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Baseline distributions and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in reef-associated sediments of Vembar group of Islands, Gulf of Mannar, India.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Jul 30;171:112727. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Geology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu, India.

The study aims to investigate the source and concentration of PAH fractions in the reef sediments of the Vembar group of Islands, Gulf of Mannar, India. The concentration of PAHs ranged from 0.36 to 15. Read More

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Drainage retinotomy confers risk of epiretinal membrane formation following vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Purpose: To describe the factors associated with epiretinal membrane (ERM) formation in eyes treated with pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD).

Design: Nation-wide, multi-center, clinical cohort study based on registry data.

Methods: Subjects: The 2239 cases treated with PPV for RRD repair registered in the Japan-Retinal Detachment Registry between February 2016 and March 2017. Read More

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Conformational flexibility determines the Nf2/merlin tumor suppressor functions.

Matrix Biol Plus 2021 Dec 1;12:100074. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Cell Adhesion Laboratory, Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter 33458, FL, United States.

The Neurofibromatosis type 2 gene encodes the Nf2/merlin tumor suppressor protein that is responsible for the regulation of cell proliferation. Once activated, Nf2/merlin modulates adhesive signaling pathways and thereby inhibits cell growth. Nf2/merlin controls oncogenic gene expression by modulating the Hippo pathway. Read More

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December 2021

Spontaneous resolution of inflammatory epiretinal membrane: Case series and review of the literature.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 31:11206721211036291. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Instituto Clínico de Oftalmología, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain.

Epiretinal membrane (ERM) represents a common complication of uveitis that may contribute independently to vision loss in patients with uveitis. Although spontaneous idiopathic ERM separation has been previously reported, to the best of our knowledge there are only two case reports in the scientific literature that depicts spontaneous regression of an inflammation-associated ERM. Spontaneous ERM separation is a rare but possible event, which occurs most often subsequent to posterior vitreous detachment. Read More

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Post-digestate composting shifts microbial composition and degrades antimicrobial resistance genes.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 24;340:125662. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche 10, Ancona 60131, Italy.

Post-digestate treatments may reduce the risk linked to Antibiotic Resistant Genes (ARGs) release with digestate direct land application. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate post-digestate composting and co-composting with biogas production feedstock (maize silage, food processing waste, and poultry litter) effect on abundance of selected ARGs: erm(B), tet(K), tet(M), tet(O), and tet(S) genes. More than 80% of all ARGs were removed after 90 days of composting but removals from co-composting were lower. Read More

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Atmospheric nitrogen enrichment changes nutrient stoichiometry and reduces fungal N supply to peatland ericoid mycorrhizal shrubs.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 28;794:148737. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Finland.

Peatlands store one third of global soil carbon (C) and up to 15% of global soil nitrogen (N) but often have low plant nutrient availability owing to slow organic matter decomposition under acidic and waterlogged conditions. In rainwater-fed ombrotrophic peatlands, elevated atmospheric N deposition has increased N availability with potential consequences to ecosystem nutrient cycling. Here, we studied how 14 years of continuous N addition with either nitrate or ammonium had affected ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) shrubs at Whim Bog, Scotland. Read More

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Antimicrobial resistance spectrum conferred by pRErm46 of emerging macrolide (multidrug)-resistant .

J Clin Microbiol 2021 Jul 28:JCM0114921. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Microbial Pathogenesis Laboratory, Infection Medicine, Edinburgh Medical School (Biomedical Sciences), University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Clonal multidrug resistance recently emerged in , complicating the therapeutic management of this difficult-to-treat animal and human pathogenic actinomycete. The currently spreading multidrug-resistant (MDR) "2287" clone arose in equine farms upon acquisition, and co-selection by mass macrolide-rifampin therapy, of the pRErm46 plasmid carrying the (46) macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramins resistance determinant, and an mutation. Here, we screened a collection of susceptible and macrolide-rifampin-resistant from equine clinical cases using a panel of 15 antimicrobials against rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM), nocardiae and other aerobic actinomycetes (NAA). Read More

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An opportunity for primary prevention research in psychotic disorders.

Schizophr Res 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, United States of America. Electronic address:

An opportunity has opened for research into primary prevention of psychotic disorders, based on progress in endophenotypes, genetics, and genomics. Primary prevention requires reliable prediction of susceptibility before any symptoms are present. We studied a battery of measures where published data supports abnormalities of these measurements prior to appearance of initial psychosis symptoms. Read More

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Treatment of Mycobacterium abscessus Pulmonary Disease.

Chest 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206.

Mycobacterium abscessus is the second most common nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease pathogen and comprises three subspecies, abscessus, massiliense and bolletii. Subspecies identification is critical for disease management as subspecies abscessus and bolletii have an inducible macrolide resistance gene (erm(41)) that results in clinical macrolide resistance. In contrast subspecies massiliense does not have an active erm(41) gene and is therefore susceptible in vitro and clinically to macrolide-containing regimens. Read More

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Drug resistance via radixin-mediated increase of P-glycoprotein membrane expression during SNAI1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HepG2 cells.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, Takasaki-shi, Gunma, Japan.

Objectives: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a role in cancer metastasis as well as in drug resistance through various mechanisms, including increased drug efflux mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In this study, we investigated the activation mechanism of P-gp, including its regulatory factors, during EMT in hepatoblastoma-derived HepG2 cells.

Methods: HepG2 cells were transfected with SNAI1 using human adenovirus serotype 5 vector. Read More

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Mechanical stiffness softening and cell adhesion are coordinately regulated by ERM dephosphorylation in KG-1 cells.

Hum Cell 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8566, Japan.

Mechanical stiffness is closely related to cell adhesion and rounding in some cells. In leukocytes, dephosphorylation of ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins is linked to cell adhesion events. To elucidate the relationship between surface stiffness, cell adhesion, and ERM dephosphorylation in leukocytes, we examined the relationship in the myelogenous leukemia line, KG-1, by treatment with modulation drugs. Read More

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The Proteome of Preretinal Tissue in Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy.

Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2021 Jul 1;52(S1):S5-S12. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Background And Objective: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is the leading cause of retinal detachment repair failure. However, the molecular pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Determining the proteome of PVR will help to identify novel therapeutic targets. Read More

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Full Thickness Macular Hole in AMD Patients Two Distinct Entities? A Multicenter Study.

Retina 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.

Purpose: To describe optical coherence tomography (OCT) characteristics of full thickness macular holes (FTMH) in age related macular degeneration (AMD) patients.

Methods: A multi-center, retrospective, observational case series of patients diagnosed with AMD and FTMH seen between 1.1. Read More

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February 2021

Visual outcomes and incidence of pseudophakic cystoid macular oedema in eyes with cataract and idiopathic epiretinal membrane after two-step sequential surgery.

Eye (Lond) 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objectives: To determine whether pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) or cataract surgery should be performed first in concurrent epiretinal membrane (ERM) and cataract treatment with respect to visual outcome and pseudophakic cystoid macular oedema (PCMO) incidence.

Methods: Patients who underwent PPV and cataract surgery sequentially at a tertiary medical centre were retrospectively recruited. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) measured from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images collected before and after each surgery were documented. Read More

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Development and certification of a reference material for zearalenone in maize germ oil.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, 12489, Berlin, Germany.

Zearalenone (ZEN), an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium fungi, is a common contaminant of cereal-based food worldwide. Due to frequent occurrences associated with high levels of ZEN, maize oil is a particular source of exposure. Although a European maximum level for ZEN in maize oil exists according to Commission Regulation (EC) No. Read More

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Risk factors for onset or progression of epiretinal membrane after cataract surgery.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 20;11(1):14808. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Keye Eye Center, 326 Teheran-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

While the precise diagnosis of early stage epiretinal membrane (ERM) at the time of cataract surgery and evaluation of risk factors for development or progression of ERM after cataract surgery is increasingly important, there is only limited information. In the present study, we evaluated the risk factors for onset or progression of ERM on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) after cataract surgery. The univariate analysis showed that eyes with partial posterior vitreous detachment (PVD; p < 0. Read More

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Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains of Potential Use as Feed Additives - The Basic Safety and Usefulness Criterion.

Front Vet Sci 2021 1;8:687071. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Preclinical Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

The spread of resistance to antibiotics is a major health concern worldwide due to the increasing rate of isolation of multidrug resistant pathogens hampering the treatment of infections. The food chain has been recognized as one of the key routes of antibiotic resistant bacteria transmission between animals and humans. Considering that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) could act as a reservoir of transferable antibiotic resistance genes, LAB strains intended to be used as feed additives should be monitored for their safety. Read More

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A fit-for-purpose copper speciation method for the determination of exchangeable copper relevant to Wilson's disease.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

LGC Limited, National Measurement Laboratory (NML), Queens Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LY, UK.

Exchangeable copper (CuEXC), mainly comprised copper (Cu) bound to albumin, has been proposed as a specific marker of Cu overload in Wilson's disease (WD). To the author's knowledge, there are no methods capable of determining reliably CuEXC to meet the requirements and challenges faced by a clinical trial. The present work describes a novel speciation strategy for the determination of the main Cu-species in human serum by anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Read More

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Retina 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Department of Data Science, Sejong University College of Software Convergence, Seoul, Republic of Korea Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: To demonstrate the effects of epiretinal membrane (ERM) and epiretinal proliferation (EP) on surgical outcomes for full-thickness macular hole (FTMH).

Methods: Nested case-control study with propensity-score-matching. Patients operated on for FTMH between January 2011 and March 2020 were enrolled. Read More

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Characteristics of spontaneous reattachment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: optical coherence tomography features and follow-up outcomes.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, Kim's Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, #156 Youngdeungpo-dong 4ga, Youngdeungpo-gu, Seoul, 150-034, South Korea.

Purpose: To investigate the clinical features of spontaneous reattachment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (SRRRD) with diffuse retinal pigmentary changes.

Methods: This retrospective study included patients diagnosed with SRRRD. The diagnosis of SRRRD was made based on characteristic fundus findings, such as diffuse retinal pigmentary clumpings, retinal pigmentary atrophy, and convex lesion margins. Read More

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A new tangential gamma-ray spectrometer for fast ion measurements in deuterium and deuterium-tritium plasmas of the Joint European Torus.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Apr;92(4):043537

EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX143EB, United Kingdom.

A new tangential gamma-ray spectrometer has been developed for fast ion measurements in deuterium and deuterium-tritium plasmas of the Joint European Torus (JET). The instrument is based on a LaBr crystal with a photo-multiplier tube and replaces a pre-existing bismuth germanate detector, providing enhanced energy resolution and a counting rate capability in the MHz range. The line of sight is equipped with a LiH attenuator, which reduces the background due to 14 MeV neutron interactions with the crystal by more than two orders of magnitude and enables the observation of gamma-ray emission from confined α particles in JET deuterium-tritium plasmas. Read More

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First spatially resolved measurements of the D-He α-particle source with the upgraded JET gamma-ray camera.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 May;92(5):053529

Dipartimento di Fisica "G. Occhialini", Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milano, ItalyIstituto per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Plasmi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 20126 Milano, ItalyNarodowe Centrum Badań Jądrowych (NCBJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk, PolandNational Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 077125 Magurele-Bucharest, RomaniaInstituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, PortugalEUROfusion Programme Management Unit, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon, United KingdomCulham Centre for Fusion Energy, OX14 3EB Culham, United KingdomLaboratory for Plasma Physics LPP-ERM/KMS, 1000 Brussels, BelgiumConsorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Universita' di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), 35127 Padova, ItalyDepartment of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.

The Joint European Torus (JET) gamma-ray camera has been recently upgraded with the installation of new gamma-ray detectors, based on LaBr(Ce) scintillation crystals, which add spectroscopic capability to the existing system allowing measurements with good energy resolution (5% at 0.622 MeV), a dynamic range from hundreds of keV up to about 30 MeV, and high counting rate capabilities of MCps. First gamma-ray measurements during the C38 campaign of the JET have been successfully carried out, in particular, in D-He plasmas from three-ion ion cyclotron resonance heating experiments, where the detection of 16. Read More

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Predicting antibiotic resistance gene abundance in activated sludge using shotgun metagenomics and machine learning.

Water Res 2021 Jun 26;202:117384. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 900N. 16th St, W150D Nebraska Hall, Lincoln, NE 68588-0531, United States. Electronic address:

While the microbiome of activated sludge (AS) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) plays a vital role in shaping the resistome, identifying the potential bacterial hosts of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in WWTPs remains challenging. The objective of this study is to explore the feasibility of using a machine learning approach, random forests (RF's), to identify the strength of associations between ARGs and bacterial taxa in metagenomic datasets from the activated sludge of WWTPs. Our results show that the abundance of select ARGs can be predicted by RF's using abundant genera (Candidatus Accumulibacter, Dechloromonas, Pesudomonas, and Thauera, etc. Read More

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Multicentric Analysis of Erythromycin Resistance Determinants in Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae; Associated Serotypes and Sequence Types in India.

Curr Microbiol 2021 Aug 5;78(8):3239-3245. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, 632004, TN, India.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the major cause of childhood pneumonia and related deaths in India. Widespread use of erythromycin for the treatment of pneumonia has led to the emergence of erythromycin resistance. Despite this increase in erythromycin resistance, there are very little data on resistance determinants from India. Read More

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Activity of novel lactone ketolide nafithromycin against multicentric invasive and non-invasive pneumococcal isolates collected in India.

JAC Antimicrob Resist 2021 Jun 1;3(2):dlab066. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Global Hospitals, Hyderabad, India.

Background: India is among the nations reporting substantial healthcare burden linked to pneumococcal infections. Nafithromycin is a novel lactone ketolide antibiotic, which recently entered Phase 3 development in India for the indication of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP).

Objectives: To assess the activity of nafithromycin against serotyped invasive and non-invasive isolates, collected from nine medical centres across India. Read More

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Environmental Associated with Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Cows: Virulence Traits, Antimicrobial and Biocide Resistance, and Epidemiological Typing.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jun 22;11(7). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Matrouh University, Matrouh 51511, Egypt.

Mastitis remains a serious problem for dairy animals. The misappropriation of antimicrobial agents helps accelerate resistance, which poses a serious challenge in controlling environmental infection. Here, we study the virulence attributes, antimicrobial and biocide resistance, and epidemiological typing of recovered from bovine clinical mastitis in dairy farms of diverse hygienic interventions in Egypt. Read More

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Early Vascular and Functional Changes after Vitreoretinal Surgery: A Comparison between the Macular Hole and Epiretinal Membrane.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Jun 3;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Institute of Ophthalmology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41121 Modena, Italy.

(1) Background: The aim of this observational comparative study was to investigate early retinal vascular and functional changes in patients undergoing vitreoretinal surgery for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) or macular hole (MH) using a widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (WSS-OCTA). (2) Methods: Forty one diseased eyes were enrolled in the study. Twenty three eyes with iERM diagnosis (ERM group) underwent 25-gauge vitrectomy with inner limiting membrane (ILM) and MER peeling, while eighteen eyes with MH (MH group) underwent 25-gauge vitrectomy with inverted flap technique. Read More

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Inner retinal structure and visual function after idiopathic epiretinal membrane surgery with and without brilliant blue G.

Jpn J Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, University Hospital Mizonokuchi, 5-1-1Takatsu-ku, FutagoKawasaki, Kanagawa, 213-8507, Japan.

Purpose: Vital dyes are frequently used to visualize the internal limiting membrane (ILM) of the neuroretina. This study evaluated and compared the microstructure of the inner retina and visual function with and without brilliant blue G (BBG) staining for ILM peeling during idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) surgery.

Study Design: Retrospective, consecutive, interventional case series. Read More

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Genomic Analysis of spp. Isolated From a Wastewater Treatment Plant and Its Associated Waters in Umgungundlovu District, South Africa.

Front Microbiol 2021 14;12:648454. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Antimicrobial Research Unit, College of Health Sciences, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

We investigated the antibiotic resistome, mobilome, virulome, and phylogenomic lineages of spp. obtained from a wastewater treatment plant and its associated waters using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and bioinformatics tools. The whole genomes of isolates including ( = 4), ( = 5), ( = 2), and ( = 1) with similar resistance patterns from different sampling sites and time points were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq machine. Read More

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Phenotypic and genotypic features of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage 1 subgroup in central Vietnam.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 30;11(1):13609. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

The Research Institute of Tuberculosis, JATA, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, 3-1-24 Matsuyama, Kiyose, Tokyo, 204-8533, Japan.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has different features depending on different geographic areas. We collected Mtb strains from patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Da Nang, central Vietnam. Using a whole genome sequencing platform, including genome assembly complemented by long-read-sequencing data, genomic characteristics were studied. Read More

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