47,201 results match your criteria estimated impact

Which factors increase informal care hours and societal costs among caregivers of people with dementia? A systematic review of Resource Utilization in Dementia (RUD).

Health Econ Rev 2021 Sep 18;11(1):37. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Centre for Elderly and Nursing Home Medicine, Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Nearly 19 million people across OECD countries are living with dementia, and millions of family caregivers are affected by the disease. The costs of informal care are estimated to represent 40-75% of the total dementia cost exceeding formal care time and medical costs.

Objective: To conduct a systematic review to evaluate the methodological quality and factors associated with high informal care hours per month that increase societal costs, and to identify what type of interventions may alleviate the entire burden of informal and formal caregiving. Read More

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September 2021

Solid fuel use, socioeconomic indicators and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: a prospective cohort study in a rural area of Sichuan, China.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Vanke School of Public Health, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Background: Estimates indicate that household air pollution caused by solid fuel burning accounted for about 1.03 million premature mortalities in China in 2016. In the country's rural areas, more than half the population still relies on biomass fuels and coals for cooking and heating. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence and risk factors associated with asymptomatic malaria among school children: repeated cross-sectional surveys of school children in two ecological zones in Ghana.

BMC Public Health 2021 Sep 17;21(1):1697. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Health Sciences, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Asymptomatic Plasmodium infections significantly drive malaria transmission and impact control and elimination strategies, but are largely uncharacterized. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic malaria infections to inform malaria control strategies in Ghana.

Method: Five cross-sectional surveys were conducted at the end of the peak transmission season (August-September) on 4892 school children aged between 6 and 14 years in two distinct ecological settings in Ghana between 2013 and 2017. Read More

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September 2021

Estimates of Cases and Hospitalizations Averted by COVID-19 Case Investigation and Contact Tracing in 14 Health Jurisdictions in the United States.

J Public Health Manag Pract 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

CDC COVID-19 Response Team.

Context: The implementation of case investigation and contact tracing (CICT) for controlling COVID-19 (caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus) has proven challenging due to varying levels of public acceptance and initially constrained resources, especially enough trained staff. Evaluating the impacts of CICT will aid efforts to improve such programs.

Objectives: Estimate the number of COVID-19 cases and hospitalizations averted by CICT and identify CICT processes that could improve overall effectiveness. Read More

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September 2021

Does the gut microbiome partially mediate the impact of air pollutants exposure on liver function? Evidence based on schizophrenia patients.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 11;291:118135. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China; Inflammation and Immune Mediated Diseases Laboratory of Anhui Province, China. Electronic address:

Air pollution may alter the composition of gut microbiome and subsequent liver-related metabolic disorders. Schizophrenia was often accompanied by liver dysfunction. But it was still unclear whether air pollutants affected liver function in patients with schizophrenia through gut microbiome. Read More

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September 2021

Experimental and mathematical modeling approaches for biocatalytic post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) hydrolysis.

J Biotechnol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Chemistry Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

The environmental impact arising from poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) waste is notable worldwide. Enzymatic PET hydrolysis can provide chemicals that serve as intermediates for value-added product synthesis and savings in the resources. In the present work, some reaction parameters were evaluated on the hydrolysis of post-consumer PET (PC-PET) using a cutinase from Humicola insolens (HiC). Read More

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September 2021

Impact of RBE variations on risk estimates of temporal lobe necrosis in patients treated with intensity-modulated proton therapy for head and neck cancer.

Acta Oncol 2021 Sep 17:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Temporal lobe necrosis (TLN) is a potential late effect after radiotherapy for skull base head and neck cancer (HNC). Several photon-derived dose constraints and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models have been proposed, however variation in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) may challenge the applicability of these dose constraints and models in proton therapy. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the influence of RBE variations on risk estimates of TLN after Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy for HNC. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of the ultrasonography assessment method on the malignancy risk and diagnostic performance of five risk stratification systems in thyroid nodules.

Endocrine 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Radiology, GangNeung Asan Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Ultrasonographic (US) assessment methods may affect the estimated malignancy risk of thyroid nodules. This study aimed to investigate the impact of retrospective and prospective US assessments on the estimated malignancy risk of US features, classified categories, and diagnostic performance of five risk stratification systems (RSSs) in thyroid nodules.

Methods: A total of 3685 consecutive thyroid nodules (≥1 cm) with final diagnoses (retrospective dataset, n = 2180; prospective dataset, n = 1505) were included in this study. Read More

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September 2021

Changes of lake organic carbon sinks from closed basins since the Last Glacial Maximum and quantitative evaluation of human impacts.

Carbon Balance Manag 2021 Sep 17;16(1):28. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems (Ministry of Education), College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Center for Hydrologic Cycle and Water Resources in Arid Region, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Background: Closed basins occupy 21% of the world's land area and can substantially affect global carbon budgets. Conventional understanding suggests that the terminal areas of closed basins collect water and carbon from throughout the entire basin, and changes in lake organic carbon sinks are indicative of basin-wide organic carbon storages. However, this hypothesis lacks regional and global validation. Read More

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September 2021

Sodium alterations impair the prognosis of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

Endocr Connect 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

G Arnaldi, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences (DISCLIMO), Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy.

Objective: Dysnatremia is common in hospitalized patients, often worsening the prognosis in pneumopathies and critical illnesses. Information on COVID-19-related hyponatremia is partially conflicting, whereas data on hypernatremia in this context are scarce. We assessed, in a cohort of COVID-19 inpatients: the prevalence of sodium alterations at admission and throughout their hospitalization; their association with inflammation/organ damage indexes; their short-term prognostic impact. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of coinfection status and comorbidity on disease severity in adult emergency department patients with influenza B.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Influenza B accounts for approximately one fourth of the seasonal influenza burden. However, research on the importance of influenza B has received less attention compared to influenza A. We sought to describe the association of both coinfections and comorbidities with disease severity among adults presenting to emergency departments (ED) with influenza B. Read More

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September 2021

Decomposition of changes in malaria prevalence amongst under-five children in Nigeria.

Malariaworld J 2018 1;9. Epub 2018 Apr 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Malaria remains a major public health problem in Nigeria. Changes in malaria prevalence can be attributed to three major control interventions: insecticide treated nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying (IRS) and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp). Use of ITNs has proven to be a practical, highly effective, and cost-effective intervention against malaria. Read More

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Long lasting impregnated mosquito net (LLIN) utilisation, incidence of fever and therapeutic itineraries: the case of Mifi health district in western Cameroon.

Malariaworld J 2017 1;8:19. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Dschang, Cameroon.

Background: Long Lasting Impregnated mosquito Net (LLIN) use is effective against malaria in endemic tropical areas. However, its utilisation remains limited. Among the most common clinical signs of malaria is fever and many studies have reported the existence of different local ways of handling fever; amongst which uncontrolled used of antimalarial drugs. Read More

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November 2017

Clinicopathologic differences and mortality among Latinos and non-Latino whites with gastric cancer at a majority-minority cancer center in South Texas.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2021 Aug;12(4):1301-1307

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mays Cancer Center, University of Texas Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Background: Latino patients have a higher incidence of gastric cancer compared to non-Latino white patients nationwide, with greater disparities in South Texas. However, the impact of Latino ethnicity on mortality in gastric cancer is controversial. We evaluated clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes in Latino . Read More

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Budget Impact of Belantamab Mafodotin (Belamaf) Adoption in the Treatment of Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma in the United States.

Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 2021 10;13:789-800. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Value Evidence and Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline, Upper Providence, PA, USA.

Purpose: Estimate the budget impact of belantamab mafodotin (belamaf) for patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) who have received ≥4 prior therapies, including an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody, a proteasome inhibitor, and an immunomodulatory agent.

Methods: A budget impact analysis (BIA) was developed to estimate the cost difference between current (no belamaf) and projected (with belamaf) market scenarios over 3 years. Comparators were identified from a systematic literature review and included selinexor + dexamethasone or best supportive care. Read More

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September 2021

The carbon footprint of cataract surgery in Wellington.

N Z Med J 2021 Sep 3;134(1541):13-21. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

MB ChB FRANZCO, Ophthalmologist, Department of Surgery & Anaesthesia, University of Otago Wellington, Wellington.

Introduction: Efforts to improve the sustainability of ophthalmic care require methods to measure its environmental impact and a baseline measurement to compare against in the future. We aimed to measure the carbon footprint of cataract surgery in Wellington.

Methods: We used Eyefficiency, an application using established footprinting methods, to estimate the emissions produced by phacoemulsification surgery in two public and two private hospitals. Read More

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September 2021

The impact of changing risk thresholds on the number of people in England eligible for urgent investigation for possible cancer: an observational cross-sectional study.

Br J Cancer 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

University of Exeter Medical School, College of Medicine & Health, St Luke's Campus, Magdalen Road, Exeter, UK.

Background: Expediting cancer diagnosis may be achieved by targeted decreases in referral thresholds to increase numbers of patients referred for urgent investigation.

Methods: Clinical Practice Research Datalink data from England for 150,921 adults aged ≥40 were used to identify participants with features of possible cancer equating to risk thresholds ≥1%, ≥2% or ≥3% for breast, lung, colorectal, oesophago-gastric, pancreatic, renal, bladder, prostatic, ovarian, endometrial and laryngeal cancers.

Results: The mean age of participants was 60 (SD 13) years, with 73,643 males (49%). Read More

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September 2021

The biogeographic differentiation of algal microbiomes in the upper ocean from pole to pole.

Nat Commun 2021 Sep 16;12(1):5483. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Eukaryotic phytoplankton are responsible for at least 20% of annual global carbon fixation. Their diversity and activity are shaped by interactions with prokaryotes as part of complex microbiomes. Although differences in their local species diversity have been estimated, we still have a limited understanding of environmental conditions responsible for compositional differences between local species communities on a large scale from pole to pole. Read More

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September 2021

The association between overweight/obesity and double diabetes in adults with type 1 diabetes; a cross-sectional study.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Sep 16;21(1):187. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Southmead Hospital, North Bristol NHS Trust, BS10 5NB, Bristol, UK.

Background: Double Diabetes (DD), type 1 diabetes (T1DM) + insulin resistance (IR), is associated with increased risk of micro/macro-vascular complications and mortality. Obesity can contribute to the development of DD. This study explored the prevalence of overweight/obesity and their association with DD in adults with T1DM. Read More

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September 2021

Feasibility and effectiveness of daily temperature screening to detect COVID-19 in a prospective cohort at a large public university.

BMC Public Health 2021 Sep 16;21(1):1693. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, Berkeley, 2121 Berkeley Way # 5302, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.

Background: Many persons with active SARS-CoV-2 infection experience mild or no symptoms, presenting barriers to COVID-19 prevention. Regular temperature screening is nonetheless used in some settings, including university campuses, to reduce transmission potential. We evaluated the potential impact of this strategy using a prospective university-affiliated cohort. Read More

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September 2021

The nexus between health status and health expenditure, energy consumption and environmental pollution: empirical evidence from SAARC-BIMSTEC regions.

BMC Public Health 2021 Sep 16;21(1):1694. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Economics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj, 8100, Bangladesh.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for the betterment of health status, while also considering health expenditure, energy, and environmental issues. This paper examines the nexus between health status and health expenditure (both public and private), energy consumption and environmental pollution in the SAARC-BIMSTEC region.

Methods: We utilized the panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model, the heterogeneous panel causality test, the cross sectional dependence test, the cointegration test and the Pesaran cross sectional dependent (CADF) unit root test for obtaining estimated results from data over 16 years (2002-2017). Read More

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September 2021

Cost-Effectiveness and Budget Impact Analysis of Primary Screening With Human Papillomavirus Test With Genotyping in Argentina.

Value Health Reg Issues 2021 Sep 13;26:160-168. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Hospital de Clínicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Objectives: Cervical cancer (ICC) is the fourth leading cause of mortality in women in Argentina and primary screening with conventional cytology (Papanicolaou smear) is the most widely used strategy despite its limitations. Strategies based on human papillomavirus (HPV) testing have the potential to improve detection and reduce mortality. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of a strategy based on HPV testing with genotyping. Read More

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September 2021

Supporting family carers of people with dementia: A discrete choice experiment of public preferences.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Sep 2;287:114359. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Centre for Economic and Social Research on Dementia, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland. Electronic address:

Community-based care for people with dementia is mainly provided by family carers, many of whom experience decreased mental, physical and financial well-being due to their caring role. Many countries are now implementing ageing-in-place policies that have increased pressure on family carers as care-work is redistributed from residential to community-based settings. Family caring responsibilities for people with dementia are made even more complicated by the economic, social and cultural expectations that underpin existing provision. Read More

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September 2021

Understanding consumer and clinician perceptions of a potential Lyme disease vaccine.

Health Educ Res 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD), 3156 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA.

Each year, over 450 000 Lyme disease diagnoses are estimated to occur in the United States, and current preventive measures have been insufficient to stem the rising incidence. An effective human Lyme disease vaccine could be a powerful intervention for population-level impact. In advance of new Lyme disease vaccines coming to market, this study explored barriers to acceptability and motivations for the uptake of a new Lyme disease vaccine. Read More

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September 2021

Cost-effectiveness analysis of an intervention project engaging Traditional and Religious Leaders to improve uptake of childhood immunization in southern Nigeria.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(9):e0257277. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Effective Health Care Alliance Programme, Institute of Tropical Disease, Research and Prevention, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria.

Vaccination is a cost-effective public health intervention, yet evidence abounds that vaccination uptake is still poor in many low- and middle-income countries. Traditional and Religious Leaders play a substantial role in improving the uptake of health services such as immunization. However, there is paucity of evidence on the cost-effectiveness of using such strategies. Read More

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September 2021

Trading quality for quantity? Evidence from patient level data in China.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(9):e0257127. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Chongqing Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing, China.

In China, overcrowding at hospitals increases the workload of medical staff, which may negatively impact the quality of medical services. This study empirically examined the impact of hospital admissions on the quality of healthcare services in Chinese hospitals. Specifically, we estimated the impact of the number of hospital admissions per day on a patient's length of stay (LOS) and hospital mortality rate using both ordinary least squares (OLS) and instrumental variable (IV) methods. Read More

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September 2021

Correction and Republication: New COVID-19 Cases and Hospitalizations Among Adults, by Vaccination Status - New York, May 3-July 25, 2021.


MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Sep 17;70(37):1305. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

On, August 18, 2021, MMWR published "New COVID-19 Cases and Hospitalizations Among Adults, by Vaccination Status - New York, May 3-July 25, 2021" (1). On August 25, 2021, the authors informed MMWR that some analyses were inaccurate because vaccination records of persons with a birth date between two vaccination dates could be counted as two distinct persons with different ages. This resulted in an artificial inflation of the population of partially vaccinated persons, which in turn affected the number of unvaccinated persons because that number is estimated as the total population size minus the fully vaccinated and the partially vaccinated groups. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence and impact of fracture on postmenopausal women with aortic stenosis who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

Cardiovasc Interv Ther 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Sakakibara Heart Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

Information regarding fracture in patients with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is limited. We investigated the prevalence and impact of fracture in patients with severe aortic stenosis who had undergone TAVR. Of 913 consecutive patients with symptomatic, severe aortic stenosis who underwent TAVR at the Sakakibara Heart Institute between October 2013 and April 2020, 633 women were enrolled. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of DMEK on visual quality in patients with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Ophthalmology, Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Purpose: To investigate short-term (3 months follow-up) changes in visual quality following Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) for Fuchs endothelial dystrophy (FED).

Methods: In this prospective institutional case series, 51 patients that underwent DMEK for FED were included. Assessment included the Quality of Vision (QoV) questionnaire preoperatively, at 1 month, and 3 months after surgery. Read More

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September 2021

The impact of PIPs on mortality and readmissions in older adults: a retrospective cohort study.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Purpose: Our aim was to determine the impact of potentially inappropriate prescriptions (PIP), according to "Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions" criteria version 2 (STOPP-2), on mortality and hospital admissions.

Methods: Monocentric retrospective cohort study. Patients over 65 years of age and who were consecutively discharged from internal medicine at a Spanish university hospital in 2016 were included. Read More

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September 2021