651,955 results match your criteria etiology chronic


Age-Related Macular Degeneration: From Epigenetics to Therapeutic Implications.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1256:221-235

Department of Ophthalmology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Aberrant regulation of epigenetic mechanisms, including the two most common types; DNA methylation and histone modification have been implicated in common chronic progressive conditions, including Alzheimer disease, cardiovascular disease, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). All these conditions are complex, meaning that environmental factors, genetic factors, and their interactions play a role in disease pathophysiology. Although genome wide association studies (GWAS), and studies on twins demonstrate the genetic/hereditary component to these complex diseases, including AMD, this contribution is much less than 100%. Read More

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January 2021

Persistent Joint Pain Following Arthropod Virus Infections.

Curr Rheumatol Rep 2021 Apr 13;23(4):26. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Medicine, George Washington University, 2150 Pennsylvania Ave Suite 5-416, Washington, DC, 20037, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Persistent joint pain is a common manifestation of arthropod-borne viral infections and can cause long-term disability. We review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of arthritogenic alphavirus infection.

Recent Findings: The global re-emergence of alphaviral outbreaks has led to an increase in virus-induced arthralgia and arthritis. Read More

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Clinical characteristics and outcome of influenza virus infection among adults hospitalized with severe COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study from Wuhan, China.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 12;21(1):341. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, the Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that rapidly spreads worldwide and co-infection of COVID-19 and influenza may occur in some cases. We aimed to describe clinical features and outcomes of severe COVID-19 patients with co-infection of influenza virus.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study was performed and a total of 140 patients with severe COVID-19 were enrolled in designated wards of Sino-French New City Branch of Tongji Hospital between Feb 8th and March 15th in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China. Read More

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Chronic Kidney Disease of Undetermined Etiology around the World.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2021 Apr 12:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Nephrology and Dialysis, G. Brotzu Hospital, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Background: Epidemics of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) are occurring on the Pacific coast of Central America, in Sri Lankan and Indian agricultural communities, and in other hotspots around the world. CKDu primarily affects male agricultural workers, and traditional risk factors such as diabetes and hypertension are not involved in the pathogenesis. Although a causal factor has not yet been identified, culprits include repeated volume depletion-induced kidney injury, as well as exposure to agrichemicals, heavy metals and nephrotoxins contained in drugs, beverages, and traditional medications. Read More

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[Hypopituitarism after traumatic brain injury].

Rev Med Chil 2020 Dec;148(12):1796-1805

Departamento de Endocrinología, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Hypopituitarism after moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is usually underdiagnosed and therefore undertreated. Its course can be divided in an acute phase during the first 14 days after TBI with 50 to 80% risk of hypopituitarism, and a chronic phase, beginning three months after the event, with a prevalence of hypopituitarism that ranges from 2 to 70%. Its pathophysiology has been addressed in several studies, suggesting that a vascular injury to the pituitary tissue is the most important mechanism during the acute phase, and an autoimmune one during chronic stages. Read More

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December 2020

[Endovascular management of chronic limb ischemia. Experience in 48 procedures].

Rev Med Chil 2020 Dec;148(12):1734-1741

Departamento cirugía vascular, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Background: Chronic limb ischemia can lead to high rates of limb loss and mortality. Open surgery is the gold standard for treatment of distal disease. Endovascular surgery should have less complications with similar outcomes. Read More

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December 2020

[Cancer in Chile and worldwide: an overview of the current and future epidemiological context].

Rev Med Chil 2020 Oct;148(10):1489-1495

Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Cancer is a chronic non-communicable disease associated with a high mortality burden. The prevalence of cancer is increasing rapidly worldwide. However, this scenario will be worse in low and middle-income countries such as Chile, where 70% of cancer deaths occur. Read More

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October 2020

Weathering the storm: COVID-19 infection in patients with hematological malignancies.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2020 Dec.;21(12):921-939

Bone Marrow Transplantation Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Within a matter of months, this highly contagious novel virus has led to a global outbreak and is still spreading rapidly across continents. In patients with COVID-19, underlying chronic diseases and comorbidities are associated with dismal treatment outcomes. Read More

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Cholesterol, Atherosclerosis, and APOE in Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia (VCID): Potential Mechanisms and Therapy.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 25;13:647990. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, United States.

Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) are a common cause of cognitive decline, yet limited therapies exist. This cerebrovascular disease results in neurodegeneration acute, chronic, local, and systemic mechanisms. The etiology of VCID is complex, with a significant impact from atherosclerosis. Read More

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Conditions Favoring Increased COVID-19 Morbidity and Mortality: Their Common Denominator and its Early Treatment.

Authors:
Eliot Shevel

Mo Med 2021 Mar-Apr;118(2):113-115

Head of the South African Headache Society, the South African affiliate of the International Headache Society. He is founder and practices at The Headache Clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa.

The factors contributing to increased morbidity and mortality in SARS-CoV-2 infection are diverse, and include diabetes, obesity, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), advanced age, and male sex. Although there is no obvious connection between these, they do have one common denominator-they all have a tendency towards lower urine pH, which may indicate a lower-than-normal tissue pH. Furthermore, it has been shown that lower pH has two important negative influences: 1) it enhances viral fusion via the endosomal route, thereby facilitating viral multiplication; and 2) it facilitates increased production of inflammatory cytokines, thereby exacerbating the cytokine storm. Read More

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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a patient with Richter's syndrome on combination DA-R-EPOCH chemotherapy regimen: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Apr 12;15(1):161. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, AMITA Health Saint Francis Hospital, 355 Ridge Ave, Evanston, IL, 60202, USA.

Background: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiologic entity characterized by headaches, altered mental status, seizures, visual loss, and a characteristic imaging pattern in brain magnetic resonance images. The exact etiology and pathogenesis of this condition are not yet fully elucidated.

Case Presentation: A 72-year-old White man presented with 2 weeks of low-grade fever and chills, night sweats, fatigue, dysphagia, and new-onset rapidly increasing cervical lymphadenopathy. Read More

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The current diagnosis and treatment of high-risk patients with chronic primary and secondary mitral valve regurgitation.

Authors:
Robert J Henning

Future Cardiol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA.

Mitral valve regurgitation (MR) is due primarily to either primary degeneration of the mitral valve with Barlow's or fibroelastic disease or is secondary to ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathies. Echocardiography is essential to assess MR etiology and severity, the remodeling of cardiac chambers and to characterize longitudinal chamber changes to determine optimal therapies. Surgery is recommended for severe primary MR if persistent symptoms are present or if left ventricle dysfunction is present with an EF <60% or a left ventricle end-systolic diameter ≥40 mm. Read More

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