5,355 results match your criteria escs

Exosome-shuttled miR-7162-3p from human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells repair endometrial stromal cell injury by restricting APOL6.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 Apr 17:108887. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, 226000, China. Electronic address:

Background: Recent studies have shown that exosomes (Exos) derived from stem cells can be used as paracrine factors to regenerate cells and tissues via shuttling miRNAs. Exos derived from human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) have been found to alleviate mifepristone-induced endometrial stromal cell (ESC) injury in vitro. Information on the functions and mechanisms of Exos from UCMSC-induced endometrial repair is limited and requires more study. Read More

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Hepatic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells by coupling substrate stiffness and microtopography.

Biomater Sci 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Center for Biomechanics and Bioengineering, Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory) and Beijing Key Laboratory of Engineered Construction and Mechanobiology, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China. and School of Engineering Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Mechanical or physical cues are associated with the growth and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). While the substrate stiffness or topography independently affects the differentiation of ESCs, their cooperative regulation on lineage-specific differentiation remains largely unknown. Here, four topographical configurations on stiff or soft polyacrylamide hydrogel were combined to direct hepatic differentiation of human H1 cells via a four-stage protocol, and the coupled impacts of stiffness and topography were quantified at distinct stages. Read More

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Endothelial Cells Differentiated from Porcine Epiblast Stem Cells.

Cell Reprogram 2021 Apr;23(2):89-98

Division of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Republic of Korea.

Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have the ability of self-renewal that can retain the characteristics of the mother cell, and of pluripotency that can differentiate into several body types. PSCs typically include embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from the inner cell mass of the preimplantation embryo, and epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) derived from the epiblast of postimplantation embryo. Although PSCs are able to be used by differentiation into endothelial cells as a potential treatment for vascular diseases, human ESCs and induced PSCs (iPSCs) are followed by ethical and safety issues. Read More

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Ecofriendly Solution-Combustion-Processed Thin-Film Transistors for Synaptic Emulation and Neuromorphic Computing.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou 215123, China.

The ecofriendly combustion synthesis (ECS) and self-combustion synthesis (ESCS) have been successfully utilized to deposit high- aluminum oxide (AlO) dielectrics at low temperatures and applied for aqueous InO thin-film transistors (TFTs) accordingly. The ECS and ESCS processes facilitate the formation of high-quality dielectrics at lower temperatures compared to conventional methods based on an ethanol precursor, as confirmed by thermal analysis and chemical composition characterization. The aqueous InO TFTs based on ECS and ESCS-AlO show enhanced electrical characteristics and counterclockwise transfer-curve hysteresis. Read More

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Dicer represses the interferon response and the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase pathway in mouse embryonic stem cells.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jan 8;296:100264. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, USA. Electronic address:

Recent studies have demonstrated that embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are deficient in expressing type I interferons (IFN), the cytokines that play key roles in antiviral responses. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and biological implications of this finding are poorly understood. In this study, we developed a synthetic RNA-based assay that can simultaneously assess multiple forms of antiviral responses. Read More

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January 2021

Establishment of bovine expanded potential stem cells.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(15)

The State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Regulation and Breeding of Grassland Livestock, Inner Mongolia University, 010070 Hohhot, China;

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells have the potential to differentiate to all cell types of an adult individual and are useful for studying development and for translational research. However, extrapolation of mouse and human ESC knowledge to deriving stable ESC lines of domestic ungulates and large livestock species has been challenging. In contrast to ESCs that are usually established from the blastocyst, mouse expanded potential stem cells (EPSCs) are derived from four-cell and eight-cell embryos. Read More

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Method for selective ablation of undifferentiated human pluripotent stem cell populations for cell-based therapies.

JCI Insight 2021 Apr 8;6(7). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Stanford Cardiovascular Institute.

Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), which are composed of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), provide an opportunity to advance cardiac cell therapy-based clinical trials. However, an important hurdle that must be overcome is the risk of teratoma formation after cell transplantation due to the proliferative capacity of residual undifferentiated PSCs in differentiation batches. To tackle this problem, we propose the use of a minimal noncardiotoxic doxorubicin dose as a purifying agent to selectively target rapidly proliferating stem cells for cell death, which will provide a purer population of terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes before cell transplantation. Read More

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Simplified MethylRAD Sequencing to Detect Changes in DNA Methylation at Enhancer Elements in Differentiating Embryonic Stem Cells.

Epigenomes 2020 Dec 1;4(4). Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Differential DNA methylation is characteristic of gene regulatory regions, such as enhancers, which mostly constitute low or intermediate CpG content in their DNA sequence. Consequently, quantification of changes in DNA methylation at these sites is challenging. Given that DNA methylation across most of the mammalian genome is maintained, the use of genome-wide bisulfite sequencing to measure fractional changes in DNA methylation at specific sites is an overexertion which is both expensive and cumbersome. Read More

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December 2020

Human ES Cell Culture Conditions Fail to Preserve the Mouse Epiblast State.

Stem Cells Int 2021 10;2021:8818356. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Stem Cell Laboratory, Department of Genomic Science, Krishna Building, Central University of Kerala, Tejaswini Hills, Periye. P. O, Kasaragod District, Kerala 671316, India.

Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and mouse epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs) are the pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of preimplantation embryos at embryonic day 3.5 (E3.5) and postimplantation embryos at E5. Read More

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PANDORA-seq expands the repertoire of regulatory small RNAs by overcoming RNA modifications.

Nat Cell Biol 2021 Apr 5;23(4):424-436. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA, USA.

Although high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has greatly advanced small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) discovery, the currently widely used complementary DNA library construction protocol generates biased sequencing results. This is partially due to RNA modifications that interfere with adapter ligation and reverse transcription processes, which prevent the detection of sncRNAs bearing these modifications. Here, we present PANDORA-seq (panoramic RNA display by overcoming RNA modification aborted sequencing), employing a combinatorial enzymatic treatment to remove key RNA modifications that block adapter ligation and reverse transcription. Read More

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Recognizable Patterns of Submacular Fibrosis in the Enhanced S-Cone Syndrome.

Ophthalmol Retina 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Vitreoretinal Division, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Purpose: To highlight recognizable patterns of subretinal fibrosis in the enhanced S-cone syndrome (ESCS).

Design: Retrospective case series.

Participants: 47 patients with subretinal fibrosis identified from 101 clinically diagnosed ESCS patients, confirmed by full field-electroretinography (ERG) (35/47) and/or genetic testing (34/47). Read More

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Stemness-Associated Markers Are Expressed in Extracranial Arteriovenous Malformation.

Front Surg 2021 19;8:621089. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Gillies McIndoe Research Institute, Wellington, New Zealand.

Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) consists of a with poorly formed low-resistance vessels in place of a functional capillary network. The role of somatic mutations in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and vascular anomalies and the presence of primitive populations in vascular anomalies led us to investigate the presence of a primitive population in extracranial AVM. Extracranial AVM tissue samples from 12 patients were stained for stemness-associated markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4, and c-MYC using immunohistochemical staining. Read More

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UV/ozone surface modification combined with atmospheric pressure plasma irradiation for cell culture plastics to improve pluripotent stem cell culture.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Apr 5;123:112012. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science & Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 223-8522, Japan. Electronic address:

Culturing pluripotent stem cells effectively requires substrates coated with feeder cell layers or cell-adhesive matrices. It is difficult to employ pluripotent stem cells as resources for regenerative medicine due to risks of culture system contamination by animal-derived factors, or the large costs associated with the use of adhesive matrices. To enable a coating-free culture system, we focused on UV/ozone surface modification and atmospheric pressure plasma treatment for polystyrene substrates, to improve adhesion and proliferation of pluripotent stem cells. Read More

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Atheroprotective Properties of (Jacq.) Sw. in Female Rats.

Life (Basel) 2021 Mar 8;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Laboratory of Cardiovascular Pharmacology (LaFaC), Faculty of Health Sciences, Federal University of Grande Dourados, Dourados 79.804-970, MS, Brazil.

Background: (Jacq.) Sw. is a medicinal species frequently prescribed for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Read More

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LHPP-Mediated Histidine Dephosphorylation Suppresses the Self-Renewal of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 16;9:638815. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Institute of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is orchestrated by a vast number of genes at the transcriptional and translational levels. However, the molecular mechanisms of post-translational regulatory factors in ESC self-renewal remain unclear. Histidine phosphorylation, also known as hidden phosphorylation, cannot be detected by conventional experimental methods. Read More

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TFEB regulates pluripotency transcriptional network in mouse embryonic stem cells independent of autophagy-lysosomal biogenesis.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Apr 1;12(4):343. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Life Science, University of Seoul, Seoul, 130-743, Republic of Korea.

Transcription factor EB (TFEB), a well-known master regulator of autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis, is a member of the microphthalmia family of transcription factors (MiT family). Over the years, TFEB has been shown to have diverse roles in various physiological processes such as clearance for intracellular pathogenic factors and having developmental functions such as dendritic maturation, as well as osteoclast, and endoderm differentiation. However, in the present study, we propose a novel mechanism for TFEB governing pluripotency of mouse ESCs (mESCs) by regulating the pluripotency transcriptional network (PTN) in these cells. Read More

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Bioinformatics analysis of biomarkers of aristolochic acid-induced early nephrotoxicity in embryonic stem cells.

Exp Ther Med 2021 May 18;21(5):508. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

School of Integrative Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 301617, P.R. China.

The present study aimed to identify key genes as potential biomarkers for early nephrotoxicity induced by aristolochic acid (AA) in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). An MTT assay was performed to determine the cytotoxicity of AA in ESCs. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the DNA-Chip Analyzer following microarray analysis. Read More

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TORC2/3-mediated DUSP1 upregulation is essential for human decidualization.

Reproduction 2021 May;161(5):573-580

Laboratory for Reproductive Immunology, NHC Key Lab of Reproduction Regulation (Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research), Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fudan University Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Decidualization is the functional transformation process of endometrium in response to ovarian steroids dedicated to support embryo development. Defective decidualization is closely associated with various pregnancy complications such as recurrent miscarriage (RM). Dual specificity MAPK phosphatases (MKPs) are a family of phosphatases specifically regulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling with dual specificity for threonine and tyrosine. Read More

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MYBL2 and ATM suppress replication stress in pluripotent stem cells.

EMBO Rep 2021 Mar 28:e51120. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Institute of Cancer and Genomic Science, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Replication stress, a major cause of genome instability in cycling cells, is mainly prevented by the ATR-dependent replication stress response pathway in somatic cells. However, the replication stress response pathway in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) may be different due to alterations in cell cycle phase length. The transcription factor MYBL2, which is implicated in cell cycle regulation, is expressed a hundred to a thousand-fold more in ESCs compared with somatic cells. Read More

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Current Developments in Cell Replacement Therapy for Parkinson's Disease.

Neuroscience 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Neurology, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia. PD is caused mainly by depletion of the nigrostriatal pathway. Conventional medications such as levodopa are highly effective in the early stage of PD; however, these medications fail to prevent the underlying neurodegeneration. Read More

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Efficient Generation of Functional Hepatocytes from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Disease Modeling and Disease Gene Discovery.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Human Genetics and South Texas Diabetes and Obesity Institute, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley School of Medicine, Brownsville, TX, USA.

In vitro hepatocyte cell models are being used to study the pathogenesis of liver disease and in the discovery and preclinical stages of drug development. The culture of hepatic cell lines and primary hepatocytes as in vitro cell models has been carried out for several decades. However, hepatic cell lines (hepatic carcinoma generated or immortalized) have limited accuracy when recapitulating complex physiological functions of the liver. Read More

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Low Immunogenicity and Immunosuppressive Properties of Human ESC- and iPSC-Derived Retinas.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Apr 25;16(4):851-867. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Laboratory for Retinal Regeneration, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research, Kobe 650-0047, Japan; RIKEN Program for Drug Discovery and Medical Technology Platforms (DMP), RIKEN Cluster for Science, Technology and Innovation Hub, Saitama 351-0198, Japan. Electronic address:

ESC- and iPSC-derived retinal transplantation is a promising therapeutic approach for disease with end-stage retinal degeneration, such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration. We previously showed medium- to long-term survival, maturation, and light response of transplanted human ESC- and iPSC-retina in mouse, rat, and monkey models of end-stage retinal degeneration. Because the use of patient hiPSC-derived retina with a disease-causing gene mutation is not appropriate for therapeutic use, allogeneic transplantation using retinal tissue/cells differentiated from a stocked hESC and iPSC line would be most practical. Read More

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Dissection of two routes to naïve pluripotency using different kinase inhibitors.

Nat Commun 2021 03 25;12(1):1863. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Proteomics Unit, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain.

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be maintained in the naïve state through inhibition of Mek1/2 and Gsk3 (2i). A relevant effect of 2i is the inhibition of Cdk8/19, which are negative regulators of the Mediator complex, responsible for the activity of enhancers. Inhibition of Cdk8/19 (Cdk8/19i) stimulates enhancers and, similar to 2i, stabilizes ESCs in the naïve state. Read More

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Berberine loaded chitosan nanoparticles encapsulated in polysaccharide-based hydrogel for the repair of spinal cord.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Mar 22;182:82-90. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran; Shiraz Molecular Pathology Research Center, Dr Daneshbod Path Lab, Shiraz, Iran; Shefa Neurosciences Research Center, Khatam-Alanbia Hospita, Tehran, Iran.

The potential of berberine loaded in chitosan nanoparticles (BerNChs) within a hybrid of alginate (Alg) and chitosan (Ch) hydrogel was investigated for the substrate which is known as an inhibit activator proteins. The physicochemical properties of the developed Alg-Ch hydrogel were investigated by fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The swelling ability and degradation rate of hydrogels were also analyzed in a phosphate-buffered saline solution at physiological pH. Read More

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miR‑143‑3p inhibits endometriotic stromal cell proliferation and invasion by inactivating autophagy in endometriosis.

Mol Med Rep 2021 May 24;23(5). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Gynaecology, Shanghai Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, P.R. China.

Endometriosis (EM) is a multifactorial and debilitating chronic benign gynecological disease, but the pathogenesis of the disease is not completely understood. Dysregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNA/miR) is associated with the etiology of EM due to their role in regulating endometrial stromal cell proliferation and invasion. The present study aimed to identify the functions and mechanisms underlying miR‑143‑3p in EM. Read More

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Generation of high yield insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from various sources of stem cells.

Vitam Horm 2021 9;116:235-268. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran; Molecular and Cell biology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. Electronic address:

Type 1 diabetes mellitus occurs when beta cell mass is reduced to less than 20% of the normal level due to immune system destruction of beta cell resulting in an inability to secrete enough insulin. The prevalence of diabetes is expanding according to the American Diabetes Association and the World Health Organization (WHO), foretold to exceed 350 million by 2030. The current treatment does not cure many of the serious complications associated with the disease such as neuropathy, nephropathy, dyslipidemia, retinopathy and cardiovascular disease. Read More

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Brain fMRI during orientation selective epidural spinal cord stimulation.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 9;11(1):5504. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Center for Magnetic Resonance Research (CMRR), Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, 2021 6th St. SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.

Epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS) is widely used for chronic pain treatment, and is also a promising tool for restoring motor function after spinal cord injury. Despite significant positive impact of ESCS, currently available protocols provide limited specificity and efficiency partially due to the limited number of contacts of the leads and to the limited flexibility to vary the spatial distribution of the stimulation field in respect to the spinal cord. Recently, we introduced Orientation Selective (OS) stimulation strategies for deep brain stimulation, and demonstrated their selectivity in rats using functional MRI (fMRI). Read More

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Expression of Talin-1 in endometriosis and its possible role in pathogenesis.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2021 Mar 9;19(1):42. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Gynecology, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, NO.138 Tongzipo Road, Yuelu District, Changsha, 410013, Hunan, China.

Background: Endometriosis is a disease that involves active cell invasion and migration. Talin-1 can promote cell invasion, migration and adhension in various cancer cells, but its role in endometriosis has not been investigated. This study was to investigate the expression level of Talin-1 in endometriosis and the role of Talin-1 in the proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasion of human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs). Read More

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Inhibition of MTA2 and MTA3 induces mesendoderm specification of human embryonic stem cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 19;552:142-149. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Anhui Provincial Hospital, First Affiliated Hospital of University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230001, China. Electronic address:

Fully understanding the regulatory network under the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESC) is a prerequisite for their safe application. Here, we addressed the characteristics of metastasis-associated (MTA) family members in human ESCs and found that knockdown of the expression of MTA2 and MTA3, but not MTA1, would induce differentiation. High-throughput sequence and quantitative real-time PCR showed that the decreased MTA2 or MTA3 gene transcript mainly led to the emergence of mesendoderm associated markers. Read More

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Efficient induction of neural progenitor cells from human ESC/iPSCs on Type I Collagen.

Sci China Life Sci 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

CAS Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510530, China.

A stable, rapid and effective neural differentiation method is essential for the clinical applications of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in treating neurological disorders and diseases. Herein, we established a novel and robust monolayer differentiation method to produce functional neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from human ESC/iPSCs on Type I Collagen. The derived cells not only displayed the requisite markers, but also behaved similarly to classic NPCs both in vitro and in vivo. Read More

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