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Clinical characteristics and incidences of benign and malignant insulinoma using a national inpatient database in Japan.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Prevention of Diabetes and Lifestyle-Related Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Context: Insulinoma is the most common pancreatic functional neuroendocrine neoplasm, yet little information on recent clinical practice in patients with insulinoma, especially malignant insulinoma, is available.

Objective: To clarify the characteristics and practice patterns in patients with insulinoma using a national inpatient database.

Methods: Using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database, we retrospectively identified patients with insulinoma admitted between 2010 and 2018. Read More

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The Demise of Artificial Trans Fat: A History of a Public Health Achievement.

Milbank Q 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

Policy Points This article describes a strategic combination of research, advocacy, corporate campaigns, communications, grassroots mobilization, legislation, regulatory actions, and litigation against companies and government to secure a national policy to remove artificial trans fat from the US food system. Sharing lessons we learned can help inform policymakers, academics, policy practitioners, and students across disciplines. Some of our lessons are that system change means that all consumers benefit without the need for individual behavior change; research can both identify opportunities to improve health and support policy adoption; policy efforts can serve as public education campaigns; policy campaigns can drive marketplace changes; and engaging forward-thinking companies can diffuse opposition to passing a policy. Read More

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Unraveling Ewing sarcoma tumorigenesis originating from patient-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Cancer Res 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Laboratory of Genome Dynamics in the Immune System,INSERM, UMR 1163, Imagine Institute for Genetic Diseases

Ewing sarcoma (EwS) is characterized by pathognomonic translocations, most frequently fusing EWSR1 with FLI1. An estimated 30% of EwS tumors also display genetic alterations in STAG2, TP53, or CDKN2A (SPC). Numerous attempts to develop relevant EwS models from primary human cells have been unsuccessful in faithfully recapitulating the phenotypic, transcriptomic and epigenetic features of EwS. Read More

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Computation of the conditions for anti-angiogenesis and gene therapy synergistic effects: sensitivity analysis and robustness of target solutions.

J Theor Biol 2021 Jul 30:110850. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Universite de Lorraine - CNRS UMR 7360 Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux Campus Bridoux - 8 Rue du General Delestraint, Metz 57070, France. Electronic address:

Both anti-angiogenesis and gene therapy involve complex processes depending on non-point parameters belonging to a space of values. To successfully overcome the challenges involved in their therapeutic approaches, there is a need to analyze the sensitivity of these parameters. In this paper, a new mathematical model that combines immune system stimulations, inflammatory processes associated with tumor development, and gene therapy aimed at enhancing the efficacy of both treatments are explored. Read More

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Evaluation of renal function using cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with urothelial carcinoma treated with gemcitabine and cisplatin chemotherapy.

J Clin Pharm Ther 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Division of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.

What Is Known And Objective: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is a first-line treatment for advanced or metastatic urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UC). Accurate assessment of renal function is indispensable for determining cisplatin dosing to enhance the safety and effectiveness of cisplatin. The objective of this study was to assess serum cystatin C (sCys C) levels in patients with urothelial carcinoma and to explore its clinical value as a serum marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Read More

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Prediction and cost-effectiveness comparison of amblyopia screening methods at ages 3-4 years.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Aug 2:11206721211035634. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Centro Cirurgico de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Purpose: Compare the performance of different amblyopia screening tests.

Methods: Based on exploratory factor analyses (EFA) of different screening tests performed in 3295 children, we created models of screening strategies in a matrix with: uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), Plusoptix measurements (PO), Randot Stereo-test (SR), and Cover-Test (CT). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and confusion matrix were used to compare performance of different model's algorithm to predict new diagnosis of amblyopia. Read More

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Key components and contrasts in the nitrogen budget across a US-Canadian transboundary watershed.

J Geophys Res Biogeosci 2020 Sep;125(9)

U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, Fort Collins, CO.

Watershed nitrogen (N) budgets provide insights into drivers and solutions for groundwater and surface water N contamination. We constructed a comprehensive N budget for the transboundary Nooksack River Watershed (British Columbia, Canada and Washington, US) using locally-derived data, national statistics and standard parameters. Feed imports for dairy (mainly in the US) and poultry (mainly in Canada) accounted for 30 and 29% of the total N input to the watershed, respectively. Read More

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September 2020

Costs of a Train-the-Trainer Program to Teach Primary Care Faculty Mental Health Care.

Med Care 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics Medicine Psychiatry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.

Background: Mental health care must improve in this country. With the worsening shortage of psychiatrists and other mental health professionals, the next generation of physicians in primary care will need to be better trained in mental health care.

Objectives: We estimate the direct cost of implementing an evidence-based Train-the-Trainer (3T) program to disseminate mental health training to allopathic medical school faculty; once trained, faculty can teach a much-enhanced curriculum of mental health care to medical students and residents. Read More

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Landscape-level variation in Bt crops predict Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance in cotton agroecosystems.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.

Background: Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) damage to Bt cotton and maize has increased due to widespread Bt resistance across the USA Cotton Belt. Our objective was to link Bt crop production patterns to cotton damage through a series of spatial and temporal surveys of commercial fields to understand how Bt crop production relates to greater than expected H. zea damage to Bt cotton. Read More

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Immobilization, cardiopulmonary and blood gas effects of ketamine-butorphanol-medetomidine versus butorphanol-midazolam-medetomidine in free-ranging serval (Leptailurus serval).

Vet Anaesth Analg 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa; Anaesthesia and Critical Care Services, Valley Farm Animal Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare ketamine-butorphanol-medetomidine (KBM) with butorphanol-midazolam-medetomidine (BMM) immobilization of serval.

Study Design: Blinded, randomized trial.

Animals: A total of 23 captures [KBM: five females, six males; 10. Read More

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Multiple sclerosis incidence and prevalence in Poland: Data from administrative health claims.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jul 22;55:103162. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Neurology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland; Department of Neurology, University Hospital in Krakow, Krakow, Poland.

Background: The detailed data concerning multiple sclerosis (MS) epidemiology in Poland are based on studies from few and less populated provinces. Therefore, we evaluated MS incidence and prevalence in Poland using electronic administrative health claims (AHCs) from the National Health Fund.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the AHC financial database collected from 2009 to 2019, encompassing all patients using public health resources. Read More

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Association of public health interventions and COVID-19 incidence in Vietnam, January to December 2020.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Research School of Population Health, College of Health and Medicine, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia; The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Vietnam implemented various public health interventions such as contact tracing and testing, mandatory quarantine, and lockdowns in response to COVID-19. However, the effects of these measures on the epidemic remain unclear.

Methods: We described public health interventions in relation to COVID-19 incidence. Read More

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Bortezomib plus dexamethasone as first-line therapy for patients with POEMS syndrome.

Ann Hematol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Hematology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730, China.

POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes) syndrome is a rare plasma cell dyscrasia without standard front-line treatment. Merely, few studies have reported the responses and outcomes of bortezomib plus dexamethasone (BDex) in POEMS syndrome. In this study, a total of 69 patients (40 males) treated with front-line BDex were included. Read More

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Monte Carlo bottom-up evaluation of the uncertainty of complex sample preparation: Elemental determination in sediments.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Aug 5;1175:338732. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Centro de Química Estrutural, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-01, Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address:

Many chemical analyses involve a complex sample preparation, and some, based on an instrumental method of analysis such as spectrometric or chromatographic methods, are affected by matrix effects. The objective interpretation of the results of these analyses performed in the framework of a research or a conformity assessment requires quantifying the measurement uncertainty. This work presents a novel methodology for the bottom-up modelling of the performance of complex analytical operations, such as sample digestion or extraction, by the Monte Carlo simulation of their performance independently of the performance of the other analytical steps. Read More

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Feasibility of unilateral hemilaminectomy utilizing a Williams retractor for the resection of intradural-extramedullary spinal neoplasms.

Neurochirurgie 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Tufts University School of Medicine, 145 Harrison Ave, Boston, MA 02111, United States; Department of Neurosurgery, Tufts Medical Center, 800 Washington St, Box 178, Boston, MA 02111, United States. Electronic address:

Background: While open approaches have historically been used in the surgical treatment of intradural-extramedullary spine tumors, minimally-invasive surgical (MIS) techniques are frequently applied to minimize post-operative complications associated with open surgery. Tubular retractor systems in particular have been employed in combination with the unilateral hemilaminectomy (UHL) approach. Here we describe the use of a Williams retractor as a safe and effective minimally-invasive alternative to tubular retractor systems with similar post-operative outcomes. Read More

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Venetoclax plus intensive chemotherapy with cladribine, idarubicin, and cytarabine in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: a cohort from a single-centre, single-arm, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Aug;8(8):e552-e561

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Addition of the BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax to lower intensity therapy has been shown to improve overall survival in older (aged 75 years or older) and unfit patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of venetoclax combined with intensive chemotherapy in patients aged 65 years or younger with acute myeloid leukaemia.

Methods: This cohort study was done at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in the USA, as part of the single-centre, single arm, phase 2, CLIA trial. Read More

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Lethal and sublethal effects of synthetic and bio-insecticides on Trichogramma brassicae parasitizing Tuta absoluta.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(7):e0243334. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

The tomato leaf miner (TLM), Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), is an invasive tomato pest found worldwide. Sustainable control strategies aimed at increasing biological control approaches and decreasing chemical inputs are required, due to the tendency to develop insecticide resistance. In this study, the lethal and sublethal effects of four chemical insecticides (abamectin, indoxacarb, chlorantraniliprole, and spinosad) and the sublethal effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) on a widespread TLM egg parasitoid, Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko, were estimated. Read More

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Size-resolved, quantitative evaluation of the magnetic mineralogy of airborne brake-wear particulate emissions.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 21;288:117808. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Centre for Advanced Innovative Technologies, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, 708 00, Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic; Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, 708 00, Ostrava, Czech Republic.

Exposure to particulate air pollution has been associated with a variety of respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological problems, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Brake-wear emissions are one of the major sources of metal-rich airborne particulate pollution in roadside environments. Of potentially bioreactive metals, Fe (especially in its ferrous form, Fe) might play a specific role in both neurological and cardiovascular impairments. Read More

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Strong phenotypic trait correlations between mating partners do not result from assortative mating in wild great tits (Parus major).

J Evol Biol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Behavioural Ecology, Department of Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Großhaderner Straße 2, 82152, Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

There is considerable debate about the occurrence of assortative mating between phenotypic traits measured within natural populations. Meta-analyses have implied that assortative mating occurs generally in natural populations but recent work indicates these conclusions largely result from biased data. Specifically, estimates of phenotypic correlations between mating partners do not solely result from non-random associations between individual-level traits of partners but also from other biological processes (joint phenotypic plasticity, indirect genetic effects), methodological practices (observer bias), and other unexplained residual correlations (e. Read More

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Identification of N-glycans with GalNAc-containing antennae from recombinant HIV trimers by ion mobility and negative ion fragmentation.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Oxford Glycobiology Institute, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QU, UK.

Negative ion collision-induced dissociation (CID) of underivatized N-glycans has proved to be a simple, yet powerful method for their structural determination. Recently, we have identified a series of such structures with GalNAc rather than the more common galactose capping the antennae of hybrid and complex glycans. As part of a series of publications describing the negative ion fragmentation of different types of N-glycan, this paper describes their CID spectra and estimated nitrogen cross sections recorded by travelling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (TWIMS). Read More

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Metformin in Combination With Chemoradiotherapy in Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: The OCOG-ALMERA Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Juravinski Cancer Center, Hamilton Health Science, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Importance: Unresected locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) shows poor survival outcomes even after aggressive concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Whether metformin, a diabetes agent that inhibits the mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation chain, could improve radiotherapy and chemotherapy response in LA-NSCLC remains to be studied.

Objective: To examine whether metformin, given concurrently with chemoradiotherapy and as consolidation treatment, could improve outcomes in patients with LA-NSCLC. Read More

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Differential Use of Pediatric Video Visits by a Diverse Population During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Mixed-Methods Study.

Front Pediatr 2021 12;9:645236. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA, United States.

To describe and explore pediatric ambulatory video visit use by patient characteristics during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We conducted an explanatory sequential mixed methods study with integration at the design and methods level. Phase 1 was a cross-sectional analysis of general and specialty pediatric ambulatory encounters to profile the use of video visits by patient characteristics. Read More

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Proof of concept study to develop a novel connectivity-based electric-field modelling approach for individualized targeting of transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Center for Neuromodulation in Depression and Stress, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) offers promise for individualizing stimulation targets for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) treatments. However, current targeting approaches do not account for non-focal TMS effects or large-scale connectivity patterns. To overcome these limitations, we propose a novel targeting optimization approach that combines whole-brain rsFC and electric-field (e-field) modelling to identify single-subject, symptom-specific TMS targets. Read More

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Safety and Efficacy of the Combination of Sacubitril/Valsartan and SGLT2i in HFrEF patients (SECSI Registry).

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid (Spain) CIBER in Cardiovascular Diseases (CIBERCV), Madrid (Spain) Hospital de Dénia - Marina Salud, Dénia (Spain) Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, Lleida (Spain) Institut de Recerca Biomèdica de Lleida (IRBLleida), Lleida (Spain) Hospital de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain).

Abstract: Recent studies have proven benefit of SGLT2i drugs in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), but their safety when combined with ARNI has not been established. The SECSI registry was conducted to address this issue. SECSI registry is a consecutive, observational, retrospective, multicentre study carried out in three Heart Failure Units in Spain. Read More

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Cognitive map formation through haptic and visual exploration of tactile city-like maps.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 27;11(1):15254. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

In this study, we compared cognitive map formation of small-scale models of city-like environments presented in visual or tactile/haptic modalities. Previous research often addresses only a limited amount of cognitive map aspects. We wanted to combine several of these aspects to elucidate a more complete view. Read More

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Macrocalcifications Do Not Alter Malignancy Risk Within the American Thyroid Association Sonographic Pattern System When Present in Non-High Suspicion Thyroid Nodules.

Thyroid 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Endocrinology, 3400 Civic Center Blvd, Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine 4th floor West, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19104;

Background: The American Thyroid Association Sonographic Pattern System (ATASPS) depicts five levels of suspicion for malignancy based on the sonographic appearance of a thyroid nodule (1). However, 3-37% of nodules are non-classifiable (NC) when the combination of grayscale findings is not depicted by the ATASPS (1-5). The only calcifications included in the ATASPS are in solid hypoechoic high suspicion (HS) nodules and include both microcalcifications and peripheral interrupted calcifications (PIC) with soft tissue extrusion. Read More

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A Combination of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Reduces Risk of Incident Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Rheumatology, Inflammation and Immunity, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: While the association between individual factors related to lifestyle and the risk of SLE has been previously evaluated, it is unclear how the combination of these factors might affect the risk of incident SLE. We prospectively evaluated whether a combination of healthy lifestyle factors is associated with lower risk of incident SLE and its subtypes (dsDNA positive and negative).

Methods: We included 185,962 women with 203 incident SLE cases (96 anti-dsDNA positive,107 anti-dsDNA negative) during 4,649,477 person-years of follow-up from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII cohorts. Read More

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Stated job preferences of three health worker cadres in Ethiopia: a discrete choice experiment.

Health Policy Plan 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK.

Attracting, training and retaining high-quality health workers are critical for a health system to function well, and it is important to know what health workers value in their roles. Many studies eliciting the labour market preferences of health workers have interviewed doctors or medical students, and there has been little research on the job preferences of lower-skilled cadres such as community health workers, mid-skilled clinical care staff such as nurses and midwives, or non-patient facing staff who manage health facilities. This study estimated the job preferences of public health sector community health extension workers (HEWs), care providers including nurses and midwives, and non-patient-facing administrative and managerial staff in Ethiopia. Read More

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Peripheral neuropathy in systemic lupus erythematosus: what can neuromuscular ultrasonography (NMUS) tell us? A cross-sectional study.

Lupus Sci Med 2021 Jul;8(1)

Department of Rheumatology, Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Objective: To evaluate peripheral nerve involvement in patients with SLE with neuromuscular ultrasonography (NMUS) and understand its role in investigating SLE-related peripheral neuropathy.

Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional study on patients with SLE and healthy controls. Five nerves in each patient were examined bilaterally with NMUS, and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of each nerve at certain sites was estimated. Read More

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Review: Closing nutrient cycles for animal production - Current and future agroecological and socio-economic issues.

Animal 2021 Jul 23:100285. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, United States.

We face an urgent and complex challenge to produce large amounts of healthful animal and plant foods for an estimated 10 billion people by 2050 while maintaining essential ecosystem services. To compound this challenge, we must do so while not further degrading our environment and conserving essential nutrients such as copper, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, and zinc that are in short supply for fertilization. Much good research has been done, but to meet this challenge, we need to greatly increase on-farm and watershed-scale research including on-farm evaluations and demonstrations of the putative best combinations of stewardship techniques over multiple years in real-world settings, which are backed by data on nutrient inputs, soil, air, and water chemistry (fluxes) and water discharge. Read More

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