93,177 results match your criteria essential bacteria


Analysis of Glycerol and Dihydroxyacetone metabolism in Enterococcus faecium.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Normandie Univ, UNICAEN U2RM-Stress and Virulence, 14000 Caen, France.

Glycerol (Gly) can be dissimilated by two pathways in bacteria. Either this sugar alcohol is first oxidized to dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and then phosphorylated or it is first phosphorylated to glycerol-3-phosphate (GlyP) followed by oxidation. Oxidation of GlyP can be achieved by NAD-dependent dehydrogenases or by a GlyP oxidase. Read More

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Disassembly of the apical junctional complex during the transmigration of Leptospira interrogans across polarized renal proximal tubule epithelial cells.

Cell Microbiol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Bacteriology, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan.

Bacterial pathogens have evolved multiple strategies to disassemble epithelial cell apical junctional complexes (AJCs) and infect epithelial cells. Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic infection, mainly caused by Leptospira interrogans, and its dissemination across host cell barriers is essential for its pathogenesis. However, the mechanism of bacterial dissemination across epithelial cell barriers remains poorly characterized. Read More

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Kdm6b Regulates the Generation of Effector CD8 T Cells by Inducing Chromatin Accessibility in Effector-Associated Genes.

J Immunol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Center for Cancer Cell Biology, Immunology and Infection, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL;

The transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of CD8 T cell differentiation is critical for balancing pathogen eradication and long-term immunity by effector and memory CTLs, respectively. In this study, we demonstrate that the lysine demethylase 6b (Kdm6b) is essential for the proper generation and function of effector CD8 T cells during acute infection and tumor eradication. We found that cells lacking Kdm6b (by either T cell-specific knockout mice or knockdown using short hairpin RNA strategies) show an enhanced generation of memory precursor and early effector cells upon acute viral infection in a cell-intrinsic manner. Read More

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Microbial community structure and composition is associated with host species and sex in Sigmodon cotton rats.

Anim Microbiome 2021 Apr 16;3(1):29. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Pathology Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: The cotton rat (genus Sigmodon) is an essential small animal model for the study of human infectious disease and viral therapeutic development. However, the impact of the host microbiome on infection outcomes has not been explored in this model, partly due to the lack of a comprehensive characterization of microbial communities across different cotton rat species. Understanding the dynamics of their microbiome could significantly help to better understand its role when modeling viral infections in this animal model. Read More

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Preclinical data and safety assessment of phage therapy in humans.

Curr Opin Biotechnol 2021 Apr 13;68:310-317. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Genetics and Genome Biology, University of Leicester, University Road, LE1 7RH, UK. Electronic address:

Bacteriophages (phages) are natural biological entities that kill bacteria with species specific precision, rendering them attractive for therapeutic purposes. Phages were discovered over a century ago, but, after antibiotic discovery, their use as antimicrobials dwindled. Interest in phage therapy has, however, been rekindled by increasing multi-drug resistance to routine and frontline antibiotics and by the slowing of antibiotic innovations. Read More

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Deletion of the natural inhibitory protein Inh1 in Ustilago maydis has no effect on the dimeric state of the FF-ATP synthase but increases the ATPase activity and reduces the stability.

Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg 2021 Apr 13:148429. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-159, Coyoacán 04510, México, D. F., Mexico. Electronic address:

Transduction of electrochemical proton gradient into ATP synthesis is performed by FF-ATP synthase. The reverse reaction is prevented by the regulatory subunit Inh1. Knockout of the inh1 gene in the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis was generated in order to study the function of this protein in the mitochondrial metabolism and cristae architecture. Read More

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Serology, infection, and clinical trachoma as tools in prevalence surveys for re-emergence of trachoma in a formerly hyperendemic district.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 16;15(4):e0009343. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: To eliminate trachoma as a public health problem, countries must achieve a district-level prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) <5% in children ages 1-9 years. Re-emergence of TF could trigger additional rounds of mass drug/antibiotic administration (MDA), so accurate tools for use in surveys assessing trachoma prevalence are essential.

Methodology & Principal Findings: We surveyed 2401 children ages 1-9 years from 50 villages in Kongwa, Tanzania, 2 years post-MDA and 1. Read More

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Targeting Adenosine Receptors in Neurological Diseases.

Cell Reprogram 2021 Apr;23(2):57-72

Department of Clinical Nutrition, NUR International University, Lahore, Pakistan.

Adenosine plays a significant role in neurotransmission process by controlling the blood pressure, while adenosine triphosphate (ATP) acts as a neuromodulator and neurotransmitter and by activation of P2 receptors, regulates the contractility of the heart. Adenosine signaling is essential in the process of regeneration by regulating proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of stem cells. In this review, we have selected neurological disorders (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy) with clinical trials using antagonists and epigenetic tools targeting adenosine receptor as a therapeutic approach in the treatment of these disorders. Read More

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Proteome characterisation of extracellular vesicles isolated from heart.

Proteomics 2021 Apr 16:e2100026. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science (LIMS), La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Cardiac intercellular communication is critical for heart function and often dysregulated in cardiovascular diseases. While cardiac extracellular vesicles (cEVs) are emerging mediators of signalling, their isolation remains a technical challenge hindering our understanding of cEV protein composition. Here, we utilised Langendorff-collagenase-based enzymatic perfusion and differential centrifugation to isolate cEVs from mouse heart (yield 3-6 μg/heart). Read More

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The zinc cluster transcription factor Czf1 regulates cell wall architecture and integrity in Candida albicans.

Mol Microbiol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Institute for Molecular Infection Biology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

The fungal cell wall is essential for the maintenance of cellular integrity and mediates interactions of the cells with the environment. It is a highly flexible organelle whose composition and organization is modulated in response to changing growth conditions. In the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, a network of signaling pathways regulates the structure of the cell wall, and mutants with defects in these pathways are hypersensitive to cell wall stress. Read More

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The Making of Long-Lasting Memories: A Fruit Fly Perspective.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 30;15:662129. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, United States.

Understanding the nature of the molecular mechanisms underlying memory formation, consolidation, and forgetting are some of the fascinating questions in modern neuroscience. The encoding, stabilization and elimination of memories, rely on the structural reorganization of synapses. These changes will enable the facilitation or depression of neural activity in response to the acquisition of new information. Read More

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SOD1 regulates ribosome biogenesis in KRAS mutant non-small cell lung cancer.

Nat Commun 2021 04 15;12(1):2259. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

SOD1 is known as the major cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase and an anticancer target. However, the role of SOD1 in cancer is not fully understood. Herein we describe the generation of an inducible Sod1 knockout in KRAS-driven NSCLC mouse model. Read More

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An intercrypt subpopulation of goblet cells is essential for colonic mucus barrier function.

Science 2021 Apr;372(6539)

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, 40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.

The intestinal mucus layer, an important element of epithelial protection, is produced by goblet cells. Intestinal goblet cells are assumed to be a homogeneous cell type. In this study, however, we delineated their specific gene and protein expression profiles and identified several distinct goblet cell populations that form two differentiation trajectories. Read More

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Novel Mouse Model Reveals That Serine Phosphorylation of L-Plastin Is Essential for Effective Splenic Clearance of Pneumococcus.

J Immunol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO; and

Asplenia imparts susceptibility to life-threatening sepsis with encapsulated bacteria, such as the pneumococcus. However, the cellular components within the splenic environment that guard against pneumococcal bacteremia have not been defined. The actin-bundling protein L-plastin (LPL) is essential for the generation of marginal zone B cells and for anti-pneumococcal host defense, as revealed by a mouse model of genetic LPL deficiency. Read More

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Deciphering the introduction and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the Colombian Amazon Basin.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 15;15(4):e0009327. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Centro de Investigaciones en Microbiología y Biotecnología-UR (CIMBIUR), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, Colombia.

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has forced health authorities across the world to take important decisions to curtail its spread. Genomic epidemiology has emerged as a valuable tool to understand introductions and spread of the virus in a specific geographic location.

Methodology/principal Findings: Here, we report the sequences of 59 SARS-CoV-2 samples from inhabitants of the Colombian Amazonas department. Read More

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Diluted Luria-Bertani medium vs. sewage sludge as growth media: comparison of community structure and diversity in the culturable bacteria.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biological Functions Engineering, Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Wakamatsu-Ku, Kitakyushu, Japan.

Because colony formation is essential to seek bacterial functions by the direct observation of phenotype, the diversification of colony formation for culturable bacteria is a big challenge in the research field of Environmental Biotechnology. In this study, the biodiversity of cultivable bacteria (colony or liquid culture) was compared by using Luria-Bertani (LB) medium and waste sewage sludge (WSS) under different dilutions and temperatures. When WSS was used as a bacterial source, whereas the highest number of colonies was found at the concentration of WSS (5%), a particular concentration of LB (10%) or WSS (1%) as a growth medium showed the best number of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of colonies. Read More

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Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Different Districts of a County in Istanbul, March to September 2020.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2021 Apr 15:10105395211009008. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Marmara University School of Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Istanbul, Turkey.

Epidemics caused by airborne viruses in cities with large populations create a big problem as in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Cramped lifestyle, busy workplaces, crowded public transportation, and higher household member counts are responsible for the transmission of the disease. In Turkey, Istanbul has taken the lead in the number of cases since the beginning of the epidemic. Read More

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Facile Synthesis of Poly(DMAEMA-co-MPS)-coated Porous Silica Nanocarriers as Dual-targeting Drug Delivery Platform: Experimental and Biological Investigations.

Acta Chim Slov 2020 Jun;67(2):462-468

Inorganic structures with functionalized polymers play essential roles in diverse biological trends. Herein, thermal and CO2 dual-stimuli nanomaterials composed of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) anchored with two grafted copolymers: poly(3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane) "PMPS" & poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) "PDMAEMA" were synthesized via one-step reaction and characterized by BET as well as BJH methods to estimate pore sizes, pore volumes, and surface areas. The smart PDMAEMA acted as an active gatekeeper to adjust the loading or in vitro release processes of a fungicidal drug-loaded inside the mesopores by altering temperature or CO2 of the tested environment. Read More

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A protocol for transposon insertion sequencing in to identify factors that maintain heterochromatin.

STAR Protoc 2021 Jun 23;2(2):100392. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Transposon insertion sequencing (TIS) is a highly effective method used with bacteria to identify genes important for growth in any condition of interest. Previously, we adapted this method to identify essential genes of the yeast . Here, we describe modifications used to identify genes necessary for the formation of centromeric heterochromatin. Read More

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Increased Isolation of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli From Community-Onset Urinary Tract Infection Cases in Uttarakhand, India.

Cureus 2021 Mar 11;13(3):e13837. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences Rishikesh, Rishikesh, IND.

Background: Management of community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) relies heavily on empirical antibiotic therapy. Knowledge of the proportion of drug-resistant isolates especially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing  (), and various risk factors for acquisition are essential.

Method:  Outpatient-treated CA-UTI cases were enrolled (continuously for three months), and microbiological analysis of urine sample was performed for significant bacterial growth followed by identification of conventional and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-ToF) spectrometry method. Read More

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Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Combination against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Isolated from Skin Ulcer.

Int J Microbiol 2021 26;2021:6680668. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Pharmacy, Health Science College, Madda Walabu University, Bale Robe, Ethiopia.

Background: Emerging of multidrug-resistant bacteria can compromise the effectiveness of antibiotics used to treat skin infections. Those bacteria imposed public health problems and questioning medical care in the 21 century. In this circumstance, essential oils of medicinal plants origin are supreme sources of structural and functionally divergent compounds, which inhibited the growth of common wound colonizing MRSA and ESBL producing The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from and against multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates of skin ulcers. Read More

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The antibiotic darobactin mimics a β-strand to inhibit outer membrane insertase.

Nature 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Antibiotics that target Gram-negative bacteria in new ways are needed to resolve the antimicrobial resistance crisis. Gram-negative bacteria are protected by an additional outer membrane, rendering proteins on the cell surface attractive drug targets. The natural compound darobactin targets the bacterial insertase BamA-the central unit of the essential BAM complex, which facilitates the folding and insertion of outer membrane proteins. Read More

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Epstein-Barr virus lytic replication induces ACE2 expression and enhances SARS CoV-2 pseudotyped virus entry in epithelial cells.

J Virol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, 84132 USA

Understanding factors that affect the infectivity of SARS CoV-2 is central to combatting COVID-19. The virus surface spike protein of SARS CoV-2 mediates viral entry into cells by binding to the ACE2 receptor on epithelial cells and promoting fusion. We find that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induces ACE2 expression when it enters the lytic replicative cycle in epithelial cells. Read More

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Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Co-Infection Modifies Adeno-Associated Virus Genome End Recombination.

J Virol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Institute of Virology, University of Zürich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland

Wildtype adeno-associated virus (AAV) can only replicate in the presence of helper factors, which can be provided by co-infecting helper viruses such as adenoviruses and herpes viruses. The AAV genome consists of a linear, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which is converted into different molecular structures within the host cell. Using high throughput sequencing we found that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) co-infection leads to a shift in the type of AAV genome end recombination. Read More

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Prazoles Targeting Tsg101 Inhibit Release of Epstein-Barr Virus following Reactivation from Latency.

J Virol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus responsible for several diseases including cancers of lymphoid and epithelial cells. EBV-cancers typically exhibit viral latency; however, the production and release of EBV through its lytic phase is essential for cancer development. Antiviral agents that specifically target EBV production do not currently exist. Read More

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The ENE of polyadenylated nuclear (PAN) RNA is not required for productive lytic replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).

J Virol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine, Reno, Nevada, USA

KSHV is an oncogenic human gammaherpesvirus and the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multi-centric Castleman's disease (MCD). During reactivation, viral genes are expressed in a temporal manner. These lytic genes encode for transactivators, core replication proteins, or structural proteins. Read More

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WLS/wntless is essential in controlling dendritic cell homeostasis via a WNT signaling-independent mechanism.

Autophagy 2021 Apr 14:1-16. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Respirology & Allergy, Third Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

We propose that beyond its role in WNT secretion, WLS/GPR177 (wntless, WNT ligand secretion mediator) acts as an essential regulator controlling protein glycosylation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis, and dendritic cell (DC)-mediated immunity. WLS deficiency in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) resulted in poor growth and an inability to mount cytokine and T-cell responses , phenotypes that were irreversible by the addition of exogenous WNTs. In fact, WLS was discovered to integrate a protein complex in N-glycan-dependent and WLS domain-selective manners, comprising ER stress sensors and lectin chaperones. Read More

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Direct conjugation of fluorescent quantum dots with E. coli via surface-displayed histidine-containing peptides.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Apr 1;203:111730. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

DEVCOM Army Research Laboratory, Biotechnology Branch, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD, 20783, United States.

Biocompatible approaches to labeling bacteria with fluorescent nanoparticles are essential in order to create living bacterial bioconjugates for imaging, biosensors, medicine, and other applications. Herein we report the direct conjugation of carboxyl quantum dots (QDs) with E. coli outer membrane via surface-displayed binding peptides. Read More

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Fungal and bacterial coinfections increase mortality of severely ill COVID-19 patients.

J Hosp Infect 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: SARS-CoV-2 predisposes patients to secondary infections; however, a better understanding of the impact of coinfections on the outcome of hospitalized COVID-19 patients is still necessary.

Aim: To analyse death risk due to coinfections in COVID-19 patients.

Methods: We evaluated the Odds of death of 212 severely ill COVID-19 patients, with detailed focus on the risks for each pathogen, site of infection, comorbidities and length of hospitalization. Read More

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A nexus of intrinsic dynamics underlies translocase priming.

Structure 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

KU Leuven, University of Leuven, Rega Institute, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

The cytoplasmic ATPase SecA and the membrane-embedded SecYEG channel assemble to form the Sec translocase. How this interaction primes and catalytically activates the translocase remains unclear. We show that priming exploits a nexus of intrinsic dynamics in SecA. Read More

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