Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 23;11:591217. Epub 2020 Nov 23.
Department of Surgery, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, United States.
Estrogens exert their physiological and pathophysiological effects cellular receptors, named ERα, ERβ, and G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). Estrogen-regulated physiology is tightly controlled by factors that regulate estrogen bioavailability and receptor sensitivity, while disruption of these control mechanisms can result in loss of reproductive function, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disease, obesity, insulin resistance, endometriosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Restoration of estrogen physiology by modulating estrogen bioavailability or receptor activity is an effective approach for treating these pathological conditions. Read More