229,359 results match your criteria estimates

The Social Value of Improvement in Activities of Daily Living among the Advanced Parkinson's Disease Population.

Forum Health Econ Policy 2020 Nov 25;23(2):1-23. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

AbbVie, Health Economics and Outcomes Research, 1 North Waukegan Rd, D-GMH1, AP31-1E, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA.

Objectives: Quantify the value of functional status (FS) improvements consistent in magnitude with improvements due to levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) treatment, among the advanced Parkinson's disease (APD) population.

Methods: The Health Economic Medical Innovation Simulation (THEMIS), a microsimulation that estimates future health conditions and medical spending, was used to quantify the health and cost burden of disability among the APD population, and the value of quality-adjusted life-years gained from FS improvement due to LCIG treatment compared to standard of care (SoC). A US-representative Parkinson's disease (PD)-comparable cohort was constructed in THEMIS based on observed PD patient characteristics in a nationally representative dataset. Read More

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November 2020

Variability in real-world emissions and fuel consumption by diesel construction vehicles and policy implications.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 22;786:147256. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Research Center for Eco-Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan 523830, China. Electronic address:

Strategically reducing the emission of non-road mobile source especially diesel construction vehicle (DCV) has a large potential in improving air quality and has attracted much scientific and public attention in recent years around the world. In this study, we explored real-world fuel consumption rate and gaseous emissions factors for multiple pollutants of three typical DCVs in China. The sampling campaign considered the operation mode, cumulative operation hour, emission standard stage and engine power. Read More

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Extended divergence estimates and species descriptions of new craspedid choanoflagellates from the Atacama Desert, Northern Chile.

Eur J Protistol 2021 Apr 23;79:125798. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

University of Cologne, Cologne Biocenter, Institute of Zoology, General Ecology, Zuelpicher Str. 47b, D-50674 Cologne, Germany. Electronic address:

In contrast to previous perspectives, hypersaline environments have been proven to harbour a variety of potentially highly adapted microorganisms, in particular unicellular eukaryotes. The isolated, hypersaline waterbodies in the Atacama Desert, Northern Chile are exposed to high UV radiation and deposition of toxic heavy metals, making them of great interest regarding studies on speciation and evolutionary processes. In the past two years, among a variety of other protist species, five new species of heterotrophic choanoflagellates were described and analysed from this area, showing an adaptation to a broad range of salinities. Read More

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Effect of aortic valve type on patients who undergo Type A aortic dissection repair.

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich.

Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is common in the setting of type A aortic dissection (TAAD) repair. Here, we evaluated the association between prosthesis choice and patient outcomes in an international patient cohort. We reviewed data from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD) interventional cohort to examine the relationship between valve choice and short- and mid-term patient outcomes. Read More

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Biogeographic origins of southern African Silene (Caryophyllaceae).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 May 10:107199. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Carl Skottsbergs Gata 22 B, 413 19 Gothenburg, Sweden; Gothenburg Global Biodiversity Centre, Box 461, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.

Silene (Caryophyllaceae) is distributed predominantly in the northern Hemisphere, where it is most diverse around the Mediterranean Basin. The genus is also well represented in North Africa, extending into tropical, sub-Saharan and southern Africa. Eight native species are recognized in southern Africa, taxonomically placed in two sections: Elisanthe and Silene s. Read More

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Load-velocity relationship in the horizontal leg-press exercise in older women and men.

Exp Gerontol 2021 May 10:111391. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Sport Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal; Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development, CIDESD, Covilhã, Portugal. Electronic address:

This study analyzed the predictive ability of movement velocity to estimate the relative load (i.e., % of one-repetition maximum [1RM]) during the horizontal leg-press exercise in older women and men. Read More

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Maternal Weight Gain and Pregnancy Outcomes in Twin Gestations.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lis Maternity Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Data on the optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) in twin pregnancies are limited. As a result, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) currently provides only provisional recommendations on GWG in this population.

Objective: To identify the optimal range of GWG in twin pregnancies and to estimate the association between inappropriate GWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Read More

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An investment case for the prevention and management of rheumatic heart disease in the African Union 2021-30: a modelling study.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Global Health Equity, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Program in Global Noncommunicable Disease and Social Change, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Partners In Health, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Despite declines in deaths from rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in Africa over the past 30 years, it remains a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality on the continent. We present an investment case for interventions to prevent and manage RHD in the African Union (AU).

Methods: We created a cohort state-transition model to estimate key outcomes in the disease process, including cases of pharyngitis from group A streptococcus, episodes of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), cases of RHD, heart failure, and deaths. Read More

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Health utility in preclinical and prodromal Alzheimer's disease for establishing the value of new disease-modifying treatments-EQ-5D data from the Swedish BioFINDER study.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Clinical Memory Research Unit, Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Quality of life and health utility are important outcomes for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and central for demonstrating the value of new treatments. Estimates in biomarker-confirmed AD populations are missing, potentially delaying payer approval of treatment. We examined whether health utility, assessed with the EuroQoL-5 3-level version (EQ-5D-3L), differed between individuals with a positive or negative amyloid beta (Aβ) biomarker in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitively unimpaired (CU) participants from the Swedish BioFINDER study (n = 578). Read More

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Surgical treatment for cryptoglandular and Crohn's perianal fistulas: Protocol of an umbrella review.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251460. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Anorectal Surgery, Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: A high prevalence of cryptoglandular and Crohn's perianal fistulas has been reported worldwide, and several surgical options are available for the management of anal fistula, with varying clinical efficacy. However, currently, the available evidence for the effectiveness of these surgical approaches are lacking and of concern in terms of the credibility and strength. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the credibility of the published systematic reviews and meta-analyses that assess the efficacy and safety of the surgical options for cryptoglandular and Crohn's perianal fistulas through an umbrella review. Read More

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The Ayeyarwady River (Myanmar): Washload transport and its global role among rivers in the Anthropocene.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251156. Epub 2021 May 13.

Institute of Environmental Sciences, Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus, Germany.

The Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy) is the second largest river of Southeast Asia and one of the rivers with the highest load of suspended sediment delivered to the sea in the world. The Ayeyarwady is the lifeline of Myanmar which concentrates the majority of the population and GDP of the country. It is the main way of transport, a source of fluvial aggregates for development projects, hydropower, and the basin plays a major role in food supply and irrigation. Read More

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Multi-population stochastic modeling of Ebola in Sierra Leone: Investigation of spatial heterogeneity.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250765. Epub 2021 May 13.

Interuniversity Institute for Statistics and Statistical Bioinformatics, Data Science Institute, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium.

A major outbreak of the Ebola virus occurred in 2014 in Sierra Leone. We investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the outbreak among districts in Sierra Leone. The stochastic discrete-time susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed (SEIR) model is used, allowing for probabilistic movements from one compartment to another. Read More

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Surveillance of Vaccination Coverage Among Adult Populations -United States, 2018.

MMWR Surveill Summ 2021 May 14;70(3):1-26. Epub 2021 May 14.

Problem/condition: Adults are at risk for illness, hospitalization, disability and, in some cases, death from vaccine-preventable diseases, particularly influenza and pneumococcal disease. CDC recommends vaccinations for adults on the basis of age, health conditions, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U. Read More

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Assessing Differential Statement Functioning in Polytomous Multidimensional Pairwise Comparison Items.

Xue-Lan Qiu

J Appl Meas 2020 ;21(3):329-346

Xue-Lan Qiu, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong,

Multidimensional pairwise comparison (MPC) items have been widely used to assess career interest, value and personality to avoid response bias in educational sectors. In reality, a statement in an MPC item may have different utilities for different groups, which is referred to as differential statement functioning (DSF). Few studies have been investigated DSF assessment. Read More

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January 2020

Evaluating Longitudinal Anchoring Methods for Rasch Models.

J Appl Meas 2020 ;21(3):294-312

Tara Valladares, 120 Westwood Circle, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA,

Because modern, simultaneously estimated longitudinal Rasch models are unable to handle many timepoints, new methods of producing person and item estimates and evaluating test function are necessary. Longitudinal anchoring, in which a common scale of item parameters is used to estimate trait levels over multiple occasions, is a potential solution. With proper anchoring procedures, person and item estimates can be obtained without limiting the number of timepoints that can be analyzed. Read More

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January 2020

A two-step, test-guided Mokken scale analysis, for nonclustered and clustered data.

Qual Life Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Research Institute of Child Development and Education, University of Amsterdam, P. O. Box 15776, 1001 NG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Mokken scale analysis (MSA) is an attractive scaling procedure for ordinal data. MSA is frequently used in health-related quality of life research. Two of MSA's prime features are the scalability coefficients and the automated item selection procedure (AISP). Read More

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Comparison of the Quality of Chronic Disease Management Between Adults With and Without Dementia.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e219622. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Health Policy and Management, UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles), Fielding School of Public Health.

Importance: Adults with dementia may experience poorer quality of chronic disease management because of the difficulty in reporting symptoms and engaging in shared decision-making associated with cognitive impairment.

Objective: To compare the quality of chronic disease management received by adults with and without dementia.

Design, Setting, And Participants: For this cross-sectional study, nationally representative data from noninstitutionalized patients 65 years or older were obtained from the 2002-2015 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Read More

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Prevalence of Visual Acuity Loss or Blindness in the US: A Bayesian Meta-analysis.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

NORC at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Importance: Globally, more than 250 million people live with visual acuity loss or blindness, and people in the US fear losing vision more than memory, hearing, or speech. But it appears there are no recent empirical estimates of visual acuity loss or blindness for the US.

Objective: To produce estimates of visual acuity loss and blindness by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and US state. Read More

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Increasing Rates of Opioid Prescriptions for Gastrointestinal Diseases in the United States.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;116(4):796-807

1Department of Medicine and Vatche & Tamar Manoukian Division of Digestive Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Introduction: Pain control is an important management approach for many gastrointestinal conditions. Because of the ongoing opioid crisis, public health efforts have focused on limiting opioid prescriptions. This study examines national opioid prescribing patterns and factors associated with opioid prescriptions for gastrointestinal conditions. Read More

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Soil sample pooling generates no consistent inference bias: a meta-analysis of 71 plant-soil feedback experiments.

New Phytol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Bio-Protection Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, 8140, New Zealand.

There is current debate on how soil sample pooling affects the measurement of plant-soil feedbacks. Several studies have suggested that pooling soil samples among experimental units reduces variance and can bias estimates of plant-soil feedbacks. However, it is unclear whether pooling has resulted in systematic mismeasurement of plant-soil feedbacks in the literature. Read More

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Modeling and Simulation to Predict the Degree of Disability over Time in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Disability in acute stroke patients varies over time, with the prediction of outcomes being critical for proper management. This study aimed to develop a model to predict the cumulative probability of each modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score over time with inclusion of significant covariates. Longitudinal data obtained from 193 patients, 1-24 months after onset of acute ischemic stroke, were included for a modeling analysis using NONMEM . Read More

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Are body surface area (BSA) based estimates of liver volume applicable to children with overweight or obesity? An in-vivo validation study.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Children's Mercy Kansas City, Kansas City.

The liver is the primary organ responsible for clearing most drugs from the body and thus determines systemic drug concentrations over time. Drug clearance by the liver appears to be directly related to organ size. In children, organ size changes as children age and grow. Read More

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Integr Environ Assess Manag 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive, 69100, Villeurbanne, France.

Today, only few ready-to-use and convenient decision-making tools are available in ecotoxicology concerning accumulation and effects of chemical substances on organisms, accounting for exposure situations that are known to be complex (routes of exposure, metabolism, mixtures, etc.). This paper presents new perspectives on the generic calculation of bioaccumulation metrics via the innovative web tool MOSAIC (http://mosaic. Read More

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Racial/ethnic disparities in use of surveillance mammogram among breast cancer survivors: a systematic review.

J Cancer Surviv 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public Health, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Increasing number of breast cancer survivors in the USA have led to greater focus on the long-term health outcomes and surveillance care among these women. However limited evidence exists of use of surveillance mammography among breast cancer survivors and how it varies across racial/ethnic groups.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature to explore disparities in use of surveillance mammogram among women breast cancer survivors by searching for relevant studies published between 2000 and 2020 from Medline (Ovid), PubMed (National Library of Medicine), and PsycINFO (Ovid) bibliographic databases. Read More

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Patterns of Growth in Childhood in Relation to Adult Schooling Attainment and Intelligence Quotient in 6 Birth Cohorts in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Evidence from the Consortium of Health-Oriented Research in Transitioning Societies (COHORTS).

J Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Nutrition and Health Sciences, Laney Graduate School, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Growth faltering has been associated with poor intellectual performance. The relative strengths of associations between growth in early and in later childhood remain underexplored.

Objectives: We examined the association between growth in childhood and adult human capital in 5 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Read More

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Causal Effects of N-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Age-related Macular Degeneration: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Eye Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009, Zhejiang Province, China.

Purpose: Although the role of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been studied in previous observational studies, the precise manner in which one or more n-6 PUFAs account for this relationship remains unclear. Using genetic instruments for n-6 PUFAs traits implemented through mendelian randomization (MR), we aimed to study possible causal associations between n-6 PUFAs and AMD.

Methods: The two-sample MR method was used to obtain unconfounded causal estimates. Read More

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An educated guess - Distance estimation by surgeons.

Surg Open Sci 2020 Jul 30;2(3):113-116. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

University of Maryland, Department of Surgery, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Introduction: Estimating distance is a common task in surgery, yet development of distance estimation ability receives little attention in surgical training. Although the Small bites versus large bites for closure of abdominal midline incisions (STITCH) trial reinforced the importance of suture spacing by demonstrating reduced incisional hernia incidence in placement of 5-mm fascial sutures over 1 cm, we hypothesize that neither trainee nor attending surgeons possess the ability to estimate these distances with accuracy.

Methods: We distributed a 4-question distance estimation exercise and a 6-question survey to resident and attending surgeons at a single academic medical center. Read More

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Depth estimates of anomalous subsurface sources using 2D/3D modeling of potential field data: implications for groundwater dynamics in the Ziway-Shala Lakes Basin, Central Main Ethiopian Rift.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 20;7(4):e06843. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Addis Ababa University Institute of Geophysics, Space Science and Astronomy (IGSSA), Ethiopia.

Quantitative analysis of potential field data are made in the Ziway-Shala lakes basin over an area bounded by 3800' E - 3930' E and 700' N - 830' N. Most previous geophysical studies in the region under consideration focus on mapping the deep crustal structures and undulation of the Moho depth. Only few studies are targeted at mapping the shallow subsurface structures. Read More

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The Burr III-Topp-Leone-G family of distributions with applications.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 19;7(4):e06534. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Botswana International University of Science and Technology, P. Bag 16, Palapye, Botswana.

In this article, we present a new family of generalized distributions called the Burr III-Topp-Leone-G (BIII-TL-G). We further study in detail its structural properties including moments, probability weighted moments, distribution of order statistics, and entropy. The maximum likelihood estimation method is used to estimate the model parameters. Read More

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Prevalence of keratoconus in persons with Down syndrome: a review.

BMJ Open Ophthalmol 2021 21;6(1):e000754. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: Keratoconus is a vision-threatening condition, and there is a need for knowledge about the occurrence in subgroups of the population. The progression of the disease can be effectively stopped, and vision may be restored, if keratoconus is diagnosed at an early stage. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the literature of the prevalence of keratoconus in persons with Down syndrome. Read More

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