28 results match your criteria estimated rabv

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Evidence of Arctic Fox Survival following Exposure to Rabies Virus.

J Wildl Dis 2021 Nov 23. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

US Department of Agriculture, National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 Laporte Avenue, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521, USA.

The arctic fox variant of the rabies virus (RABV) is enzootic in the circumpolar north. Reports of abortive RABV exposures motivated a retrospective analysis of sera from 41 arctic foxes captured at Karrak Lake in Nunavut, Canada, during 2011-2015. Estimated RABV antibody prevalence among foxes was 14% (95% confidence interval, 7-28%). Read More

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November 2021

On the Use of Phylogeographic Inference to Infer the Dispersal History of Rabies Virus: A Review Study.

Viruses 2021 Aug 17;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, Rega Institute KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease which is caused by negative strand RNA-viruses belonging to the genus . Within this genus, rabies viruses circulate in a diverse set of mammalian reservoir hosts, is present worldwide, and is almost always fatal in non-vaccinated humans. Approximately 59,000 people are still estimated to die from rabies each year, leading to a global initiative to work towards the goal of zero human deaths from dog-mediated rabies by 2030, requiring scientific efforts from different research fields. Read More

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Incidence and seroprevalence of rabies virus in humans, dogs and other animal species in Africa, a systematic review and meta-analysis.

One Health 2021 Dec 26;13:100285. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Virology Department, Centre, Pasteur of Cameroon, Yaounde, Cameroon.

Rabies is transmitted to humans mainly by dogs but also by other animal species. Reliable data on the incidence of Rabies virus (RABV) in humans, dogs, and other animal species in Africa, could be essential in the implementation of a global strategic plan to eliminate the RABV by 2030 as adopted by the WHO, OIE, and FAO. We searched the Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, African Journal Online, and African Index Medicus databases for relevant studies that report data on the incidence of RABV in Africa up to February 17, 2020. Read More

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December 2021

Lyssavirus Vaccine with a Chimeric Glycoprotein Protects across Phylogroups.

Cell Rep 2020 07;32(3):107920

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA; Jefferson Vaccine Center, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. Electronic address:

Rabies is nearly 100% lethal in the absence of treatment, killing an estimated 59,000 people annually. Vaccines and biologics are highly efficacious when administered properly. Sixteen rabies-related viruses (lyssaviruses) are similarly lethal, but some are divergent enough to evade protection from current vaccines and biologics, which are based only on the classical rabies virus (RABV). Read More

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Evaluation of polyclonal anti-RNP IgG antibody for rabies diagnosis by indirect rapid immunohistochemistry test.

Acta Trop 2020 Jun 21;206:105340. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Instituto Pasteur, 393, Paulista Avenue, 01311-000, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Rabies still represents a major public health threat and estimated to cause 60,000 human deaths annually, particularly in developing countries. Thus, adequate surveillance based on rapid and reliable rabies diagnosis for both humans and animals is essential. The WHO and OIE recommended gold standard diagnostic technique for rabies is the direct immunofluorescence assay (dFAT). Read More

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Evaluation of species identification and rabies virus characterization among bat rabies cases in the United States.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2020 01;256(1):77-84

Objective: To evaluate species identification and rabies virus (RABV) characterization among samples from bats submitted for rabies testing in the United States and assess whether a standardized approach to specimen selection for RABV characterization could enhance detection of a sentinel event in virus dissemination among bats.

Sample: United States public health rabies surveillance system data collected in January 2010 through December 2015.

Procedures: The number of rabies-tested bats for which species was reported and the number of RABV-positive samples for which virus characterization would likely provide information regarding introduction of novel RABV variants and translocation and host-shift events were calculated. Read More

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January 2020

Transmission dynamics of re-emerging rabies in domestic dogs of rural China.

PLoS Pathog 2018 12 6;14(12):e1007392. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

KU Leuven, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute, Laboratory of Evolutionary and Computational Virology, Leuven, Belgium.

Despite ongoing efforts to control transmission, rabies prevention remains a challenge in many developing countries, especially in rural areas of China where re-emerging rabies is under-reported due to a lack of sustained animal surveillance. By taking advantage of detailed genomic and epidemiological data for the re-emerging rabies outbreak in Yunnan Province, China, collected between 1999 and 2015, we reconstruct the demographic and dispersal history of domestic dog rabies virus (RABV) as well as the dynamics of dog-to-dog and dog-to-human transmission. Phylogeographic analyses reveal a lower diffusion coefficient than previously estimated for dog RABV dissemination in northern Africa. Read More

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December 2018

Re-evaluating the effect of Favipiravir treatment on rabies virus infection.

Vaccine 2019 08 10;37(33):4686-4693. Epub 2017 Nov 10.

Wildlife Zoonoses and Vector-borne Diseases Research Group, OIE Reference Laboratory and WHO Collaborating Centre, Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA), Addlestone, Surrey KT15 3NB, UK; Institute for Infection and Immunity, St. George's Hospital Medical School, University of London, London, UK. Electronic address:

There is no antiviral treatment available once clinical disease following rabies virus infection has initiated. Considered a neglected tropical disease, >60,000 human rabies deaths are estimated each year despite the availability of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for pre-immunisation or administration following a potential exposure before the onset of clinical disease. Such post-exposure treatments include administration of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) and vaccination at a distant site to prime a humoral immune response. Read More

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Efficacy of rabies vaccines in dogs and cats and protection in a mouse model against European bat lyssavirus type 2.

Acta Vet Scand 2017 Oct 2;59(1):64. Epub 2017 Oct 2.

Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Mustialankatu 3, 00790, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Rabies is preventable by pre- and/or post-exposure prophylaxis consisting of series of rabies vaccinations and in some cases the use of immunoglobulins. The success of vaccination can be estimated either by measuring virus neutralising antibodies or by challenge experiment. Vaccines based on rabies virus offer cross-protection against other lyssaviruses closely related to rabies virus. Read More

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October 2017

Cross-border spread, lineage displacement and evolutionary rate estimation of rabies virus in Yunnan Province, China.

Virol J 2017 06 3;14(1):102. Epub 2017 Jun 3.

State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Background: Rabies is an important but underestimated threat to public health, with most cases reported in Asia. Since 2000, a new epidemic wave of rabies has emerged in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, which borders three countries in Southeast Asia.

Method: We estimated gene-specific evolutionary rates for rabies virus using available data in GenBank, then used this information to calibrate the timescale of rabies virus (RABV) spread in Asia. Read More

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A Pan-Lyssavirus Taqman Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for the Detection of Highly Variable Rabies virus and Other Lyssaviruses.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 01 12;11(1):e0005258. Epub 2017 Jan 12.

Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States of America.

Rabies, resulting from infection by Rabies virus (RABV) and related lyssaviruses, is one of the most deadly zoonotic diseases and is responsible for up to 70,000 estimated human deaths worldwide each year. Rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of rabies is essential for timely administration of post-exposure prophylaxis in humans and control of the disease in animals. Currently, only the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test is recommended for routine rabies diagnosis. Read More

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January 2017

Role of nitric oxide in the regulation of immune responses during rabies virus infection in mice.

Virusdisease 2016 Dec 1;27(4):387-399. Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Wild Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals, Bannerghatta Biological Park, Bannerghatta, Bengaluru, Karnataka India.

Rabies virus (RABV) stimulates nitric oxide (NO) production, which either triggers T cell differentiation or suppresses T cell function depending on its concentration. Herein, we assessed the potential role of NO in regulation of immune responses during RABV infection in mice model. The experimental animals were divided into four groups and 100LD of challenge virus standard (CVS) strain of RABV was inoculated intracerebrally on day 0 and subsequently aminoguanidine (AG; inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) was injected intraperitoneally twice a day, up to 6 days. Read More

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December 2016

Spatial Temporal Dynamics and Molecular Evolution of Re-Emerging Rabies Virus in Taiwan.

Int J Mol Sci 2016 Mar 17;17(3):392. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan.

Taiwan has been recognized by the World Organization for Animal Health as rabies-free since 1961. Surprisingly, rabies virus (RABV) was identified in a dead Formosan ferret badger in July 2013. Later, more infected ferret badgers were reported from different geographic regions of Taiwan. Read More

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Evolutionary trends of European bat lyssavirus type 2 including genetic characterization of Finnish strains of human and bat origin 24 years apart.

Arch Virol 2015 Jun 17;160(6):1489-98. Epub 2015 Apr 17.

Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Mustialankatu 3, 00790, Helsinki, Finland.

Among other Lyssaviruses, Daubenton's and pond-bat-related European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) can cause human rabies. To investigate the diversity and evolutionary trends of EBLV-2, complete genome sequences of two Finnish isolates were analysed. One originated from a human case in 1985, and the other originated from a bat in 2009. Read More

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Laboratory data of dog rabies in southern Cameroon from 2010 to 2013.

BMC Res Notes 2014 Dec 12;7:905. Epub 2014 Dec 12.

Service de Virologie, Centre Pasteur du Cameroun, Rue Dunant, B,P, 1274 Yaounde, Cameroon.

Background: Dog rabies is endemic in most African countries and the risk of human rabies is estimated to be high in Cameroon according to WHO estimations in 2010. This study aimed to describe the circulation rabies virus (RABV) among dogs in the southern regions of Cameroon from 2010 to 2013 in a context, where mass vaccination campaigns are launched annually in order to control rabies in domestic animals including dogs and cats.

Findings: From 2010 to 2013, 93 animal specimens (dogs: 91, monkey: 1, pig: 1) originating from the southern regions of Cameroon were collected and tested for rabies virus at the Centre Pasteur of Cameroon by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and virus isolation. Read More

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December 2014

Cross-neutralization of antibodies induced by vaccination with Purified Chick Embryo Cell Vaccine (PCECV) against different Lyssavirus species.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2014 ;10(10):2799-804

a Novartis Vaccines; Medical Affairs ; Marburg , Germany.

Background: Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by viruses belonging to the genus lyssavirus. In endemic countries of Asia and Africa, where the majority of the estimated 60,000 human rabies deaths occur, it is mainly caused by the classical rabies virus (RABV) transmitted by dogs. Over the last decade new species within the genus lyssavirus have been identified. Read More

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September 2015

Evolutionary history and phylogeography of rabies viruses associated with outbreaks in Trinidad.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2013 22;7(8):e2365. Epub 2013 Aug 22.

Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.

Bat rabies is an emerging disease of public health significance in the Americas. The Caribbean island of Trinidad experiences periodic outbreaks within the livestock population. We performed molecular characterisation of Trinidad rabies virus (RABV) and used a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to investigate the extent to which outbreaks are a result of in situ evolution versus importation of virus from the nearby South American mainland. Read More

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February 2014

Complete genome sequences of four virulent rabies virus strains isolated from rabid animals in Russia.

Genome Announc 2013 May 9;1(3). Epub 2013 May 9.

Institute for Natural Foci Infections, Omsk, Russia;

Rabies virus (RABV) strains Rus(Lipetsk)-8052f, Rus(Lipetsk)-8053c, Rus(Lipetsk)-8054f, and Rus(Lipetsk)-8057f were isolated from foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and a cat (Felis catus) in the Lipetsk region of Russia in 2011. Close relationships between these strains and the members of the "Cosmopolitan" group from Russia (98% homology) and from Europe (95% homology) were estimated. Read More

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Genetic diversity and molecular evolution of the rabies virus matrix protein gene in China.

Infect Genet Evol 2013 Jun 26;16:248-53. Epub 2013 Feb 26.

State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 155 Changbai St., Changping Dist., Beijing 102206, China.

To investigate the diversity of rabies virus (RABV) matrix protein (M) gene in the current Chinese rabies epidemic, we fully examined M gene of 63 street RABVs (Virus isolated from naturally infected animals), and performed phylogenetic and mutational analysis. Our results indicate that the Chinese RABV M gene is well conserved with 90.6% to 100% amino acid similarity. Read More

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Molecular diversity and evolutionary history of rabies virus strains circulating in the Balkans.

J Gen Virol 2011 Sep 1;92(Pt 9):2171-2180. Epub 2011 Jun 1.

National Centre for Zoonosis Research, University of Liverpool, Leahurst, Neston, South Wirral CH64 7TE, UK.

Molecular studies of European classical rabies viruses (RABV) have revealed a number of geographically clustered lineages. To study the diversity of Balkan RABV, partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences were analysed from a unique panel of isolates (n = 210), collected from various hosts between 1972 and 2006. All of the Balkan isolates grouped within the European/Middle East Lineage, with the majority most closely related to East European strains. Read More

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September 2011

Evolutionary history of rabies in Ghana.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2011 Apr 5;5(4):e1001. Epub 2011 Apr 5.

Rabies and Wildlife Zoonoses Group, Veterinary Laboratories Agency - Weybridge, Surrey, United Kingdom.

Rabies virus (RABV) is enzootic throughout Africa, with the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) being the principal vector. Dog rabies is estimated to cause 24,000 human deaths per year in Africa, however, this estimate is still considered to be conservative. Two sub-Saharan African RABV lineages have been detected in West Africa. Read More

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Evolutionary history of dog rabies in Brazil.

J Gen Virol 2011 Jan 6;92(Pt 1):85-90. Epub 2010 Oct 6.

Center for Information Biology and DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540, Japan.

Although dogs are considered to be the principal transmitter of rabies in Brazil, dog rabies had never been recorded in South America before European colonization. In order to investigate the evolutionary history of dog rabies virus (RABV) in Brazil, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of carnivore RABV isolates from around the world and estimated the divergence times for dog RABV in Brazil. Our estimate for the time of introduction of dog RABV into Brazil was the late-19th to early-20th century, which was later than the colonization period but corresponded to a period of increased immigration from Europe to Brazil. Read More

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January 2011

Evolutionary history of African mongoose rabies.

Virus Res 2010 Jun 7;150(1-2):93-102. Epub 2010 Mar 7.

Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Lynnwood Road, Pretoria 0002, South Africa.

Two biotypes or variants of rabies virus (RABV) occur in southern Africa. These variants are respectively adapted to hosts belonging to the Canidae family (the canid variant) and hosts belonging to the Herpestidae family (the mongoose variant). Due to the distinct host adaptation and differences in epidemiology and pathogenesis, it has been hypothesized that the two variants were introduced into Africa at different times. Read More

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Temporal and spatial dynamics of rabies viruses in China and Southeast Asia.

Virus Res 2010 Jun 7;150(1-2):111-8. Epub 2010 Mar 7.

Institute of Zoonoses, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China.

Phylogenetic studies have revealed a profound understanding about the biodiversity of rabies viruses in China, but little is known about their evolutionary dynamics in the country. In the present study, the complete G gene sequences of 33 rabies virus isolates (RABVs) isolated from distinct Chinese provinces were determined and phylogenetic analysis was conducted using these G sequences and 93 others retrieved from GenBank representing China and Southeast Asia. Further evolutionary history of RABV was estimated using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method to understand the temporal and spatial dynamics of this virus. Read More

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A history estimate and evolutionary analysis of rabies virus variants in China.

J Gen Virol 2010 Mar 4;91(Pt 3):759-64. Epub 2009 Nov 4.

Department of Genetic Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Biological Product, Wu Chang District, Wuhan 430060, PR China.

To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of rabies virus (RABV) in China, we collected and sequenced 55 isolates sampled from 14 Chinese provinces over the last 40 years and performed a coalescent-based analysis of the G gene. This revealed that the RABV currently circulating in China is composed of three main groups. Bayesian coalescent analysis estimated the date of the most recent common ancestor for the current RABV Chinese strains to be 1412 (with a 95 % confidence interval of 1006-1736). Read More

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Evolutionary history and dynamics of dog rabies virus in western and central Africa.

J Gen Virol 2009 Apr 4;90(Pt 4):783-791. Epub 2009 Mar 4.

Institut Pasteur, UPRE Lyssavirus Dynamics and Host Adaptation, National Reference Centre for Rabies, WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Rabies, 25 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France.

The burden of rabies in Africa is estimated at 24,000 human deaths year(-1), almost all of which result from infection with dog rabies viruses (RABV). To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of RABV in western and central Africa, 92 isolates sampled from 27 African countries over 29 years were collected and sequenced. This revealed that RABV currently circulating in dogs in this region fell into a single lineage designated 'Africa 2'. Read More

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Identification of novel canine rabies virus clades in the Middle East and North Africa.

J Gen Virol 2007 Mar;88(Pt 3):967-980

Rabies Unit, Viral and Rickettsial Zoonoses Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

Four novel phylogenetic clades of canine rabies virus (RABV) variants have been identified in the Middle East and North Africa. The three novel Middle Eastern clades comprise RABV isolates from the borders between Israel and neighbouring countries. The North African clade (Africa 4) comprises four RABV isolates from Egypt and one from Israel. Read More

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The evolutionary history and dynamics of bat rabies virus.

Infect Genet Evol 2006 Nov 18;6(6):464-73. Epub 2006 Apr 18.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PS, UK.

Rabies virus (RABV) is endemic in terrestrial mammals throughout the world and in bats on the American continent. We performed the most extensive phylogenetic analyses of bat RABV sequences undertaken to date using a variety of genes. Our study supported previous suggestions that viral sequences are grouped according to the behaviour of the host species. Read More

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November 2006
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