: The global burden of disease in children is large and disproportionally affects low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Geospatial analysis offers powerful tools to quantify and visualise disparities in surgical care in LMICs. Our study aims to analyse the geographical distribution of paediatric surgical conditions and to evaluate the geographical access to surgical care in Somaliland. Read More

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Spatial epidemiological study of the distribution, clustering, and risk factors associated with early COVID-19 mortality in Mexico.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(7):e0254884. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Research Division, Instituto Nacional de Geriatria, Mexico City, Mexico.

COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which has significantly impacted economic and public healthcare systems worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 is highly lethal in older adults (>65 years old) and in cases with underlying medical conditions, including chronic respiratory diseases, immunosuppression, and cardio-metabolic diseases, including severe obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. The course of the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico has led to many fatal cases in younger patients attributable to cardio-metabolic conditions. Read More

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Lycopene supplementation protects vascular dementia gerbils against the impairment of learning and memory.

Folia Neuropathol 2021 ;59(2):161-173

Department of Student Office, School of Clinical Medical Science, North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong City, China.

In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of lycopene (Lyc) on vascular dementia (VaD) gerbils and its related mechanisms of anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant activity. Gerbils were treated with bilateral common carotid arteries. Animals were divided into 1) Sham, 2) VaD model, and 3) VaD model + Lyc (20 mg/kg) groups. Read More

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January 2021

Maternal spatial training before fertilization improves the spatial learning process in female offspring.

Neuroreport 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Cognitive and Behavioral Science and Technology in Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences and Health, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran Department of Experimental Neurosciences, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation Department of Human Sciences, Guglielmo Marconi University, Rome, Italy Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Recent results of our team showed that parental spatial training before fertilization improves the offspring's spatial memory. However, the process of spatial learning (short-term/working and long-term memories, mnesic consolidation and procedures) in the offspring has not been fully clarified yet. Therefore, this study aimed at specifically analyzing whether maternal learning of a spatial task before fertilization can impact on the process of spatial learning in the female offspring. Read More

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Evaluating the sensitivity of functional connectivity measures to motion artifact in resting-state fMRI data.

Neuroimage 2021 Jul 17:118408. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering & Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Electrical & Systems Engineering, School of Engineering & Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Physics & Astronomy, College of Arts & Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Rd, Santa Fe, NM, 87501, USA.

Functional connectivity (FC) networks are typically inferred from resting-state fMRI data using the Pearson correlation between BOLD time series from pairs of brain regions. However, alternative methods of estimating functional connectivity have not been systematically tested for their sensitivity or robustness to head motion artifact. Here, we evaluate the sensitivity of eight different functional connectivity measures to motion artifact using resting-state data from the Human Connectome Project. Read More

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Characterization of point-spread function specification error on Geometric Transfer Matrix partial volume correction in [C]PiB amyloid imaging.

EJNMMI Phys 2021 Jul 20;8(1):54. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Purpose: Partial-volume correction (PVC) using the Geometric Transfer Matrix (GTM) method is used in positron emission tomography (PET) to compensate for the effects of spatial resolution on quantitation. We evaluate the effect of misspecification of scanner point-spread function (PSF) on GTM results in amyloid imaging, including the effect on amyloid status classification (positive or negative).

Methods: Twenty-nine subjects with Pittsburgh Compound B ([C]PiB) PET and structural T1 MR imaging were analyzed. Read More

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Metformin prevents p-tau and amyloid plaque deposition and memory impairment in diabetic mice.

Exp Brain Res 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Laboratory of Ultrastructure, Aggeu Magalhães Institute (IAM), FIOCRUZ, Av. Moraes Rego S/N, Recife, PE, Brazil.

Insulin deficiency or resistance can promote dementia and hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The formation of neurofibrillary tangles of p-TAU protein, extracellular Aβ plaques, and neuronal loss is related to the switching off insulin signaling in cognition brain areas. Metformin is a biguanide antihyperglycemic drug used worldwide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Read More

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Improving detection accuracy of perfusion defect in standard dose SPECT-myocardial perfusion imaging by deep-learning denoising.

J Nucl Cardiol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.

Background: We previously developed a deep-learning (DL) network for image denoising in SPECT-myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Here we investigate whether this DL network can be utilized for improving detection of perfusion defects in standard-dose clinical acquisitions.

Methods: To quantify perfusion-defect detection accuracy, we conducted a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis on reconstructed images with and without processing by the DL network using a set of clinical SPECT-MPI data from 190 subjects. Read More

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Spatial Patterns of Endometriosis Incidence. A Study in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy) in the Period 2004-2017.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 5;18(13). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Institute for Maternal and Child Health-IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", 34137 Trieste, Italy.

Background: Diagnosis of endometriosis and evaluation of incidence data are complex tasks because the disease is identified laparoscopically and confirmed histologically. Incidence estimates reported in literature are widely inconsistent, presumably reflecting geographical variability of risk and the difficulty of obtaining reliable data.

Methods: We retrieved incident cases of endometriosis in women aged 15-50 years using hospital discharge records and pathology databases of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region in the calendar period 2004-2017. Read More

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The effect of human mobility restrictions on the COVID-19 transmission network in China.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(7):e0254403. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics, Monash University, Caulfield, Victoria, Australia.

Background: COVID-19 poses a severe threat worldwide. This study analyzes its propagation and evaluates statistically the effect of mobility restriction policies on the spread of the disease.

Methods: We apply a variation of the stochastic Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered model to describe the temporal-spatial evolution of the disease across 33 provincial regions in China, where the disease was first identified. Read More

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Shedding Light on Cast Shadows: An Investigation of Perceived Ground Contact in AR and VR.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 2021 Jul 19;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Virtual objects in augmented reality (AR) often appear to float atop real world surfaces, which makes it difficult to determine where they are positioned in space. This is problematic as many applications for AR require accurate spatial perception. In the current study, we examine how the way we render cast shadows--which act as an important monocular depth cue for creating a sense of contact between an object and the surface beneath it--impacts spatial perception. Read More

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Distribution, source identification, and health risk assessment of heavy metals in the soil-rice system of a farmland protection area in Hubei Province, Central China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Resource Environment and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Environment and Resources Utilization Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, No. 999, Xuefu Road, Honggutan New District, Nanchang, 330031, China.

Heavy metal contamination in farmland soil is of great concern due to the threat to food security arising from the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in crops planted in contaminated soil, such as rice, corn, and vegetables. Cd is the main contaminant in both paddy soils and rice. The purpose of this study was to reveal the spatial distribution of 8 heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, As, and Hg) in the farmland protection areas in northwestern Hubei Province and to evaluate their pollution status, sources, and health risks. Read More

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Assessing pesticides exposure effects on the reproductive performance of a declining aerial insectivore.

Ecol Appl 2021 Jul 18:e02415. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Département de biologie, Université de Sherbrooke, 2500 boulevard de l'Université, Sherbrooke, Qc, Canada, J1K 2R1.

In the context of increasing global environmental changes, it has become progressively important to understand the effects of human activity on wildlife populations. Declines in several avian populations have been observed since the 1970s, especially with respect to many farmland and grassland birds, which also include some aerial insectivores. Changes in farming practices referred to as agricultural intensification coincide with these major avian declines. Read More

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Experimental evaluation of spatial capture-recapture study design.

Ecol Appl 2021 Jul 18:e02419. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Environmental Conservation, University of Massachusetts, 160 Holdsworth Way, Amherst, MA, 01003, USA.

A principal challenge impeding strong inference in analyses of wild populations is the lack of robust and long-term data sets. Recent advancements in analytical tools used in wildlife science may increase our ability to integrate smaller data sets and enhance the statistical power of population estimates. One such advancement, the development of spatial capture-recapture (SCR) methods, explicitly accounts for differences in spatial study designs, making it possible to equate multiple study designs in one analysis. Read More

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A Supervised Image Registration Approach for Late Gadolinium Enhanced MRI and Cine Cardiac MRI Using Convolutional Neural Networks.

Med Image Underst Anal 2020 Jul 8;1248:208-220. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, USA.

Late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is the current gold standard for assessing myocardium viability for patients diagnosed with myocardial infarction, myocarditis or cardiomyopathy. This imaging method enables the identification and quantification of myocardial tissue regions that appear hyper-enhanced. However, the delineation of the myocardium is hampered by the reduced contrast between the myocardium and the left ventricle (LV) blood-pool due to the gadolinium-based contrast agent. Read More

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Graph-Based Deep Learning for Prediction of Longitudinal Infant Diffusion MRI Data.

Comput Diffus MRI (2018) 2019 3;2019:133-141. Epub 2019 May 3.

Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.

Diffusion MRI affords great value for studying brain development, owing to its capability in assessing brain microstructure in association with myelination. With longitudinally acquired pediatric diffusion MRI data, one can chart the temporal evolution of microstructure and white matter connectivity. However, due to subject dropouts and unsuccessful scans, longitudinal datasets are often incomplete. Read More

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Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography Simulator: New Learning Tool for Advanced Imaging Techniques.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centre, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

The use of intraoperative three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has grown exponentially in recent years. Three-dimensional TEE technology has evolved to allow for real-time display of 3D images and, thus, has become the standard of care for the evaluation of cardiac anatomy and function. Its use has provided a new dimension of clinical insight when managing patients for cardiac surgery or structural heart interventions. Read More

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High-resolution model-based material decomposition in dual-layer flat-panel CBCT.

Med Phys 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Purpose: Spectral CT uses energy-dependent measurements that enable material discrimination in addition to reconstruction of structural information. Flat-panel detectors (FPDs) have been widely used in dedicated and interventional systems to deliver high spatial resolution, volumetric cone-beam CT (CBCT) in compact and OR-friendly designs. In this work, we derive a model-based method that facilitates high-resolution material decomposition in a spectral CBCT system equipped with a prototype dual-layer FPD. Read More

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Test-Retest Reliability of Remote ImPACT Administration.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Neuromechanics Laboratory, School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, 89557, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the performance and test-retest reliability obtained when administering a computerized baseline neurocognitive exam to NCAA Division I student-athletes in a controlled laboratory setting versus an uncontrolled remote location.

Method: A sample of 129 (female = 100) Division I student-athletes completed Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) pre-season assessments for two distinct and respective sports seasons in a controlled laboratory environment and an uncontrolled remote environment. Depending on the environment, participants were given verbal (controlled) or written (uncontrolled) guidelines for taking the test. Read More

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Multi-view convolutional neural networks for automated ocular structure and tumor segmentation in retinoblastoma.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 16;11(1):14590. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

In retinoblastoma, accurate segmentation of ocular structure and tumor tissue is important when working towards personalized treatment. This retrospective study serves to evaluate the performance of multi-view convolutional neural networks (MV-CNNs) for automated eye and tumor segmentation on MRI in retinoblastoma patients. Forty retinoblastoma and 20 healthy-eyes from 30 patients were included in a train/test (N = 29 retinoblastoma-, 17 healthy-eyes) and independent validation (N = 11 retinoblastoma-, 3 healthy-eyes) set. Read More

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Upscaling of transport through discrete fracture networks via random walk: A comparison of models.

Phys Rev E 2021 Jun;103(6-1):062116

Division of Hydrologic Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada 89119, USA.

Many models have been created for upscaled transport modeling in discrete fracture networks (DFNs). Random walk examples of these are the Markov directed random walk (MDRW), Monte Carlo solution of the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE), and the spatial Markov model (SMM). Each model handles the correlation between the random walk steps using different techniques and has successfully reproduced the results of full-resolution transport simulations in DFNs. Read More

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Simulating Pollutant Dispersion from Accidental Fires with a Focus on Source Characterization.

J Health Pollut 2021 Jun 17;11(30):210612. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Politecnico di Milano, Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering "Giulio Natta", Milan, Italy.

Background: Storage tanks in oil and gas processing facilities contain large volumes of flammable compounds. Once the fuel-air mixture is ignited, it may break out into a large fire or explosion. The growing interest in monitoring air quality and assessing health risks makes the evaluation of the consequences of a fire an important issue. Read More

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Grape Leaf Black Rot Detection Based on Super-Resolution Image Enhancement and Deep Learning.

Front Plant Sci 2021 29;12:695749. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, China.

The disease spots on the grape leaves can be detected by using the image processing and deep learning methods. However, the accuracy and efficiency of the detection are still the challenges. The convolutional substrate information is fuzzy, and the detection results are not satisfactory if the disease spot is relatively small. Read More

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Assessing Biosynthetic Gene Cluster Diversity of Specialized Metabolites in the Conserved Gut Symbionts of Herbivorous Turtle Ants.

Front Microbiol 2021 29;12:678100. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

CNRS, UMR 8172 EcoFoG, AgroParisTech, Cirad, INRAE, Université des Antilles, Université de Guyane, Kourou, France.

are herbivorous ants (>115 species) feeding on low-nitrogen food sources, and they rely on gut symbionts to supplement their diet by recycling nitrogen food waste into amino acids. These conserved gut symbionts, which encompass five bacterial orders, have been studied previously for their primary nitrogen metabolism; however, little is known about their ability to biosynthesize specialized metabolites which can play a role in bacterial interactions between communities living in close proximity in the gut. To evaluate the biosynthetic potential of their gut symbionts, we mine 14 cultured isolate genomes and gut metagenomes across 17 species to explore the biodiversity of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) producing specialized metabolites. Read More

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True color 3D imaging optimization with missing spectral bands based on hyperspectral LiDAR.

Opt Express 2021 Jun;29(13):20406-20422

True color 3D imaging plays an essential role in expressing target characteristics and 3D scene reconstruction. It can express the colors, and spatial position of targets and is beneficial for classification and identification to investigate the target material. As a special case of target imaging, true color 3D imaging is important in understanding and reconstructing real scenes. Read More

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Nanodelivery vehicles induce remote biochemical changes .

Nanoscale 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts Amherst, 240 Thatcher Way, Life Sciences Laboratory, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

Nanomaterial-based platforms are promising vehicles for the controlled delivery of therapeutics. For these systems to be both efficacious and safe, it is essential to understand where the carriers accumulate and to reveal the site-specific biochemical effects they produce in vivo. Here, a dual-mode mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) method is used to evaluate the distributions and biochemical effects of anti-TNF-α nanoparticle stabilized capsules (NPSCs) in mice. Read More

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Agent-based models reveal limits of mark-release-recapture estimates for the rare butterfly, Bhutanitis thaidina (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

Insect Sci 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA.

Insect diversity and abundance are in drastic decline worldwide, but quantifying insect populations to better conserve them is a difficult task. Mark-release-recapture (MRR) is widely used as an ecological indicator for insect populations, but the accuracy of MRR estimates can vary with factors such as spatial scale, sampling effort and models of inference. We conducted a three-year MRR study of B. Read More

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