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Organometallic dendrimers based on Ruthenium(II) N-heterocyclic carbenes and their implication as delivery systems of anticancer small interfering RNA.

J Inorg Biochem 2021 Jul 9;223:111540. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, and Research Institute in Chemistry "Andrés M. Del Río" (IQAR), University of Alcalá, Madrid, Spain; Ramón y Cajal Health Research Institute (IRYCIS), IRYCIS, Spain; Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Spain. Electronic address:

With the purpose of obtaining a new dendritic system against cancer, this paper is focused on the synthesis of spherical carbosilane metallodendrimers of different generations holding Ru(II) N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) on the periphery from the imidazolium precursors. Both imidazolium salt dendrimers and their metallodendrimers counterparts showed promising anticancer activity, similar to cisplatin, mainly at high generations. In addition, both families of second and third generations were able to form dendriplexes with anticancer small interfering RNA (siRNA), protecting the cargo against RNAse and being able to internalize it in HEPG2 (human liver cancer) tumour cells. Read More

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Correlation of lesional uptake parameters and ratios with miPSMA score and estimating normal physiological concentration: an exploratory analysis in mCRPC patients with Ga-PSMA-11 PET-CT.

J Nucl Med Technol 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Radiation Medicine Centre (BARC), India.

The employment of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-based PET-CT imaging has grown rapidly over the recent years. The aim of the present study was to estimate the lesional uptake across the different levels of molecular imaging PSMA (miPSMA) expression score along with normal physiological concentration of Ga-PSMA-11 in a cohort of mCRPC patients including their temporal variation on delayed imaging. Fifty patients of mCRPC who were being evaluated for Lu-PSMA PRLT, and underwent Ga-PSMA-11 PET-CT for evaluation of disease status, were retrospectively evaluated. Read More

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Ray-tracing analysis for cross-polarization scattering diagnostic on MAST-upgrade spherical tokamak.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Jun;92(6):063505

Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.

A combined Doppler backscattering/cross-polarization scattering (DBS/CPS) system is being deployed on MAST-U for simultaneous measurements of local density turbulence, turbulence flows, and magnetic turbulence. In this design, CPS shares the probing beam with the DBS and uses a separate parallel-viewing receiver system. In this study, we utilize a modified GENRAY 3D ray-tracing code to simulate the propagation of the probing and scattered beams. Read More

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Scan-rescan repeatability of axonal imaging metrics using high-gradient diffusion MRI and statistical implications for study design.

Neuroimage 2021 Jul 1;240:118323. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States. Electronic address:

Axon diameter mapping using diffusion MRI in the living human brain has attracted growing interests with the increasing availability of high gradient strength MRI systems. A systematic assessment of the consistency of axon diameter estimates within and between individuals is needed to gain a comprehensive understanding of how such methods extend to quantifying differences in axon diameter index between groups and facilitate the design of neurobiological studies using such measures. We examined the scan-rescan repeatability of axon diameter index estimation based on the spherical mean technique (SMT) approach using diffusion MRI data acquired with gradient strengths up to 300 mT/m on a 3T Connectom system in 7 healthy volunteers. Read More

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Preclinical Assessment of Ursolic Acid Loaded into Nanostructured Lipid Carriers in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Jun 19;13(6). Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Praça Infante Dom Henrique, s/n, São Vicente, 11330-900 São Paulo, Brazil.

Ursolic acid, a triterpene produced by plants, displayed leishmanicidal activity in vitro and in vivo; however, the low solubility of this triterpene limits its efficacy. To increase the activity of ursolic acid (UA), this triterpene was entrapped in nanostructured lipid carriers (UA-NLC), physical-chemical parameters were estimated, the toxicity was assayed in healthy golden hamsters, and the efficacy of UA-NLC was studied in experimental visceral leishmanisis. UA-NLC exhibited a spherical shape with a smooth surface with a size of 266 nm. Read More

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5-Fluorouracil Encapsulated Chitosan-Cellulose Fiber Bionanocomposites: Synthesis, Characterization and In Vitro Analysis towards Colorectal Cancer Cells.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Jun 28;11(7). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra, Kuala Lumpur 54100, Malaysia.

Cellulose and chitosan with remarkable biocompatibility and sophisticated physiochemical characteristics can be a new dawn to the advanced drug nano-carriers in cancer treatment. This study aims to synthesize layer-by-layer bionanocomposites from chitosan and rice straw cellulose encapsulated 5-Fluorouracil (CS-CF/5FU BNCs) using the ionic gelation method and the sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) cross-linker. Data from X-ray and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed successful preparation of CS-CF/5FU BNCs. Read More

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Redox responsive activity regulation in exceptionally stable supramolecular assembly and co-assembly of a protein.

Chem Sci 2020 Nov 17;12(3):1101-1108. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

School of Applied and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science 2A and 2B Raja S. C. Mullick Road Kolkata India-700032

Supramolecular assembly of biomolecules/macromolecules stems from the desire to mimic complex biological structures and functions of living organisms. While DNA nanotechnology is already in an advanced stage, protein assembly is still in its infancy as it is a significantly difficult task due to their large molecular weight, conformational complexity and structural instability towards variation in temperature, pH or ionic strength. This article reports highly stable redox-responsive supramolecular assembly of a protein Bovine serum albumin (BSA) which is functionalized with a supramolecular structure directing unit (SSDU). Read More

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November 2020

Radiobiological evaluation considering setup error on single-isocenter irradiation in stereotactic radiosurgery.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2021 Jul 20;22(7):266-275. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Department of Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan.

Purpose: We calculated the dosimetric indices and estimated the tumor control probability (TCP) considering six degree-of-freedom (6DoF) patient setup errors in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) using a single-isocenter technique.

Methods: We used simulated spherical gross tumor volumes (GTVs) with diameters of 1.0 cm (GTV 1), 2. Read More

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Fiber orientation distribution from diffusion MRI: Effects of inaccurate response function calibration.

J Neuroimaging 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Background And Purpose: Diffusion MRI of the brain enables to quantify white matter fiber orientations noninvasively. Several approaches have been proposed to estimate such characteristics from diffusion MRI data with spherical deconvolution being one of the most widely used methods. Spherical deconvolution requires to define--or derive from the data--a response function, which is used to compute the fiber orientation distribution (FOD). Read More

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Effect of Renamezin upon attenuation of renal function decline in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients: 24-week prospective observational cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(6):e0252186. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Renamezin® is a modified capsule-type oral spherical adsorptive carbon which lowers indoxyl sulfate levels in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). This 24-week prospective observational cohort study was performed to evaluate the effect of Renamezin® upon attenuation of renal function decline. A total of 1,149 adult patients with baseline serum creatinine 2. Read More

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Vertical saccadic palsy and foveal retinal thinning in Niemann-Pick disease type C.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(6):e0252825. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Introduction: Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) is a lysosomal storage disease that is progressive and life-limiting, with an estimated incidence of 1:120,000 live births. In addition to systemic manifestation with (hepato-)splenomegaly, there are a number of neurological manifestations (ataxia, dysarthria, dementia, cataplexy, epileptic seizures, and psychiatric disorders). Characteristic is vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, which is often overlooked. Read More

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Remote Sensing of Dispersed Oil Pollution in the Ocean-The Role of Chlorophyll Concentration.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 13;21(10). Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Physics, Gdynia Maritime University, ul. Morska 81-87, 81-225 Gdynia, Poland.

In the contrary to surface oil slicks, dispersed oil pollution is not yet detected or monitored on regular basis. The possible range of changes of the local optical properties of seawater caused by the occurrence of dispersed oil, as well as the dependencies of changes on various physical and environmental factors, can be estimated using simulation techniques. Two models were combined to examine the influence of oceanic water type on the visibility of dispersed oil: the Monte Carlo radiative transfer model and the Lorenz-Mie model for spherical oil droplets suspended in seawater. Read More

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Design and Optimization of Orally Administered Luteolin Nanoethosomes to Enhance Its Anti-Tumor Activity against Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Pharmaceutics 2021 May 2;13(5). Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Port Said University, Port Said 42515, Egypt.

Luteolin (LUT) is a natural flavonoid with low oral bioavailability with restricted clinical applications due to its low solubility. LUT shows significant anti-tumor activity in many cancer cells, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The most recent trend in pharmaceutical innovations is the application of phospholipid vesicles to improve the solubility of such hydrophobic drugs. Read More

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ROS-Mediated Apoptosis Induced by BSA Nanospheres Encapsulated with Fruit Extract of in Various Human Cancer Cell Lines.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 6;6(15):10383-10395. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Central University of Rajasthan, NH-8, Bandarsindri, Kishangarh, 305817 Ajmer, Rajasthan, India.

In recent decades, biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles have been used as a nanocarrier for the delivery of anticancer drugs. In the present study, we synthesize bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanospheres and evaluate their ability to incorporate a plant extract with anticancer activity. The plant extract used was the methanol fruit extract of , which is a medicinal herb. Read More

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Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Environmental Monitoring of Aerosols.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 6;6(15):10150-10159. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, D.C. 20375, United States.

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is conducted from single aerosol particles held in a linear electrodynamic quadrupole trap. SERS measurements from two representative types of ambient aerosol particles, semi-liquid and solid aerosols, are demonstrated; aerosol composed of adenine where the metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) are volume distributed throughout the particle and aerosol composed of polystyrene latex (PSL) beads where the MNPs are surface coated. An enhancement factor > 10 is demonstrated from 5 μm aerosols containing trace amounts of adenine (0. Read More

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A Comparison of Intraocular Lens Power Calculation Formulas in High Myopia.

J Refract Surg 2021 Mar 18;37(3):207-211. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Purpose: To comparatively evaluate the accuracy of newer intraocular lens (IOL) calculation formulas and common third-generation formulas after Wang-Koch adjustment in the prediction of postoperative refraction in highly myopic eyes.

Methods: This was a retrospective study including eyes with high myopia that had uncomplicated cataract surgery with implantation of an AcrySof MA60MA IOL (power range: -5.00 to +5. Read More

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Dissolution and solubility of calcite-rhodochrosite solid solutions [(CaMn)CO] at 25 °C.

Geochem Trans 2021 May 26;22(1). Epub 2021 May 26.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, 541004, China.

A complete series of calcite-rhodochrosite solid solutions [(CaMn)CO] are prepared, and their dissolution processes in various water samples are experimentally investigated. The crystal morphologies of the solid solutions vary from blocky spherical crystal aggregates to smaller spheres with an increasing incorporation of Mn in the solids. Regarding dissolution in N-degassed water, air-saturated water and CO-saturated water at 25 °C, the aqueous Ca and Mn concentrations reach their highest values after 1240-2400 h, 6-12 h and < 1 h, respectively, and then decrease gradually to a steady state; additionally, the ion activity products (log_IAP) at the final steady state (≈ solubility products in log_K) are estimated to be - 8. Read More

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Numerical simulation of critical particle size in asymmetrical deterministic lateral displacement.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Jul 3;1649:462216. Epub 2021 May 3.

Small Medical Devices, BioMEMS & LoC Lab, School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 11155-463, Iran.

Microfluidics devices are widely used for particle separation. Deterministic Lateral Displacement (DLD) is a passive method for particle separation. DLD devices mainly separate particles based on their sizes. Read More

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Local meteorological conditions, shape and desiccation influence dispersal capabilities for airborne microorganisms.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 20;780:146653. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Biology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

The atmosphere plays an important role in the dispersal of microorganisms, as well as in the connectivity of most of the planet's ecosystems. In recent decades, interest in microbial diversity and dispersion in the atmosphere has increased due to its importance in various fields. However, there are few studies on the abundance of airborne microorganisms and the factors, such as meteorology, that affect their distribution. Read More

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SPHERIOUSLY? The challenges of estimating sphere radius non-invasively in the human brain from diffusion MRI.

Neuroimage 2021 08 19;237:118183. Epub 2021 May 19.

Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre (CUBRIC), School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The Soma and Neurite Density Imaging (SANDI) three-compartment model was recently proposed to disentangle cylindrical and spherical geometries, attributed to neurite and soma compartments, respectively, in brain tissue. There are some recent advances in diffusion-weighted MRI signal encoding and analysis (including the use of multiple so-called 'b-tensor' encodings and analysing the signal in the frequency-domain) that have not yet been applied in the context of SANDI. In this work, using: (i) ultra-strong gradients; (ii) a combination of linear, planar, and spherical b-tensor encodings; and (iii) analysing the signal in the frequency domain, three main challenges to robust estimation of sphere size were identified: First, the Rician noise floor in magnitude-reconstructed data biases estimates of sphere properties in a non-uniform fashion. Read More

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Ratio of torus and equivalent power to refractive cylinder and spherical equivalent in phakic lenses - a Monte-Carlo simulation study.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Ophthalmology, Semmelweis-University, Budapest, Hungary.

Background: Spherical and astigmatic powers for phakic intraocular lenses are frequently calculated using fixed ratios of phakic lens refractive power to refractive spherical equivalent, and of phakic lens astigmatism to refractive cylinder. In this study, a Monte-Carlo simulation based on biometric data was used to investigate how variations in biometrics affect these ratios, in order to improve the calculation of implantable lens parameters.

Methods: A data set of over sixteen thousand biometric measurements including axial length, phakic anterior chamber depth, and corneal equivalent and astigmatic power was used to construct a multidimensional probability density distribution. Read More

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Determining the Theoretical Effective Lens Position of Thick Intraocular Lenses for Machine Learning-Based IOL Power Calculation and Simulation.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 04;10(4):27

Department of Ophthalmology, Rothschild Foundation Hospital, Paris, France.

Purpose: To describe a formula to back-calculate the theoretical position of the principal object plane of an intraocular lens (IOL), as well as the theoretical anatomic position in a thick lens eye model. A study was conducted to ascertain the impact of variations in design and IOL power, on the refractive outcomes of cataract surgery.

Methods: A schematic eye model was designed and manipulated to reflect changes in the anterior and posterior radii of an IOL, while keeping the central thickness and paraxial powers static. Read More

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First Report of Root Rot of Tobacco Caused by Fusarium brachygibbosum in China.

Plant Dis 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Xuchang, China;

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is an important cash crop in China, with an estimated production of 2.2 million tons every year (Berbeć and Matyka, 2020). Read More

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Gray Matter Sampling Differences Between Subdural Electrodes and Stereoelectroencephalography Electrodes.

Front Neurol 2021 27;12:669406. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Radiology, Jefferson Integrated Magnetic Resonance Imaging Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) has seen a recent increase in popularity in North America; however, concerns regarding the spatial sampling capabilities of SEEG remain. We aimed to quantify and compare the spatial sampling of subdural electrode (SDE) and SEEG implants. Patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who underwent invasive monitoring were included in this retrospective case-control study. Read More

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Convolutional neural network for estimating physical parameters from Newton's rings.

Appl Opt 2021 May;60(13):3964-3970

By analyzing Newton's rings, often encountered in interferometry, the parameters of spherical surfaces such as the rings' center and the curvature radius can be estimated. First, the classical convolutional neural networks, visual geometry group (VGG) network and U-Net, are applied to parameter estimation of Newton's rings. After these models are trained, the rings' center and curvature radius can be obtained simultaneously. Read More

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Three-dimensional measurement for spherical and nonspherical shapes of contact lenses.

Appl Opt 2021 May;60(13):3689-3698

In recent years, with the development of precise lathe-cutting equipment, special shaped contact lenses (CL) have been crafted. However, while it is possible to manufacture such a lens, its shape evaluation has not been well-established. We conducted a basic optical experiment using special lenses to measure a spherical lens and nonspherical mold. Read More

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Preparation and Characterization of Mg Doped ZnAI₂O₄Spinel Nanoparticles.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Nov;21(11):5659-5665

Surfactant Research Chair, Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

In the present study, combustion technique is adopted to study the impact of Mg ion doping on ZnAI₂O₄ nanoparticles (NPs). L-arginine is used as a fuel component. The Mg ions play a pivotal role in persuading various characteristics of ZnAI₂O₄ NPs. Read More

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November 2021

Validating pore size estimates in a complex microfiber environment on a human MRI system.

Magn Reson Med 2021 09 7;86(3):1514-1530. Epub 2021 May 7.

Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre (CUBRIC), Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Recent advances in diffusion-weighted MRI provide "restricted diffusion signal fraction" and restricting pore size estimates. Materials based on co-electrospun oriented hollow cylinders have been introduced to provide validation for such methods. This study extends this work, exploring accuracy and repeatability using an extended acquisition on a 300 mT/m gradient human MRI scanner, in substrates closely mimicking tissue, that is, non-circular cross-sections, intra-voxel fiber crossing, intra-voxel distributions of pore-sizes, and smaller pore-sizes overall. Read More

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September 2021

Development of genistein-loaded gold nanoparticles and their antitumor potential against prostate cancer cell lines.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 May 27;124:112078. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković" - National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade, Serbia. Electronic address:

Soy isoflavone genistein (Gen) exerts beneficial effects against prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. However, its use as a chemoprevention/therapeutic agent is largely limited due to its low bioavailability. In this study we synthesized two variants of a new delivery system, genistein-gold nanoparticles conjugates [email protected]uNPs1 and [email protected], by an environmentally friendly method, using a dual role of Gen to reduce Au and stabilize the formed AuNPs, with no additional component. Read More

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