4,187 results match your criteria estimating median

Modeling annual elevated blood lead levels among children in Maryland in relation to neighborhood deprivation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 15;805:150333. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Public Health, College of Life Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States of America.

Estimating environmental lead exposure using ecologic risk models is an inexpensive strategy to inform public health departments and to develop location-based intervention strategies such as targeted screening and mitigation. Importantly, studies in this area have not assessed temporal and spatio-temporal lead exposure risk trends. Due to lead abatement efforts and targeted screening efforts, it is anticipated that lead exposure risk has decreased over time. Read More

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September 2021

The Modified Pancreatitis Activity Scoring System Shows Distinct Trajectories in Acute Pancreatitis: An International Study.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, The Ohio State University, Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The aims of this study were to: 1) assess the performance of the pancreatitis activity scoring system (PASS) in a large intercontinental AP cohort, 2) investigate whether a modified PASS, yields a similar predictive accuracy and produces distinct early trajectories between severity subgroups.

Methods: Data was prospectively collected through the APPRENTICE consortium (2015-2018) involving 22 centers from four continents. AP severity was categorized per Revised Atlanta Classification. Read More

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September 2021

Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, selenium, and mercury in relation to sleep duration and sleep quality: findings from the CARDIA study.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, 622 W 168th Street, Room 16-20, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Purpose: To examine the associations of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCω3PUFA) intake with sleep quality and duration in a cohort of American young adults, and to explore whether the associations of interest are modified by selenium (Se) and/or mercury (Hg) status.

Methods: The study sample consisted of 3964 men and women from the longitudinal Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, aged 25.0 ± 3. Read More

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September 2021

Life expectancy estimates based on comorbidities and frailty to inform preventive care.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Oncology, Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Long-term prognostication is important to inform preventive care in older adults. Existing prediction indices incorporate age and comorbidities. Frailty is another important factor in prognostication. Read More

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September 2021

Fixed Versus Variable Dosing of Prothrombin Complex Concentrate for Bleeding Complications of Vitamin K Antagonists-The PROPER3 Randomized Clinical Trial.

Ann Emerg Med 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Haematology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Study Objective: To determine if a fixed dose of 1000 IU of 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) is as effective as traditional variable dosing based on body weight and international normalized ratio (INR) for reversal of vitamin K antagonist (VKA) anticoagulation.

Methods: In this open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial, patients with nonintracranial bleeds requiring VKA reversal with 4F-PCC were allocated to either a 1,000-IU fixed dose of 4F-PCC or the variable dose. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with effective hemostasis according to the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis definition. Read More

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September 2021

Cost Effectiveness of Durvalumab in Unresectable Stage III NSCLC: 4-Year Survival Update and Model Validation from a UK Healthcare Perspective.

Pharmacoecon Open 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Northern Centre for Cancer Care, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Background: In the phase III PACIFIC study, durvalumab improved survival versus placebo in patients with unresectable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose disease had not progressed after platinum-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy. The appraisal by the UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) included a cost-effectiveness analysis based on an early data readout from PACIFIC [March 2018 data cut-off (DCO); median follow-up duration 25.2 months; range 0. Read More

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September 2021

Association between maternal urinary selenium during pregnancy and newborn telomere length: results from a birth cohort study.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Maternal and Child Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Background: Newborn telomere length is considered as an effective predictor of lifespan and health outcomes in later life. Selenium is an essential trace element for human health, and its antioxidation is of great significance for the prevention of telomere erosion.

Methods: We recruited 746 mother-newborn pairs in Wuhan Children's Hospital between 2013 and 2015. Read More

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September 2021

Genotypic HIV-1 tropism determination might help to identify people with exhausted treatment options and advanced disease.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', Rome, Italy.

Objectives: To evaluate HIV-1 tropism in 1382 combined antiretroviral therapy (cART)-experienced patients failing therapy to characterize those with exhausted therapeutic options.

Methods: HIV-1 genotypic tropism was inferred through Geno2Pheno by estimating the false-positive-rate (FPR) values. Cumulative resistance and drug activity were evaluated by Stanford algorithm. Read More

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September 2021

Estimating the Number of Illnesses Caused by Agents Transmitted Commonly Through Food: A Scoping Review.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

(Retired) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Estimates of the overall human health impact of agents transmitted commonly through food complement surveillance and help guide food safety interventions and regulatory initiatives. The purpose of this scoping review was to summarize the methods and reporting practices used in studies that estimate the total number of illnesses caused by these agents. We identified and included 43 studies published from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2019, by searching PubMed and screening selected articles for other relevant publications. Read More

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September 2021

Renal Cortical Thickness After Pyeloplasty in Pediatric Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction.

Res Rep Urol 2021 9;13:699-704. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Songklanagarind Hospital, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand.

Purpose: The main goal of pyeloplasty is to maintain or improve renal function. Diuretic renography is the gold standard for evaluating renal function after pyeloplasty. Renal ultrasonography (RUS) is commonly used to determine hydronephrosis in pediatric patients. Read More

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September 2021

Comparison of machine learning methods for estimating case fatality ratios: An Ebola outbreak simulation study.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(9):e0257005. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Machine learning (ML) algorithms are now increasingly used in infectious disease epidemiology. Epidemiologists should understand how ML algorithms behave within the context of outbreak data where missingness of data is almost ubiquitous.

Methods: Using simulated data, we use a ML algorithmic framework to evaluate data imputation performance and the resulting case fatality ratio (CFR) estimates, focusing on the scale and type of data missingness (i. Read More

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September 2021

The association of prothrombin complex concentrates with postoperative outcomes in cardiac surgery: an observational substudy of the FIBRES randomized controlled trial.

Can J Anaesth 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, Toronto General Hospital - University Health Network, Sinai Health System, Women's College Hospital,, University of Toronto, 200 Elizabeth Street, 3EN-464, Toronto, ON, M5G 2C4, Canada.

Purpose: The mainstay of therapy for coagulation factor deficiency in cardiac surgical patients is frozen plasma (FP); however, prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) may offer logistical and safety advantages. As there is limited comparative evidence, we conducted this study to explore the association of comparable PCC or FP doses with transfusion and outcomes.

Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of a multicentre randomized trial comparing fibrinogen concentrate with cryoprecipitate (FIBRES trial) in bleeding cardiac surgical patients. Read More

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September 2021

Pre- and post-season visio-vestibular function in healthy adolescent athletes.

Phys Sportsmed 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Center for Injury Research and Prevention, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Objective: To evaluate pre- to post-season differences in individual subtests of the Visio-Vestibular Examination (VVE) in healthy middle and high school athletes.

Methods: This prospective cohort study recruited participants from a private suburban United States secondary school. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire prior to the start of their season. Read More

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September 2021

Carotid Doppler Ultrasonography for Hemodynamic Assessment in Critically Ill Children.

Pediatr Cardiol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Department of Pediatrics, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), 126, Tessália Vieira de Camargo Street., Campinas, SP, 13083-887, Brazil.

An accurate assessment of cardiovascular performance is essential to predict and evaluate hemodynamic response to interventions. The objective of this prospective study was to assess whether point-of-care ultrasonography of the common carotid artery (CCA) can estimate the stroke volume (SV) and cardiac index (Ci) of critically ill children. Participants underwent Doppler ultrasonography of the left CCA and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Read More

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September 2021

Contemporary Trends in the Treatment of Mild Ischemic Stroke with Intravenous Thrombolysis: Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Program.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Aug 17:1-7. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Division of Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: Presentation with mild symptoms is a common reason for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) nonuse among acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. We examined the impact of IVT on the outcomes of mild AIS over time.

Methods: Using the Paul Coverdell National Stroke Program data, we examined trends in IVT utilization from 2010 to 2019 among AIS patients presenting with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores ≤5. Read More

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Buprenorphine/naloxone associated with a reduced odds of fentanyl exposure among a cohort of people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Aug 28;228:109006. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

British Columbia Centre on Substance Use, 400-1045 Howe St, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6Z 2A9, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, 667-1081 Burrard St, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6Z 1Y6, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Little is known about the relationship between opioid agonist therapy (OAT) and fentanyl use, specifically. This study aimed to estimate the association between current use of different forms of OAT, including methadone, buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NX), slow release oral morphine (SROM), or injectable opioid agonist treatment (iOAT), and the likelihood of a fentanyl-positive urine drug test (UDT) as compared to no OAT.

Methods: Data were obtained from three community-recruited prospective cohort studies of people who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada from December 2016 through November 2018. Read More

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Is the Power Spectrum of Electromyography Signal a Feasible Tool to Estimate Muscle Fiber Composition in Patients with COPD?

J Clin Med 2021 Aug 25;10(17). Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Laboratory of Neuro-Biomechanics, Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy.

A greater proportion of glycolytic muscle fibers is a manifestation of skeletal muscle dysfunction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Here, we propose to use the spectral analysis of the electromyographic signal as a non-invasive approach to investigate the fiber muscle composition in COPD. We recorded the electromyographic activity of Rectus Femoris (RF), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Vastus Medialis (VM) and Biceps Femoris (BF) muscles, in ten patients and ten healthy individuals, during non-fatiguing, flexion-extension leg movements. Read More

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Association between tooth loss rate and risk of mild cognitive impairment in older adults: a population-based longitudinal study.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Sep 7;13(17):21599-21609. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a symptomatic predementia phase of the trajectory of cognitive decline, and its prevalence increases with age. Although the relationship between oral health and MCI have been explored previously, it is uncertain whether individuals with different tooth loss rates have altered MCI risks. We hereby conducted a longitudinal study by using data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to investigate the association. Read More

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September 2021

Arthralgia resolution rate following chikungunya virus infection.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Virology Department, Evotec ID, Lyon, France; Departments of Clinical Pharmacology, Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. Electronic address:

Background: Arthralgia, persistent pain or stiffness of joints, is the hallmark symptom of chronic chikungunya virus (CHIKV) disease. Associated with significant disability and reduced quality of life, arthralgia can persist for many months following CHIKV infection. Understanding the expected duration of arthralgia persistence is important for managing clinical expectations at the individual-level as well as for estimating long-term burdens on population health following a CHIKV epidemic. Read More

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September 2021

Applicability of Creatinine-based equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate in elderly Chinese patients.

BMC Geriatr 2021 09 4;21(1):481. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong Provincial Geriatrics Institute, Guangzhou, 510080, China.

Background: The accuracy of the estimated glomerular filter rate (eGFR) in elderly patients is debatable. In 2020, a new creatinine-based equation by European Kidney Function Consortium (EKFC) was applied to all age groups. The objective of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the new EKFC equation with Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI), Lund-Malmö Revised (LMR), Berlin Initiative Study 1 (BIS1), and full age spectrum (FAS) equations based on serum creatinine (SCR) for elderly Chinese patients. Read More

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September 2021

Characteristics of Upper and Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis and Predictors of Post-Thrombotic Syndrome in Children.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Canada.

Background/aims: Our understanding of predictors of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) in children is evolving. The present study aimed to investigate differences in patient- and DVT-related characteristics between central venous catheter (CVC) and non-CVC-related thrombosis in children and to study early PTS predictors.

Methods: Children aged 0-18 years were recruited ≥6 months after imaging-proven upper (UE) or lower extremity (LE) DVT. Read More

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September 2021

On-treatment HBV RNA dynamic predicts entecavir-induced HBeAg seroconversion in children with chronic hepatitis B.

J Infect 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Nanxishan Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Guilin, China.

Background: Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion is an important intermediate outcome in HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients. This study aimed to explore whether hepatitis B virus (HBV) RNA serum levels can predict HBeAg seroconversion treated with entecavir.

Methods: Serum samples from HBeAg-positive children previously treated with entecavir were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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Causality indices for bivariate time series data: A comparative review of performance.

Chaos 2021 Aug;31(8):083111

Cambridge Centre for Artificial Intelligence in Medicine and Division of Anaesthesia, Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom.

Inferring nonlinear and asymmetric causal relationships between multivariate longitudinal data is a challenging task with wide-ranging application areas including clinical medicine, mathematical biology, economics, and environmental research. A number of methods for inferring causal relationships within complex dynamic and stochastic systems have been proposed, but there is not a unified consistent definition of causality in the context of time series data. We evaluate the performance of ten prominent causality indices for bivariate time series across four simulated model systems that have different coupling schemes and characteristics. Read More

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Amniotic fluid index measurements in the second and third trimester and correlation to fetal biometric parameters - new reference based on a big retrospective data.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Sep 1:1-5. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat-Gan, Israel.

Introduction: Estimation of amniotic fluid volume (AFV) is part of routine obstetric sonography which reflects maternal-fetal circulation efficiency, fetal hemodynamic status, and a parameter for predicting adverse neonatal outcome. Fetal weight is positively correlated with AFV. Therefore, our objective is to provide a new nomogram of AFV indices and to evaluate the relation between AFV and fetal biometric parameters. Read More

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September 2021

Association of Surgical Experience With Risk of Complication in Total Hip Arthroplasty Among Patients With Severe Obesity.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2123478. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Importance: Severe obesity is a risk factor for major early complications after total hip arthroplasty (THA).

Objective: To determine the association between surgeon experience with THA in patients with severe obesity and risk of complications.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective population-based cohort study was performed in Ontario, Canada, from April 1, 2007, to March 31, 2017, with data analysis performed from March 2020 to January 2021. Read More

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September 2021

Measurement of compensatory arterial remodelling over time with serial coronary computed tomography angiography and 3D metrics.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul, South Korea.

Aims: The magnitude of alterations in which coronary arteries remodel and narrow over time is not well understood. We aimed to examine changes in coronary arterial remodelling and luminal narrowing by three-dimensional (3D) metrics from serial coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA).

Methods And Results: From a multicentre registry of patients with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent clinically indicated serial CCTA (median interscan interval = 3. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of Pregnancy on EGFR After Kidney Transplantation: a National Cohort Study.

Transplantation 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Erasmus MC Transplant Institute, Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Department of Obstetrics, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital Birth Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands Department of Nephrology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Department of Nephrology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Background: The effect of pregnancy on the course of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is unknown in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs).

Methods: We conducted a nationwide multicenter cohort study in KTRs with pregnancy (>20 weeks) after kidney transplantation (KT). Annual eGFR's after KT until death or graft loss and additional eGFR's before each pregnancy were collected according to protocol. Read More

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Association of triclosan and triclocarban in urine with obesity risk in Chinese school children.

Environ Int 2021 Aug 26;157:106846. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education/School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

Background: Laboratory studies have suggested that triclosan and triclocarban can influence energy metabolism by multiple mechanisms and are potential obesogens, but the effect on obesity risk has not been well investigated in human.

Objective: To examine the associations of triclosan and triclocarban in urine with childhood obesity.

Methods: We investigated 458 school children aged 7-11 years who entered a dynamic cohort of children established in Shanghai in 2019 and 2020. Read More

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Real-Time Quality Index to Control Data Loss in Real-Life Cardiac Monitoring Applications.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Aug 9;21(16). Epub 2021 Aug 9.

LPNC UMR 5105, Univ. Grenoble Alpes & CNRS, F-38040 Grenoble, France.

Wearable cardiac sensors pave the way for advanced cardiac monitoring applications based on heart rate variability (HRV). In real-life settings, heart rate (HR) measurements are subject to motion artifacts that may lead to frequent data loss (missing samples in the HR signal), especially for commercial devices based on photoplethysmography (PPG). The current study had two main goals: (i) to provide a white-box quality index that estimates the amount of missing samples in any piece of HR signal; and (ii) to quantify the impact of data loss on feature extraction in a PPG-based HR signal. Read More

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