420 results match your criteria ers pattern

Evaluation of Patients with Fibrotic Interstitial Lung Disease: Preliminary results from the Turk-UIP Study.

Turk Thorac J 2021 Mar 1;22(2):102-109. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Fulya Imaging Center, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: Differential diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is important among fibrotic interstitial lung diseases (ILD). This study aimed to evaluate the rate of IPF in patients with fibrotic ILD and to determine the clinical-laboratory features of patients with and without IPF that would provide the differential diagnosis of IPF.

Material And Methods: The study included the patients with the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern or possible UIP pattern on thorax high-resolution computed tomography, and/or UIP pattern, probable UIP or possible UIP pattern at lung biopsy according to the 2011 ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT guidelines. Read More

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Circadian Misalignment Induced by Chronic Night Shift Work Promotes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Activation Impacting Directly on Human Metabolism.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, Avenida Bandeirantes, 3900-Vila Monte Alegre, 14049-900 Ribeirao Preto/SP, Brazil.

Night work has become necessary in our modern society. However, sleep deprivation induces a circadian misalignment that effectively contributes to the development of diseases associated with metabolic syndrome, such as obesity and diabetes. Here, we evaluated the pattern of circadian clock genes and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) genes in addition to metabolic and anthropometric measures in subjects that work during a nocturnal period compared with day workers. Read More

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Multidisciplinary team obviates biopsy in most patients with diffuse parenchymal lung diseases-A retrospective study from India.

Clin Respir J 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Pulmonology and Internal Medicine, Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center, Narayana Health City, Bengaluru, India.

Introduction: The inflammation and fibrosis in diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) in varied proportions give rise to different patterns in radiology and histopathology. The radiological pattern on CT of the thorax most often allows us to make a diagnosis with varying levels of confidence, to optimize management. With a multidisciplinary team bringing the strengths of their individual domains of knowledge, clinical, radiological, histopathological, and in many cases rheumatological, the level of confidence in making this diagnosis increases, often to the stage where the diagnosis is most often right, is concordant with the diagnosis achieved at histopathology and therefore obviates the need for lung biopsy which carries its own costs and risks of complications. Read More

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Domestic violence and abuse related emergency room visits in Ontario, Canada.

BMC Public Health 2021 Mar 6;21(1):461. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Health Promotion, Chronic Disease, and Injury Prevention Department, Public Health Ontario, 480 University Avenue, Suite 300, Toronto, ON, M5G 1V2, Canada.

Background: Hospitals' emergency rooms (ERs) are generally the first point of contact of domestic violence and abuse (DVA) victims to the health care system. For efficient management and resource allocation for ERs to manage DVA-related emergencies in Canada, it is important to quantify and assess the pattern of these visits.

Methods: Aggregate DVA-related ER visits data, using relevant ICD-10-CA codes, from 2012 to 2016 were retrieved from IntelliHealth Ontario. Read More

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Risk of development of brain metastases according to the IASLC/ATS/ERS lung adenocarcinoma classification in locally advanced and metastatic disease.

Lung Cancer 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Catalan Institute of Oncology, Germans Trials i Pujol Research Institute and Hospital Campus Can Ruti, Barcelona, Spain.

Introduction: Brain metastases (BM) are frequent among lung cancer patients, affecting prognosis and quality of life. The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), American Thoracic Society (ATS) and European Respiratory Society (ERS) lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) classification (IASLC/ATS/ERS) has prognostic impact in early-stage disease; however, its role in the advanced setting is not precise. This study aims to determine the correlation between the predominant histological subtype and the risk of developing brain metastases (BM) in locally advanced and metastatic (stages IIIB-IV) LADC. Read More

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January 2021

Comparison between the ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT criteria of 2011 and 2018 for Usual Interstitial Pneumonia on HRCT: a cross-sectional study.

Br J Radiol 2021 Apr 4;94(1120):20201159. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Respiratory Medicine and Thoracic Oncology, Middelheim Hospital ZNA, Lindendreef 1, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium.

Objectives: To determine whether the revised 2018 ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT radiological criteria for usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) provide better diagnostic agreement compared to the 2011 guidelines.

Methods: Cohort for this cross-sectional study (single center, nonacademic) was recruited from a multidisciplinary team discussion (MDD) from July 2010 until November 2018, with clinical suspicion of fibrosing interstitial lung disease (= 325). Exclusion criteria were technical HRCT issues, known connective tissue disease (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, poly-or dermatomyositis), exposure to pulmonary toxins or lack of working diagnosis after MDD. Read More

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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in the UK: analysis of the British Thoracic Society electronic registry between 2013 and 2019.

ERJ Open Res 2021 Jan 25;7(1). Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Royal Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive and terminal interstitial lung disease (ILD) with a median survival of 3-5 years. The British Thoracic Society (BTS) established the UK IPF Registry in 2013 as a platform to collect data on clinical characteristics, treatments and outcomes for this cohort in the UK. Between 1 January 2013 and 31 October 2019, 2474 cases were registered. Read More

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January 2021

[Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia versus secondary organizing pneumonia].

Pathologe 2021 Feb 18;42(1):55-63. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Pathologie, Forschungszentrum Borstel, Leibniz Lungenzentrum, Parkallee 3A, 23845, Borstel, Deutschland.

Organizing pneumonia (OP) describes a histological pattern of acute or subacute lung damage. Clinically, patients present with cough, fever, and dyspnea. A distinction is made between idiopathic or cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) and secondary organizing pneumonia (OP). Read More

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February 2021

Physiological Changes Differ between Responders and Nonresponders to Pulmonary Rehabilitation in COPD.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2020 Dec 23;Publish Ahead of Print. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Health Unit, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Mol, Belgium Measure, Model & Manage Bioresponses, Department of Biosystems, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium Department of Research and Development, CIRO, Horn, The Netherlands School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism (NUTRIM), Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands Department of Respiratory Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Lung Health, Vienna, Austria Rehabilitation Research Center (REVAL), Biomedical Research Institute (BIOMED), Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek, Belgium.

Purpose: Not all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience similar benefits following pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). This pre-post PR study used a large sample of patients with COPD to determine whether PR-induced changes of oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) kinetics and exercise responses of V[Combining Dot Above]O2, carbon dioxide output (V[Combining Dot Above]CO2), minute ventilation (V[Combining Dot Above]E), V[Combining Dot Above]E/V[Combining Dot Above]CO2, breathing frequency and tidal volume differed between responders and non-responders to PR.

Methods: Responders to PR were defined as patients with a minimal clinically important increase in endurance time of 105 s. Read More

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December 2020

Interstitial Pneumonia with Autoimmune Features: Why Rheumatologist-Pulmonologist Collaboration Is Essential.

Biomedicines 2020 Dec 26;9(1). Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Respiratory Unit, San Gerardo Hospital, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milan-Bicocca, 20900 Monza, Italy.

In 2015 the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the American Thoracic Society (ATS) "Task Force on Undifferentiated Forms of Connective Tissue Disease-associated Interstitial Lung Disease" proposed classification criteria for a new research category defined as "Interstitial Pneumonia with Autoimmune Features" (IPAF), to uniformly define patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and features of autoimmunity, without a definite connective tissue disease. These classification criteria were based on a variable combination of features obtained from three domains: a clinical domain consisting of extra-thoracic features, a serologic domain with specific autoantibodies, and a morphologic domain with imaging patterns, histopathological findings, or multicompartment involvement. Features suggesting a systemic vasculitis were excluded. Read More

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December 2020

Correlations Between Choriocapillaris and Choroidal Measurements and the Growth of Geographic Atrophy Using Swept Source OCT Imaging.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 24;224:321-331. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: Correlations among enlargement rates (ERs) of geographic atrophy (GA) and choriocapillaris (CC) flow deficits (FDs), mean choroidal thickness (MCT), and choroidal vascularity index (CVI) were investigated using swept source-optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

Design: A retrospective review of prospective, observational case series.

Methods: Eyes with GA from AMD were imaged with SS-OCT using 6 × 6-mm scan pattern. Read More

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Two siblings with early repolarization syndrome: clinical and genetic characterization by whole-exome sequencing.

Europace 2020 Dec 16. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Cardiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Heart Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Aims : The early repolarization syndrome (ERS) can cause ventricular fibrillation (VF) and sudden death in young, otherwise healthy individuals. There are limited data suggesting that ERS might be heritable. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical phenotype and to identify a causal variant in an affected family using an exome-sequencing approach. Read More

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December 2020

[A case-control study on effect of occupational factor exposures on carotid atherosclerosis in steel workers].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2020 Nov;41(11):1836-1842

School of Public Health, North China of Science and Technology University, Tangshan 063210, China; Hebei Provincial Coal and Safety Key Laboratory, Tangshan 063000, China.

To investigate the effect of occupational factor exposures on carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) in steel workers. A frequency matched case-control study was conducted by age and factory proportion. A total of 1 033 workers with carotid atherosclerosis diagnosed by ultrasonography examination from February to June 2017 were selected as case group, and 1 033 workers without carotid atherosclerosis indicated by physical examination at the same time were selected as control group. Read More

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November 2020

High-intensity exercise impairs extradiaphragmatic respiratory muscle perfusion in patients with COPD.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 Feb 29;130(2):325-341. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Faculty of Movement and Rehabilitation Sciences, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Research Group for Rehabilitation in Internal Disorders, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

The study investigated whether high-intensity exercise impairs inspiratory and expiratory muscle perfusion in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We compared respiratory local muscle perfusion between constant-load cycling[sustained at 80% peak work rate (WRpeak)] and voluntary normocapnic hyperpnea reproducing similar work of breathing (WoB) in 18 patients [forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV): 58 ± 24% predicted]. Local muscle blood flow index (BFI), using indocyanine green dye, and fractional oxygen saturation (%StiO) were simultaneously assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) over the intercostal, scalene, rectus abdominis, and vastus lateralis muscles. Read More

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February 2021

All-trans retinoic acid increases ARPE-19 cell apoptosis activation of reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways.

Int J Ophthalmol 2020 18;13(9):1345-1350. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, Guangdong Province, China.

Aim: To explore the apoptosis of ARPE-19 cells after the treatment with different doses of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA).

Methods: ARPE-19 cells were used in the experiment. Flow cytometry assay was employed to evaluate the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. Read More

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September 2020

Accurate assessment of estrogen receptor profiles in non-functioning pituitary adenomas using RT-digital PCR and immunohistochemistry.

Life Sci 2020 Nov 11;260:118416. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are common pituitary tumors, and surgery is generally the only treatment option. Few attempts have been made to explore target molecules for the development of NFPA pharmacological treatments.

Method: We quantitatively assessed the expression profiles of estrogen receptor (ER) transcripts and proteins in NFPA samples, using reverse transcription-digital polymerase chain reaction (RT-dPCR) and immunohistochemistry, and further investigated the correlations between the expression levels of ER and those of downstream responsive genes. Read More

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November 2020

Estrogen Induces Selective Transcription of Caveolin1 Variants in Human Breast Cancer through Estrogen Responsive Element-Dependent Mechanisms.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Aug 20;21(17). Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Biology, University of Naples "Federico II", 80126 Naples, Italy.

The estrogen receptor (ER) signaling regulates numerous physiological processes mainly through activation of gene transcription (genomic pathways). Caveolin1 (CAV1) is a membrane-resident protein that behaves as platform to enable different signaling molecules and receptors for membrane-initiated pathways. CAV1 directly interacts with ERs and allows their localization on membrane with consequent activation of ER-non-genomic pathways. Read More

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Perspectives on the Role of Non-Coding RNAs in the Regulation of Expression and Function of the Estrogen Receptor.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Aug 4;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Department of Medical Genetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19839-63113, Iran.

Estrogen receptors (ERs) comprise several nuclear and membrane-bound receptors with different tissue-specific functions. ERα and ERβ are two nuclear members of this family, whereas G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), ER-X, and Gq-coupled membrane estrogen receptor (Gq-mER) are membrane-bound G protein-coupled proteins. ERα participates in the development and function of several body organs such as the reproductive system, brain, heart and musculoskeletal systems. Read More

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Cribriform growth pattern in lung adenocarcinoma: More aggressive and poorer prognosis than acinar growth pattern.

Lung Cancer 2020 09 21;147:187-192. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The predictive value of prognosis based on the histopathological subtype is a critical criterion in the new classification of lung adenocarcinoma published in 2011 by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC), the American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) (IASLC/ATS/ERS). In this new classification, the differences of histopathology and prognosis are two considerable parameters to classify the subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma. Cribriform growth pattern is regarded as a variant of acinar growth pattern in lung adenocarcinoma, however, more and more studies pointed out that cribriform growth pattern is associated with more aggressive histopathological structures, higher proportion of recurrence rates, and shorter postoperative survival than acinar growth pattern. Read More

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September 2020

Histopathologic Assessment of Suspected Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Where We Are and Where We Need to Go.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2020 12;144(12):1477-1489

and the Department of Pathology, Mount Sinai Health System, Icahn School of Medicine, New York, New York (Beasley).

Context.—: Accurate diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) requires multidisciplinary diagnosis that includes clinical, radiologic, and often pathologic assessment. In 2018, the American Thoracic Society, European Respiratory Society, Japanese Respiratory Society, and the Latin American Thoracic Society (ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT) and the Fleischner Society each published guidelines for the diagnosis of IPF, which include criteria for 4 categories of confidence of a histologic usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern. Read More

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December 2020

The phthalate DEHP modulates the estrogen receptors α and β increasing lactotroph cell population in female pituitary glands.

Chemosphere 2020 Nov 6;258:127304. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA-CONICET), Córdoba, Argentina; Centro de Microscopia Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina. Electronic address:

Humans are exposed to numerous endocrine disruptors on a daily basis, which may interfere with endogenous estrogens, with Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) being one of the most employed. The anterior pituitary gland is a target of 17β-estradiol (E2) through the specific estrogen receptors (ERs) α and β, whose expression levels fluctuate in the gland under different contexts, and the ERα/β index is responsible for the final E2 effect. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vivo and in vitro the DEHP effects on ERα and β expression in the pituitary cell population, and also its impact on lactotroph and somatotroph cell growth. Read More

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November 2020

The variable association between expression and methylation of estrogen receptors and the survival of patients with different tumors.

Clin Transl Med 2020 Jun 14;10(2):e49. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine & Department of Pathology in the School of Basic Medical Sciences & The Affiliated Sir Run Run Hospital & Key Laboratory of Antibody Technique of National Health Commission, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Estrogen receptor (ER) is essential in reproductive development and is also the primary driver of breast cancers. Deregulation of ER may also be involved in tumorigenesis of other organs. To understand the role of ER in different tumor types, pan-cancer analysis of estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) in various tumors and association with patients' survival were conducted using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. Read More

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Deep-learning algorithm helps to standardise ATS/ERS spirometric acceptability and usability criteria.

Eur Respir J 2020 12 17;56(6). Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Laboratory of Respiratory Diseases and Thoracic Surgery, Dept of Chronic Diseases, Metabolism and Ageing, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

Rationale: While American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) quality control criteria for spirometry include several quantitative limits, it also requires manual visual inspection. The current approach is time consuming and leads to high intertechnician variability. We propose a deep-learning approach called convolutional neural network (CNN), to standardise spirometric manoeuvre acceptability and usability. Read More

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December 2020

Individual-specific and shared representations during episodic memory encoding and retrieval.

Neuroimage 2020 08 6;217:116909. Epub 2020 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning & IDG/McGovern Institute of Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, PR China. Electronic address:

Although human memories seem unique to each individual, they are shared to a great extent across individuals. Previous studies have examined, separately, subject-specific and cross-subject shared representations during memory encoding and retrieval, but how shared memories are formed from individually encoded representations is not clearly understood. Using a unique fMRI design involving memory encoding and retrieval, and representational similarity analysis to link representations from different individuals, brain regions, and processing stages, the current study revealed that distributed brain regions showed both subject-specific and shared neural representations during both memory encoding and retrieval. Read More

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Motor imagery EEG classification based on ensemble support vector learning.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2020 Sep 27;193:105464. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Systems Engineering Institute, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Background And Objective: Brain-computer interfaces build a communication pathway from the human brain to a computer. Motor imagery-based electroencephalogram (EEG) classification is a widely applied paradigm in brain-computer interfaces. The common spatial pattern, based on the event-related desynchronization (ERD)/event-related synchronization (ERS) phenomenon, is one of the most popular algorithms for motor imagery-based EEG classification. Read More

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September 2020

Interobserver variability in high-resolution CT of the lungs.

Eur J Radiol Open 2020 31;7:100228. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Radiology, Örebro University Hospital, Region Örebro County, Sweden.

Purpose: To quantify the interobserver variability among the most frequently encountered parenchymal patterns in High Resolution CT (HRCT) and to compare the interobserver variability in the application of the 2011 and 2018 usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) criteria according to the joint guidelines from international thoracic and respiratory societies.

Material And Methods: Two observers independently evaluated 126 HRCT, with examples of most common parenchymal patterns, and noted the presence of each pattern. The readers also noted whether the findings met the 2011 criteria for UIP. Read More

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Can a highly accurate multi-class SSMVEP BCI induce sensory-motor rhythm in sensorimotor area?

J Neural Eng 2020 Apr 1. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo Faculty of Engineering, Waterloo, Ontario, CANADA.

Different visual stimuli might have different effects on the brain, e.g. the change of brightness, non-biological movement and biological movement. Read More

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Covariate shift estimation based adaptive ensemble learning for handling non-stationarity in motor imagery related EEG-based brain-computer interface.

Neurocomputing 2019 May;343:154-166

School of Computing and Intelligent Systems, Ulster University, Magee campus, Derry Londonderry, UK.

The non-stationary nature of electroencephalography (EEG) signals makes an EEG-based brain-computer interface (BCI) a dynamic system, thus improving its performance is a challenging task. In addition, it is well-known that due to non-stationarity based covariate shifts, the input data distributions of EEG-based BCI systems change during inter- and intra-session transitions, which poses great difficulty for developments of online adaptive data-driven systems. Ensemble learning approaches have been used previously to tackle this challenge. Read More

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Profiling the expression and function of oestrogen receptor isoform ER46 in human endometrial tissues and uterine natural killer cells.

Hum Reprod 2020 03;35(3):641-651

Centre for Inflammation Research, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Study Question: Does the oestrogen receptor isoform, ER46, contribute to regulation of endometrial function?

Summary Answer: ER46 is expressed in endometrial tissues, is the predominant ER isoform in first trimester decidua and is localised to the cell membrane of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells where activation of ER46 increases cell motility.

What Is Known Already: Oestrogens acting via their cognate receptors are essential regulators of endometrial function and play key roles in establishment of pregnancy. ER46 is a 46-kDa truncated isoform of full length ERα (ER66, encoded by ESR1) that contains both ligand- and DNA-binding domains. Read More

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The key action of estradiol and progesterone enables GnRH delivery during gestation in the South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2020 06 15;200:105627. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Centro de Estudios Biomédicos Básicos, Aplicados y Desarrollo (CEBBAD), Universidad Maimónides, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina(2); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina. Electronic address:

The South American plains vizcacha, Lagostomus maximus, is the only mammal described so far that shows expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs) in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. This animal therefore constitutes an exceptional model for the study of the effect of steroid hormones on the modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. By using both in vivo and ex vivo approaches, we have found that pharmacological doses of progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) produced an inhibition in the expression of hypothalamic GnRH, while physiological doses produced a differential effect on the pulsatile release frequency or genomic expression of GnRH. Read More

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